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Full text of "A cotton fabrics glossary"

A COTTON FABRICS 

GLOSSARY 



Notes and Queries 



THIS BOOK is sold with the understanding that the 
purchaser has the right to mal<e inquiries to any 
extent that he desires about processes of textile 
manufacture, composition of fabrics, or any other de- 
tails of the textile industry. Such questions are an- 
swered without charge if the replies are published in 
the American Wool and Cotton Reporter. If answered 
by private letter, a minimum charge of $2 will be made 
for each letter. If you want any information about 
any branch of the great textile trade, about any 
machine, fabric, or raw material; about corporations; 
about anything; ask the American Wool and Cotton Re- 
porter, and the answer will be printed in an early is- 
sue. 

The American Wool and Cotton Reporter is the only 
weekly textile newspaper in the United States which has 
a genuine paid subscription list. 



AMERICAN WOOL, AND COTTON REPORTER 

FRANK P. BENNETT & CO.. Inc. 
Boston New York Philadelphia Washington 



©hp i. in. BtU ICtbrarg 




Nortli CEarolina BUU llmweraitg 

Special 

Collections 

TS1575 

C6 

1914 



THIS BOOK MUST NOT BE TAKEN 
FROM THE LIBRARY BUILDING. 



20M/1-77 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

NCSU Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/cottonfabricsgloOOfran 



A Cotton 
Fabrics Glossary 



Second Edition, much Enlarged and 
Improved, and including Analyses 
of all recent additions to the Cotton 
Fabrics of the World. Containing 
instructions for the manufacture of 
every known grade and variety of 
Cotton Fabrics. PRICE $5.00. 



•r/ 



ytcA^^ yc 



\ f'' 




1/ 
FRANK P. BENNETT & CO.. Inc. 

BOSTON NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA WASHINGTON 



COPRIGHTED 1914, By 
FRANK P. BENNETT & CO., Inc. 



J\ Cotton fabrics 6lo$$ary 



CONTAINING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE MANUFAC- 
TURE OF EVERY KNOWN GRADE AND 
VARIETY OF COTTON FABRICS. 



COTTON VOILES 

Until within the past few years, 
voile fabrics were made and sold in 
quite large quantities, considering 
the material from which they were 
made, but inasmuch as they were 
composed of worsted yarn, they 
were high in price and not especially 
desirable to the large majority of 
consumers. Possibly four or five 
years ago, voiles began to be made 
of cotton yarn, and while they are 
not so desirable in some ways as 
fabrics composed of worsted yarn, 
nevertheless they are very attractive, 
and for ordinary users show a much 
larger value than when made from 
worsted. 

Gradually the style for such fab- 
rics developed and for the past two 
years there has been possibly a 
greater sale for them than there 
has been for any other material man- 
ufactured in fancy cotton mills or 
for cotton fabrics which come under 
a fancy classification. The smooth- 
ness of the cotton yarns adds a great 
deal to the general cloth effect and 
has without doubt created a field 
which will show a greater or less de- 
mand continually. 

It Is not likely that the sale will 
be as large as it is now or has been 
recently, but these fabrics show such 
a large amount of desirability that 
they cannot be dropped from the 



ordinary range of fancy fabrics to aa 
great a degree as some others have 
been in the past. Naturally, the va- 
riety of fabrics produced from cottOD 
yarns shows a much 

WIDER RANGE OF STYLE 
and construction than they did from 
worsted, because cotton mills are bet- 
ter equipped to make a variety of 
combinations in yam sizes, and also 
through the addition of other materi- 
als, such as silk, artificial silk and 
other fibres, to give certain effects. 

When voile fabrics were first made 
in cotton, the large majority of them 
were produced from two-ply yam, 
and, naturally, much of this yarn was 
made from combed stock, because 
one of the main features of the fab- 
ric is to have as clear an effect as 
possible, or one in which there are 
as few fibres projecting from the yarn 
as possible. The twisting oper- 
ation aids perceptibly in making yaim 
smooth, and for this reason it is used 
extensively. To give crispness and 
also to aid in making the yarn round, 
it is given a much greater amount of 
twist than ordinary two-ply yarn, and 
regarding this situation, we will 
give a more extensive description 
later. There are also a good 
many voile fabrics which have been 
produced from single yarns, but, of 
course, they are not as serviceable 
nor as desirable as the two-ply fabric, 
although they do offer opportunities 
in purchasing at a reduction In price 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



As a general statement, it can b3 
said that voile fabrics have a very 
low count in comparison with most 
other fabrics. This is done in order 
that it may aid in giving the open 
effect which is so desirable in the fab- 
ric, for it must be remembered that 
when a voile fabric is used for a 
dress or for most other uses, it is 
necessary to wear underneath an 
other dress or fabric to make the 
garment opaque and aid in creating a 



is probable that the low constnictiong 
are much more frequent than the high 
constructions, because buyers ara 
likely to cut the costs everywhere 
possible whenever an opportunity Is 
presented. Because there has been a 
low count used in these cloths, in 
the large majority of instances, the 
body of the fabric at least is com- 
posed of plain weave. Unless this 
is done a higher count is necessary 
for any size of yarn, and when the 




SjnsKt!SJ^;3K; 



's^siiii::i:ssti. 



A Coarse Blue Voile of 45-1 Yarn. 



desirable effect, for combinations in 
colors between over-dress and under- 
dress are often used. 

One of the great problems in the 
making of any voile cloth is to have 
the construction of the cloth jus* 
right, that is, so that the threads will 
not slip badly and still not be so close 
as to detract especially from the open- 
work effect. Voiles have often been 
sold in which the construction was 
too high, and which might have been 
lowered with a distinct saving in cost 
and a resulting better effect, and it 
is also true that voiles have been sold 
in which the construction was too 
low, for the threads slip badly and 
often create a wavy appearance. It 



cloth count is increased the voile ef- 
fect is lost. 

Some variation in count will be not- 
ed through the use of different staple 
lengths of cotton; that is, when a 
long cotton is used a smooth yam is 
likely to be produced and the smooth- 
er a yarn is, the more it is likely to 
slip when woven. It is also true that 
it is not necessary to use as much 
twist when a long cotton is used as 
when a short one is being spun. 
Through the low construction, or 
small number of picks per inch, the 
production in yards on voile fabrics 
is much greater than it has been on 
the majority of fabrics which fancy 
mills are accustomed to produce, even 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



though the percentage of production 
has not been as high as it has been 
on other fabrics. 

Each mill is likely to use a some- 
what different amount of twist in its 
yarns, due to somewhat different man- 
ufacturing conditions under which 
each operates, but as a general thing, 
it can be said that the cotton which is 
used in any kind of voile yarn is that 
which is ordinarily used in the yarn of 
the same size which would be used in 
a fancy fabric. In combed yarn fabrics, 
it is seldom that cotton shorter than 
this, 1% inches, is used, be- 
cause cotton shorter than this 
is seldom combed. It is a 
general mill policy to use just 
as short staple for any size of yarn 
as can be handled successfully, and 
it is not a good policy to use cotton 
which costs an extra cent or two 
when the advantage gained only 
amounts To a small portion of a cent. 

Inasmuch as the making of voile 
fabrics depends so much on the yarns 
used, it may be well to give some in- 
formation regarding their construc- 
tion and making. These ply yams are 
both made from grey single yams 
and also from dyed and bleached sin- 
gle yarns, but by far the largest ma- 
jority are made in the grey statG. 
Inasmuch as they are two-ply or more 
than two-ply, it is readily recognized 
that a twisting operation is necessarj- 
before they are completed. Of course, 
when the yarns are made in the dyed 
or oleached state before weaving. It 
makes little difference regarding the 
cost, because practically the same 
number of processes have to be used, 
no matter what method is pursued 
but this is not true when grey yam«' 
are being considered. 

In the first place, in making grey 
ply yams, if they be taken and 
placed on the twister and twisted, 
they must also be handled by other 
succeeding processes, that Is, the 
warp be spooled, warped and slashed 
just the same as any other warp 
yarn. The slashing operation 

SETS THE TWIST 
on the warp, so that It does not curl 
up and create any great trouble, but 



the filling cannot be quilled after 
twisting, but must be made up into a 
long chain warp and then sized and 
quilled before it can be woven. Un 
less this is done, the hard twist in 
the yarn is likely to make loops which 
appear in the cloth and make sec- 
onds. It has been found that so far 
as twisting the filling is concerned, it 
is much better to twist the two-ply 
on a spinning frame. This can be 
done by using filling bobbins which 
have been enamelled so as to stanch 
a steaming process. When the filling 
yarn has been twisted or spun onto 
these bobbins, it can be taken direct- 
ly from the spinning frame to a 
steaming, chest, which sets the twist 
and makes the yarn in a condition 
ready for weaving. 

As will be readily seen, this methoc' 
of making hard twast two-ply grey 
filling yarn is more desirable than 
when twisted on a twisting frame, 
because it eliminates a number of 
processes and results in a cheaper 
yarn cost. This operation cannot al- 
ways be accomplished on a spinning 
frame, because they are sometimes 
not available, but it is a distinct ad- 
vantage when it can be accomplished- 
When single yarns are being used in 
making a voile cloth, it is custom- 
ary to use in some cases an ordinary 
warp yarn and in others a warp 
yarn in which there is only a slight 
excess of twist, while the filling yarn 
contains the extra hard twist. In 
making single yarn voiles it Is nec- 
essary to use 

ENAMELLED BOBBINS 

for the filling, so that it can be steam- 
ed as above described on the two-ply 
yarn. For ordinary warp yarn the 
standard of twist is from 4i to 4^ 
times the square root of the yarn 
size, whereas in hard twist yarn, such 
as is used in voiles, the standard of 
twist is likely to be from 7 to 8J times 
the square root of the yarn size. This 
holds true for both warp and filling 
and for both single and two-ply yam, 
with the single exception of warp 
yarn used in single yam voiles. In 
making the single yarn, which is uae'l 



8 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



before twisting, the standards of 
twist are almost always exactly tho 
same as if ordinary warp yarn were 
being produced; that is, ordinary 
warp yarn can be taken and liari 
twisted, and then it is suitable foi 
use in voiles. 

Thus it will be seen ihat the pro 
duction of a voile yarn Is likely to 
be only about half that noted on a 2 
ordinary yarn, and for this reason 
the cost of production is likely to bK 
about twice as much as it is on an or- 
dinary single or two-ply yarn of the 
same size. The twist in the two-plj 
yarn voiles for both warp and filling 
is practically always identical if the 
same size of yarn be used for warp and 
filling. 

ANALYSIS NO. 1. 

Width of the warp In reed 28% inche^ 

Width of the fabric grey 27 Inches 

Width of the fabric finished 26 inches 

Ends per inch in the reed 34 

Ends per inch finished 38 

Reed (1 end per dent) 34 

2 2 

Ends In the warp — 966 — = 1,014 total 
12 12 

ends. 
Warp yarn size 45/2. 
Warp take-up 6%. 
Warp weight .0583. 
Filling size 45/2. 
Picks per inch 34. 
Filling weight .0528. 
Total weight per yard .1111. 
Yards per pound (grey) 9. 

The above fabric is the one ordi- 
narily known as 38x34, and has been 
sold in quite large quantities not only 
in the plain material but also in vari- 
ous dobby and striped patterns. The 
ply yarn in this fabric is made of 45-1 
single yarn, and in the twisting opera- 
tion there is a certain amount of con- 
traction, and instead of this yarn con- 
taining 18,900 yards per pound, we 
have used as a basis 18,500 yards, a 
figure which allows for shrinkage in 
possibly an average number of in- 
stances. With a very high standard 
of twist, the yarn will shrink more, 
while if the standard is lower ther^ 
will be less contraction. Two-ply 
hard twisted yarns are usually made 
from single yarns of a certain size, 
and the two-ply result is likely to be 
coarser in size than the single yarns 
used would indicate. When single 
'lard twisted yams are being made, It 



is customary to change the gears bo 
that the yarn spun is a certain size. 

ANALYSIS NO. 2. 

Width of the warp in the reed 29 inches 

Width of the fabric in the grey.... 27 Inches 

Width of the fabric finished 26 inches 

Knds per inch in the reed 46 

Ends per inch finished 49 

Reed (1 end per dent) 46 

Ends in the warp 24 1,310 24 = 1,358 total 

ends. 
Warp yarn size 60/2. 
Warp take-up 7%. 
Warp weight .0628. 
Filling size 60/2. 
Picks per inch 46. 
Filling weight .0574. 
Total weight per yard .1202. 
Yards per pound (grey) 8.32. 

This above cloth is another one 
which is manufactured extensively, 
and is known as 49x46 with 60-2 hard 
twist warp and nlling. The twisted 
yarn is made from 60-1 warp yarn and 
due to contraction in twist, it con- 
tains only 23,250 yards per pound, in- 
stead of 25,200. There is also a sin- 
gle yarn voile, which is made from 
carded and also from combed yarn 
with counts about 50x48, and con- 
tains yarns in the vicinity of 30-1, 
the cloth being somewhat similar in 
weight to the one given in analysis 
No. 2, except that there is a differ- 
ence in appearance and cost which 
would be noted between a single and 
two-ply fabric. Then there are many 
fabrics made of fine two-ply yarns, 
and a large portion of the imported 
voiles are made from yarns up to 
and even higher than 120-2. 

The count on such fabrics is sel- 
dom higher than 64x64, thr.t is, un- 
less the yarn is of extremely fine 
size. In order to increase the smooth' 
ness of the ply yarn it is often cus- 
tomary to use a gassing process after 
the yarn is twisted, which burns off 
the fibres of cotton projecting 
and which, although adding to the 
expense of production, is sometimes 
the means of returning a higher 
profit to the manufacturer because of 
added attractiveness. 

WEAVING. 

Practically all of the voile fabrics 
which have been sold have been wov- 
en on ordinary or fancy looms, even 
though some of them have been en- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tirely of plain weave. This has been 
because mispicks and breakages 
cause seconds to be made much 
quicker than would be noted on a 
cheaper class of fabrics and also be- 
cause the fancy mills which are able 
to produce the right kind of yarns 
have not had automatic looms to use 
even had they so desired. "Without 
doubt, the use of stripes made 
in various methods out of cotton or 
silk has added much to the attrac- 
tiveness of voile fabrics and has been 
responsible for a portion of the large 
sale. 

When silk stripes have been used, 
fancy weaves have been employed on 
the stripes in many instances, and 
this is very desirable. The additiop 
of a comparatively small amount of 
silk yarn is usually warranted through 
the higher selling price obtained an1 
the higher rate of profit which a mill 
can obtain through this method ot 
manufacturing. Generally, the weav- 
ing process causes very little diffi- 
culty, for the yai'ns are strong, even 
though they are hard twisted, and, 
due to the low cloth count, there are 
only a comparatively few warp 
threads to be looked after by a weav- 
er, that is, unless there are crowderl 
silk or cotton stripes. 

Probably, the large use of voiles 
has been the means of introducing to 
consumers in a large way the use of 
artificial silk. On fine fabrics, which 
are woven with a fine reed, there 
is a good deal of friction, which 
causes artificial silk warp threads to 
rub and fray out and be rather un- 
satisfactory in weaving, which fact 
has curtailed their use to a certain 
extent in the past, but the coarse 
count of voile fabrics and the com 
paratively small amount of rubbing 
in weaving has made the use of this 
silk entirely satisfactory and much 
more of it is being noted, especially 
in the imported lines. Consumer-^ 
have found that the use of this silk 
is not undesirable, and that there has 
been a change of sentiment, as shown 
by the fact that retailers to-day 
designate that such material has been 
used in making the cloth when they 



are showing the goods, while even 
one year ago it was very hard to find 
a case where such use was brought 
to a consumer's attention, althougb 
the material was used quite exten 
sively at that time. 

FINISHING. 

For the fabric which is woven from 
dyed and bleached yarns there is no 
great necessity for any extra finish- 
ing processes after the cloth comes 
from the loom, and when it has teen 
examined, washed, ironed and folded, 
it is ready for sale; in other words. 
the treatment of such cloth is very 
similar to other dyed yarn fabrics. 
The cloth which is woven from grey 
yarn is treated in an entirely differ- 
ent manner, and the results obtained 
may be of widely different character, 
even though the same grey cloth is 
used as a basis. 

In the first place, the grey fabric 
is bleached, and this process is likely 
to vary, depending upon the materials 
which have been used in the cloth 
For an ordinary all cotton voile, the 
ordinary bleaching process may be 
used, but when silk is used in combi- 
nation for stripes or checks, it must 
be bleached by a method which will 
not harm either material, and possi- 
bly sodium peroxide is more exten- 
sively used than any other material 
"- bleaching such combination fab 
rics. After the voile fabric is bleach 
ed, it may be dyed a solid color or 
left white if the cloth is plain weave, 
or it may be printed in allover pat- 
terns or with various styles of bor- 
ders, such as are being used and 
which have been popular since voiles 
have been selling well. 

Then it is also true that many of 
the finer and more expensive fabrics 
are treated to a mercerization proc- 
ess, as this seems to make the 
threads rounder and the voile 
effect better. The process acts, 
so far as results are concerned, 
much the same as if the ply 
yarn composing the fabrics had 
been treated to a gassins operation 
before being woven. Such a process 
is even being applied to many of th^ 
ordinary voiles, especially since the 



10 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



large use of mercerization has mads 
the cost of doing it much less, and 
which does not make the fabric pro- 
hibitive in price. On fancy fabrics 
which contain silk there are other 
results besides the foregoing possible, 
for, besides being mercerized and sold 
in the white state or dyed solid col- 
ors or printed, the cloths can be dyed 
with certain colors, which is call- 
ed cross dyeing, so that the silk yarn 
appears as one color, while the cotton 
is another, and it is also noted that 
many of the fabrics have the silk 
yarn with the cotton yarn in the 
color desired. 

On the cheap voiles which are only 
printed, the cost of finishing may be 
as low as 1% cents a yard, or if sold 
in the white state even less than this 
amount, while on the high-priced fab- 
rics the cost may be much higher, 
and it is prooable that most of tht 
better fabrics being offered by the re- 
tailers cost from 3 cents to 3^ cents 
Lo finish, that is, it costs the conver- 
ter who handles the goods this 
amount to have it done. 

CARDING AND SPINNING. 

The yarns which are used in the 
making of voiles are varied, but in 
general the foundation yarns are 
much the same as those which would 
be used for the same kinds of cloth 
in a fancy cotton mill. For fine yarn 
longer cotton is used than for coarse 
yarn, but for the 45-2 yarn in the 
fabric, for which an analysis is given, 
the cotton staple length would be 
about 1 3-16 inches, while for the 
60-2 fabric the cotton length would be 
about 1^ inches, and if 100-2 were to 
be used, the cotton length would be 
about iy2 inches. 

In combing cotton for medium or 
coarse yarn sizes, the percentage of 
waste removed is less than wher. 
fine yarns are to be made, the amount 
of waste removed depending upon 
circumstances. There should be a 
good mixing of cotton before it ia 
run through the pickers, as this is 
one of the features which results in 
even yarn which is so necessary in 
the production of voiles, while the 
weights of sliver will depend a good 



deal on the mill organization and also 
on the kind and size of comber being 
employed. The spacing of the rolls 
on the various machines should be 
wide enough, so that in no case will 
the cotton fibres be broken, and the 
amount will vary on the different 
machines from one-eighth inch to 
one-quarter inch more than the cot- 
ton staple length. Assuming that a 
finished drawing sliver is being pro- 
duced of a weight of 40 grains and 
that three processes of fly frames are 
to be used, a lay-out for one yard of 
45-1 yarn would be about as follows: 

.1852 grain. 

.98 2% contraction In spinning. 



.1815 

10.58 spinning draft. 



1.92 -4- 2 ends = 96 = 8.67 hank roving. 
6.4 fine frame draft. 



6.16 -H 2 ends = 3.08 = 2.70 hank roving. 
5.65 Intermediate frame draft. 



17.4 -i- 2 ends = 8.70 = .96 hank roving. 
4.6 slubber frame draft. 



40.00 grains finisher drawing weight. 

If four processes of fly frames are 
to be used in producing 45-1 yarn, it 
probably would be better to use a 
heavier finished drawing sliver, and 
through the greater opportunity for 
drawing, due to the extra process, the 
right size of yarn can be obtained. It 
is a very good policy not to have 
the spinning draft much over 10^, 
although there are mills where this 
is exceeded somewhat. Conservative 
drafts and speeds will usually be of 
ultimate advantage in manufacture, 
for it not only is likely to result in 
a greater yarn production, but it Is 
likely to make fewer seconds in the 
cloth room, a higher percentage of 
production on the loom, with a corre- 
sponding lower cost, and also a better 
fabric, which will command a higher 
price because of the better yarn com- 
posing it. What would be a good lay- 
out for one mill would not be so good 
for another, but this statement does 
not mean that there rre mills which 
could not improve their yarn layout, 
rither by changing the drafts or 
changing the speeds or even add- 
ing a few machines so as to 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



11 



give a greater amount of flexi- 
bility to the organization. There 
is such a wide range of up-to- 
dateness in the machinery in the va- 
rious mills that one mill can operate 
to advantage with cotton of 1% inches 
in length, while another for the same 
size of yarn may have to use 114-inch 
stock. The problem is an individual 
one, which cannot be decided quickly, 
and to give a layout which would be 
entirely suitable or even desirable 
for general mills conditions is not an 
especially good policy. 

DYEING INSTRUCTIONS. 
The following dyeing instructions 
may be used for the dyeing of this 
kind of material. In a general way, 
the goods will be worked in the dye 
liquor for approximately three-quar- 
ters of an hour at the boiling point. 
The amounts of color are based on 
the supposition that 100 pounds of 
material is to be dyed, and for this 
amount of material, there will be re- 
quired somewhere in the vicinity of 
180 gallons of liquor. The amounts 
of dyestuffs and other materials are 
those necessary for the first batch of 
material: 

BLUE. 
%% Oxamlne Blue. 3 B. N. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

PINK. 
1-25% Cotton Red 4 B. X. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

RED. 
2%% Thiazine Red R. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

BROWN. 
2%% Cotton Brown G. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

ORANGE. 
2%% Pyramlne Orange R. R. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

SLATE. 
1-10 of 1% Oxamlne Black, R. N. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

TELLOW. . 

1% Stllbene Yellow, 2 G. P. extra Cone. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 



MERCERIZED WAISTINGS 

There has developed during com- 
paratively recent years, or since the 
mercerization process has been per- 



mitted to be used, a class of fabrics 
of wide variety, but which have quite 
a number of prominent features in 
common. This class of fabrics con- 
tains those which are mercerized in 
the piece in the filling direction, and 
these materials are used extensively 
for women's waistings and dresses, 
for men's shirtings and for various 
other purposes which creates for 
them a large field for sale. These 
cloths are produced in plain weave 
and also with dobby and jacquard fig- 
ures, and the results obtained appear 
to many consumers to be comparable 
to some silk fabrics, in fact they are 
quite often sold as such, for the lus- 
tre obtained through such methods is 
permanent. 

Since the introduction of fast col- 
ors which are able to stand the 
bleaching process there has been a 
greater opportunity for variety than 
there was earlier, and it is probable 
that the sale of such fabrics has hurt 
the sale of the older style madras 
shirtings to quite an appreciable ex- 
tent, for shirt makers can thus pur- 
chase their cloth and convert it 
themselves, thereby saving quite 
large amounts on certain lines. 
There has been some criticism re- 
garding the wear of many of these 
new fabrics, it being claimed that 
they do not wear as well as the old- 
er lines and that mercerization hurts 
the cloth quality, but this 

IS NOT TRUE. 

The trouble has been when com- 
paring the mercerized fabric that it 
has not been so heavy in weight or 
produced of such coarse yarns as the 
earlier shirting fabrics, and, natural- 
ly, would not stand as much hard 
wear. Of course, the soft twist ap- 
plied to the filling yarn does render 
the mercerized fabric a little bit less 
durable, but not enough to allow any 
large criticism, especially when sim- 
ilar weights of fabrics are consid- 
ered. 

The newer fabrics are sold largely 
because of their improved appear- 
ance, and because they offer oppor- 
tunities for the use of fancy weaves 
which the others do not, and be- 
cause they can be sold at a reason- 



12 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



able price which never could be not- 
ed on the older style of goods. Not 
only does such a fabric offer the 
above opportunity, so far as the 
weave is concerned, but it also al- 
lows yarns of fine sizes to be han- 
dled at a comparatively low cost, 
yarns which were very seldom han- 
dled at all in the earlier fabrics for 
the same purposes, and besides, when 
they were handled, it was at prohib- 
itive prices, so far as any large sale 



certain amount of competition to 
such lines. 

One fact worth noting is that re- 
tailers in general have not as yet 
shown the variety or the adaptability 
of such material, for comparatively 
few lines have been purchasable by 
them up to the present time, and the 
fabrics which they have obtained in 
many cases have been styles of which 
cutters-up bought too heavily and dis- 
posed of at second hand. For this 




Three Mercerized Waist or Siiirting Fabrics. 



of the cloth was concerned. Thus it 
will be seen that competition has de- 
veloped quite extensively between 
madras and mercerized shirtings, but 
only because the sale of the latter 
eliminates some of the opportuni- 
ties for the sale of the former, and 
not because the fabrics as sold are 
very similar in appearance, because 
they usually are not. It is quite true 
that mercerized waistings and simi- 
lar fabrics have often been purchased 
in place of silk material, and for this 
reason, they may be said to offer a 



reason, the future possibilities of 
such cloths have not been tried out 
extensively. Last year saw a large 
increase in the use of such cloths 
anti the coming year will witness a 
still greater one. But that buyers 
have recognized the situation is seen 
from the large purchases which have 
been made recently from mills which 
are able to produce these construc- 
tions in fancy weaves. 

In a general way, madras shirtings 
are made from bleached yarn, and 
many of them have a somewhat high- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



IS 



er warp count than they do filling 
count, while the warp yarn is also 
coarser in size than the filling, al- 
though this variation is usually com- 
paratively slight, while mercerized 
fabrics are usually made from grey 
yarns. They also have a higher, or 
a radically higher, count in the filling 
than they do in the warp, and the 
filling is usually a heavier size of 
yarn than the warp, in many in- 
stances being about half as fine. This 
variation in cloth construction gives 
a much different cloth when produc- 
ed and one which is radically differ- 
ent when finished. Besides, the fill- 
ings in madras shirtings, which are 
made from bleached yarns, are com- 
paratively as hard twisted as the 
warp, so that they can be handled 
successfully, w^hile for the fabric 
which is to be mercerized, the filling 
has a much lower standard of twist, 
this standard being often less than 
three times the square root of the 
yarn size. 

Another feature worth noting is that 
a large number of the mercerized 
fabrics are made from combed yarns, 
while the earlier fabrics were and are 
made largely from carded stock, 
which gives a cloth that not only is 
not likely to be so strong but will 
not be comparable in appearance. Not 
only does the better yarn used tend 
to make a more even fabric, but the 
mercerized cloths, due to the various 
processes of finishing, lose entirely 
the reed marks which often make 
bleached and dyed yarn fabrics very 
objectionable, but which cannot be 
eliminated, excepting at a cost which 
is not desirable. Certain 

MERCERIZED FABRICS 

are made with carded warp and 
combed filling, while there are some 
which are made wholly from carded 
stock, but the majority of such fab- 
rics, especially those made from me- 
dium and fine yarns, are manufactur- 
ed from combed material. One con- 
struction which is used extensively, 
and which forms the basis for many 
weaves and stripes, is 64 by 72, with 
50s-l warp and 30s-l soft twist filling. 
The fabric which we have analyzed 
is about this construction in the 



ground, although a warp of 55s-l has 
been used instead of 50s-l. 

Another finer construction which is 
used in many of the higher grade fab- 
rics is 72 by 96, with 70s-l or finer 
warp and 40s-l soft twist filling. 
These two constructions give a good 
general idea regarding the yarns used 
and the sizes which render the best 
results and also gives a general idea 
regarding the constructions employ- 
ed. The soft twist filling is used, be- 
cause better results can be obtained 
when the cloth is mercerized. Soft 
twist in the yarn allows the various 
cotton fibres to lie more nearly par- 
allel in the yarn, thus reflecting the 
light and giving more lustre. In a 
good many fabrics Egyptian cotton is 
used for the filling, because this ma- 
terial has been found to give better 
results than other kinds of cotton. 
Possibly, there is more Egyptian cot- 
ton used for filling in fabrics which 
are to be mercerized than there is 
in any other one material with the 
exception of knitted fabrics. Follow- 
ing is the analysis of the fabric con- 
sidered which contains a dobby pat- 
tern with stripes of crowded yarn, 
and also a plain fabric of a higher 
construction and with finer yams. 

ANALYSIS NO. 1. 

TVidth of warp in reed, 29% inches. 
Width of fabric finished, 28 Inches. 
Knds per inch finished (over all) 84. 
Ends per inch finished (ground) 68. 
Reed 32 X 2. 

2 2 

Ends in the warp — 2,288 — = 2,352, total 
16 16 

ends. 
"Warp yarn 55/1. 
Filling yarn 30/1. 
Picks per inch, grey, 72. 
Warp take-up. 7%. 
Warp weight, grey .0547. 
Filling weight, grey .0843. 
Total weight per yard, grey .1390. 
Yards per pound 7.19. 

ANALYSIS NO. 2. 

W^idth of warp in reed, 29% Inches. 
Width of fabric finished. 28 inches. 
Ends per inch finished 72. 
Reed 34 X 2. 

2 2 

Ends in warp — 1,974 — = 2,038. 

16 16 

W^arp yarn 70/1. 
Filling yarn 40/1. 
Picks per inch, grey, 96. 
Warp take-up, 6%. 
Wnrp weight, grey .0369. 
Filling weight, grey .0843. 
Total weight, per yard, grey .1212. 
Yards per pound, grey 8.25. 



14 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Most of the fabrics which are of 
the construction described are made 
on ordinary or fancy looms, and com- 
paratively few are made on automatic 
machines. This is true partly be- 



.■v-3 




Weave Diagram. 

cause the mills which can produce 
yarns of the required quality do not 
contain many automatic looms and 
also because there is a much greater 
Tjecessitv for having the cloth pro- 



duced contain few flaws when com- 
pared with cheap carded materials. 
Then it is also questionable whether 
there is any great advantage to be 
gained through the use of automatic 
looms when fine warp yams are used. 
In any case, it is at least certain that 
the advantage which is obtained is 
not as great as it is on fabrics which 
are woven from rather heavy yarns. 
A large portion of the mercerized 
fabrics are made with fancy dobby 
or jacquard weaves, and for these 
weaves the ordinary automatic ar- 
rangement is not very adaptable. 

In making patterns for these 
cloths it is almost always the prac- 
tice to make the figures almost en- 
tirely of filling floats. This shows up 
the flgures more prominently, and 
when the cloth is mercerized the 
results are more desirable. Some- 
times warp floats are used in com- 
bination with filling floats so as to 
bring out certain effects, but they 
are not used extensively, because the 
warp is usually of much finer size 
than the filling and does not show up 
any effects very well. Stripes are 
sometimes operated from the same 
beam as the ground yarn, and this 
probably has been done in the cloth 
which we have analyzed. This meth- 
od can be taken if the weave and 
threads per dent can be adjusted cor- 
rectly, but the price of cloth and the 
demands of buyers often make sucTi 
a thing impossible, and the stripe 
must be made from an extra beam. 
When colored stripes are being pro- 
duced, even though woven with plain 
weave, they are practically always 
placed on a separate beam. 

We are giving the drawing-in draft 
and chain for Fabric No. 1 which 
has been analyzed. This should be 
entirely clear, but for various reasons, 
it may be well to state that the fig- 
ures in the draft represent the vari- 
ous harnesses on which the warp 
threads are drawn to produce this 
pattern. The figures at the bottom of 
the draft represent the number of 
threads which are reeded in each 
dent after they have been drawn 
through the headle eyes in the har- 
nesses, while the flgures to the right 
of the draft represent the number of 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



16 



heddles which are required on each 
harnes?,, so that the warp can be all 
drawn in. In fancy cloth mills, har- 
nesses are almost always made up 
previous to the drawing-in operation, 
so that it will not be necessary to 
add any heddles when the warp is 
partly drawn in, or take them off 
after the drawing-in is completed. 
FINISHING. 

As previously stated, the fabric 
which is being considered is treated 
in a radically different manner from 
that used on the ordinary madras or 
waisting fabrics. In the first place, 
it is necessary to bleach the 
cloth because it is in its grey 
state when woven, and the yarns con- 
tain the cotton wax besides the dirt 
from handling and other foreign ma- 
terial which has to be eliminated be- 
fore any material can be successfully 
dyed or finished. Some finishers use 
the ordinary bleach when finishing 
such fabrics, while others use the 
peroxide process, but the method em- 
ployed is of little importance. The 
bleaching makes the fabric which is 
being treated white, but it does not 
impart any lustre to it. This is done 
by another process which is called 
mercerization, from the man who or- 
iginally discovered the process. 

Caustic soda when applied to cot- 
ton cloth or yarn causes it to shrink 
very materially, usually about 20 per 
cent when the cloth is shrunk 
as much as possible, but when 
this is allowed there is no lustre im- 
parted. The lustre is obtained when 
the material is held out to as nearly 
its grey width as possible. The cot- 
ton fibres, which in their ordinary 
state are rather flat twisted tubes, 
seem to swell out and appear more 
or less like small glass rods when 
examined under the microscope after 
they have been mercerized. This 
smooth appearance reflects the light 
rays and makes the lustre which is 
ordinarily noted. By using filling 
which is soft twisted the 

PROCESS OF MERCERIZATION 

is aided, for the fibres, as 
previously stated, lie more nearly 
parallel in the fabric, although it is 
possible to impart some lustre to 



even the shortest cotton fibres, and 
also when they are twisted harder 
than ordinarily noted. This will be 
readily recognized by examining 
some of the high-class voiles which 
are now being sold, because the yarns 
which these fabrics contain are very 
hard twisted, but even under such 
conditions it has been found that 
mercerization adds to their finished 
appearance, and it is often employed. 
Various methods are used to obtain 
the lustrous results which are noted 
in this class of fabrics, but the main 
necessity in obtaining these results 
is to hold out the fabric tightly in the 
filling direction when it is being 
treated, and, at the same time, to 
allow the caustic soda solution to 
operate. It would naturally be sup- 
posed that results would be better if 
a stronger solution were to be used, 
but this is not true, and the use of 
a solution over a certain strength is 
only a waste of material and adds 
to the cost. After mercerization the 
fabric is washed, worked, so as to 
slip the threads and picks into their 
proper positions, calendered, folded 
and handled in any special way nec- 
essary, and is then ready for ship- 
ment. Quite a little of such mate- 
rial is sold in the white state, but 
there are also a good many fabrics 
which are printed or piece dyed in 
addition to being mercerized. 

THE PRICE FOR FINISHING 

and applying the mercerization proc- 
ess will vary somewhat, but to-day 
the quoted price is l^/i cents a yard, 
with an allowance of 2 per cent as 
a working loss in yardage and 3 
cents a piece for the so-called silk 
papers for folders. It often happens 
when finishing fabrics entirely in the 
white that this above-mentioned 2 
per cent working loss does not oc- 
cur. The charge for the cases in 
which the fabrics are shipped is usu- 
ally about one-twentieth of a cent a 
yard. When a fabric is to be dyed 
in addition to bleaching and mercer- 
izing, the price is IVz cents a yard, 
and the 2 per cent working loss is 
almost always noted because of the 
smaller quantities handled. For print- 
ing, in addition to bleaching and 



1« 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



mercerizing, the price is likely to be 
about 2 cents a yard, although the 
kind of pattern desired will affect the 
cost somewhat. In all the above quo- 
tations the amount of cloth which is 
to be finished will affect the prices 
named for accomplishing it, that is, 
when a small amount is to be treat- 
ed, the price is likely to be somewhat 




Drawing-in Draft. 

higher than when a large amount is 
to be done. In general, it can be said 
that the price for this work has de- 
creased quite a little in recent years, 
and, in addition, the results obtained 
are very much improved, facts which 
have in this instance been responsi- 
ble for cheaper cloth to the consumer. 
As previously stated, the warp in 
mercerized fabrics such as those de- 



scribed is usually of rather fine size, 
but in construction it is no different 
from the ordinary warp of the same 
size used in making the usual fancy 
cloths. For 55s-l combed warp for 
cloth similar to that analyzed the 
cotton used would be 1^/4 inches in 
length. The rolls on the various 
frames should be set so that in no 
case will the cotton fibres be broken, 
for unsatisfactory yarn will result if 
this is done. The 55s-l warp might 
be made either by three or four proc- 
esses of fly-frames, although it is 
likely that four processes will give 
much better and more satisfactory re- 
sults. Two layouts for such yarn 
follow one produced from a 35-grain 
finisher drawing sliver, and with 3 
processes of fly-frames and the other 
for a finisher drawing sliver of 48 
grains with 4 processes of fly-frames. 



3 PROCESSES, 

1 yard of 55/1 = 

.ISl.^i grains. 



FLY FRAMES. 



.97 3% contraction In spinning. 



.1470 

10.27 spinning draft. 



1.514 -«- 2 ends = .757 
6.85 fine frame draft. 



11 hank roving. 



5.185 -i- 2 ends = 2.59 = 3.21 hank roving. 
5.75 intermediate frame draft. 



14.892 H- 2 ends = 7.45 = 1.12 hank roving. 
4.70 slubber frame draft. 



35 grain.s finisher drawing weight. 

4 PROCESSES, FLY FRAMES. 
1 yard of 55/1 = 
.1515 grains. 

.97 3% contraction in spinning. 



.1470 

10.27 spinning draft. 



1.514 -H 2 ends = .757 = 11 hank roving. 
6 fine frame draft. 



4.54 -H 2 ends = 2.27 = 3.67 hank roving. 
5.2 second intermediate draft. 



11.80 H- 2 ends = 5.90 = 1.41 hank roving. 
4.4 first intermediate draft. 



25.96 -H 2 ends = 32.98 = .64 hank roving. 
3.7 slubber frame draft. 



4 8 grains finisher drawing weight. 

The filling used in such a cloth 
would probably be made from 1%- 
inch cotton, and the rolls should be 
set correctly for this length of sta- 
ple. It often happens that it is nec- 
essary to use a longer cotton staple 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



17 



in making filling yarn which is to be 
used in cloth that is to be mercerized. 
Methods will depend somewhat on 
the machinery being usea and largely 
on the amount of twist which is to 
be given to the yarn for filling. When 
the twist per inch is lowered radi- 
cally, a longer staple of cotton must 
be used if the yarn spins well in the 
spinning room, or if it be handled 
successfully, that is, if it is made on 
an ordinary spinning frame. One lay- 
out for 30s-l filling which is to be 
soft twisted and produced with three 
fly-frame processes and with a 45- 
grain finisher drawing sliver is as 
follows : 

1 yard of 30/1 = 
.2778 grains. 

.98 2% contraction in spinning. 



.2722 
8.45 spinning frame draft. 



2.30 -H 2 ends = 1.15 == 7.25 hanli roving. 
6.5 fine frame draft. 



7.48 -s- 2 ends = 3.74 = 2.23 hank roving. 
5.57 intermediate frame draft. 



20.83 -i- 2 ends = 10.42 = .8 liank roving. 
4.32 slubber frame draft. 

45 grains finisher drawing weight. 

It is not necessary to state any 
particular facts regarding the meth- 
ods which should be used in handling 
cotton in the early processes of mak- 
ing cotton yarn, for they are well 
known, and any radical changes from 
them are likely to result in poor yarn 
and low quality cloth. The more 
care which is given to the prelimi- 
nary processes of yarn making the 
better will be the quality of the cloth 
and the price which can be obtain- 
ed. In no case should a machine be 
operated at an excessive speed in 
order to obtain greater production, 
especially when the fabric which is 
to be produced is selling for a com- 
parativfly high price, and it is very 
questionable whether on the cheap- 
est fabrics excessive speed results in 
any great ultimate economy. 

DYEING PARTICCLARS. 

ORANGE. 
Toluylene fast orange L X 1V4%. 
10-30% Glauber's salt crystals. 
1-2% soda ash. 

Enter at the boiling point and work with 
the steam turned off. 



RED. 
Benso fast eosine B L 2%. 
20-()0% Glauber's salt crystals. 
1-2% soda ash. 

Enter at the boiling point and work with 
the steam turned oft. 

BLUE. 
Oxamlne blue 3 B M %%. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

YELLOW. 
Stilbene yellow, 2 G P extra cons. 1%. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

PINK. 

Benso fast eosine B L %%• 

20-60% Glauhe-'a salt crystals. 

1-2% soda ash. 

Enter at a rainer low temperature and 
warm up rather slowly. The Glauber's 
salt is added subsequently and In several 
portions. 

HELIOTROPE. 
Benso fast heliotrope %%. 
10-30% Glauber's salt crystals. 
1-2% soda ash. 

Enter at the boiling point and work with 
the steam turned off. 

BROWN. 
CJotton brown G 2 %%. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 



# »» 



RAMIE-LINEN 



There is one fabric which deserves 
mention at the present time, not be- 
cause the construction is especially 
new or intricate, but because of the 
adaptation of the cloth to obtain a 
certain end. This cloth is what is gen- 
erally known as Ramie-Linen. The 
name of the fabric is used to give add- 
ed selling ability, and many consum- 
ers would be led to believe that it 
was composed of something else be- 
sides cotton, possibly that it was lin- 
en treated in a different manner from 
that ordinarily noted. This method 
of naming a fabric does not permit 
the obtaining of as high a price as 
could be obtained if the fabric were 
linen and a consumer was certain of 
it, but it does make it possible in a 
great many cases to obtain a higher 
price than if consumers were sure 
it was composed of nothing but cot- 
ton. Not only has this fabric been 
given a very deceptive name and one 
which should not be possible to use 
for such a fabric, but it has also been 
constructed in a similar manner so 
far as its yarns are concerned and 



18 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



also finished in such a manner as to 
appear exactly like a good many of 
the coarse linen cloths. 

Undoubtedly, there will be a great 
deal of such material sold by retailers 
as linen, not because they have any 
intention to oker low values but be- 
cause of general conditions which 
apply to this particular fabric, for in 
some cases it is entirely probable that 
retailers will not know that such a 
cloth is made from cotton. As a gen- 
eral statement, it can be said that 
there are no such wide variations in 
price on such a fabric as that consid- 
ered as would be noted on the more 
expensive materials, due to conditions 
of making, but the selling of such mer- 
chandise affects that class of consum- 
ers who can least afford to suffer any 
losses through mistakes in purchasing 
fabrics at a comparatively high price 
and under deceptive conditions. A 
small additional profit per yard on a 
coarse fabric makes a great difference 
in the ultimate profit secured, for the 
production and distribution is large 
and profits are secured from such 
features rather than from extremely 
high prices. 

Fabrics such as that described are 
used for dresses, waists, coverings, in 
fact, for practically all the purposes 
for which similar grades of linen 
would be suitable. These fabrics have 
been produced by mills in the 
grey state and they are sold to con- 
verters who have them finished in the 
manner which they desire, and it is 
very likely that the mills which have 
made the cloth have not received any 
great additional profit over that which 
would have been noticed recently be- 
cause these fabrics have been in de- 
mand. It is probable that mills have 
ohtained anywhere from 1| to 1| cents 
per yard profit on these cloths, but 
this is high and does not indicate con- 
ditions which apply generally to this 
class of cloth making. Of course, the 
above named profits will return a 
handsome dividend to any mill produc- 
ing them, but it is among the subse- 
quent sellers that variable prices are 
developed when any are noted. 

As a fabric this material is rather 
coarse and made from very heavy sizes 
of yarn, the threads and picks per 



inch being comparatively few in num- 
ber. Not only are the yams heavy, 
but they are also very irregular, in 
fact, the more irregular they are, the 
more desirable the fabric is to buyers 
when it comes to be finished and sold 
as they are in imiiations of linens. In 
a good many cases the yarns are made 
from waste obtained in the making 
of better yarn, and the fabrics are no 
different from ordinary Osnaburgs or 
crashes, that is, if they were distrib- 
uted through other channels. 

In fact, many converters have pur- 
chased the above fabrics and used 
them for imitation linens. In practi- 
cally all instances these cloths are 
woven with plain weave, because this 
weave, together with the kinds of yarn 
used, gives by far the best results, as 
it shows up the irregularities in the 
woven fabrics and makes the finished 
article more salable. Fabrics such, 
as that described, that is, made with 
coarse yarn, and a comparatively small 
number of threads and picks per inch 
and woven with a simple weave should 
be produced on some kind of an auto- 
matic loom. This method allows a 
weaver to operate a greater number 
of looms, and decreases the cost of 
production quite radically, possibly 
not as large an amount per pound as 
on finer cloths, because a loom pro- 
duces a larger poundage, but, never- 
theless, a large enough item to make a 
great difference in the profits secured. 
The irregularity of the yarns compos- 
ing the fabric tends to make it firm- 
er than it otherwise would be; tha; 
is, with a plain weave and a certain 
size of yarn the count of the cloth 
would have to be higher with smooth 
round yarn than it would with irregu- 
lar yam, such as is noted in this 
fabric or in other novelty cloths which 
are selling at the present time. 

This is one of the comparatively 
few fabrics where uneven and cheap 
yarn is rather desirable, and, naturally, 
machinery is worked as hard as pos- 
sible, not only because it gives great- 
er production, but also because it 
tends to make the yarn uneven. Even 
in making yarns as coarse as those 
considered and of as poor quality, it 
is still necessary to keep as many ma- 
chines in operation as possible, and 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



19 



bave the organization correct, for 
only in this manner can costs be kept 
as low as possible. 

ITEMS REGARDING PRICE. 

As we previously stated, this cloth 
is one of the coarsest produced and 
naturally the selling price is low. A 
good many of these materials which 
are sold for use as linens have been 
sold at 36 inches wide in the grey 
state, and when finished tliey are 
about 2 inches narrower, or 34 inches. 
The mill selling price for the fabric 
which we have analyzed was 73 cents 
per yard, for 36-inch wide cloth, or 
about 24i cents per pound, on a 
poundage basis. This price ishould 
return good dividends to the mill, for 
the cost of making this sort of fabric 
is not much ove", if it is any over, 20 
cents per pound, thus leaving the mill 
about 4| cents per pound profit, or 
nearly 1| cents per yard, an amount 
which even a fine and fancy mill will 
seldom average for profits. 

One interesting feature regarding 
the cloth is that the material or cot- 
ton of which it is composed forms 
quite a large proportion of the cost 
of making, in many instances, it being 
over 75 per cent of the total cost, leav- 
ing the remainder for the various 
items of expense, depreciation, labor, 
etc. The labor cost per pound is a 
comparatively small amount, because 
the average production per operative 
is quite large. The cost of having 
this fabric finished is 1| cents per 
yard and together with the expenses 
cf selling, etc., which a converter 
would have, the cost to him would be 
probably about 10^ to 11 cents per 
yard. Under this condition the sell- 
ing price to the jobber would be about 
lo cents and from the jobber to the 
retailer, about 16^ cents per yard, thus 
placing the fabric easily in the 25- 
cent class to consumers. 

A good many sellers have sold such 
fabrics at the above prices, but retail 
prices do not always coincide with 
those planned when the cloth was 
bought from the mill, because retail 
prices vary in certain instances to 
as high as 32 to 35 cents per 
yard for fabrics which appear identi- 
cal with that which has been analyzed. 



Apparently, the consumer is sometimes 
paying from 25 to 40 per cent more 
than should be noted, in addition to 
the satisfactory profits which the vari- 
ous sellers are obtaining when the fab- 
ric is sold at the intended price or 
25 cents per yard at retail. 

CLOTH WEIGHTS. 

As previously stated, fabrics which 
are used for the purposes described, 
are rather heavy in weight, because 
the sizes of yarn used are heavy, and 
it is seldom that the cloth weight is 
lighter than 4 yards per pound, or 
4 ounces per yard, for 36-inch wide 
goods. We will not consider the 
weights of either the yarn or the cloth 
when the material has been finished, 
because at that time the weights are 
not the same as when the cloth is wov- 
en, and the weight is not considered 
by any of the various buyers or sell- 
ers, with the exception of the convert- 
er or buyer who purchases or han- 
dles the goods when they were first 
woven. The warp yam sizes 8-1 when 
it is woven and the filling sizes 9.5-1 
The details for the cloth are as fol 
lows: 

Width of warp in reed 37% inches. 
Width of cloth, grey 36 inches. 
Width of cloth linlshed 34 inches. 
Ends per inch finished 35 inches. 
Reed 32 X 1 or 16 X 2. 
Ends in warp, 1,208, total. 
Warp yarn 8/1. 
Filling yarn 9.5/1. 
Picks per inch 26. 
Warp talce-up 5%. 
Warp weight, grey .1892. 
Filling weight, grey .1222. 
Total weight per yard, grey .3114. 
Yards per pound, grey 3.21. 
The fabric as sold, 5 oz. per yard. 
Plain weave. 

Selvages, 8 crowded ends each edge of the 
fabric. 

The warp yams which compose a 
fabric such as that analyzed are usu- 
ally sized quite a little so as to make 
better work in the weave room, and, 
in some instances, to give weight to 
the fabric. Probably the ordinary 
amount of size as applied to a fabric 
of this character would be from 7| 
to 10 per cent, thus making a yarn 
which had a size of lOs-1 on the spin- 
ning frame then come about 9s-l as 
it enters the loom. The operation of 
the loom is likely to rub off some of 
the cotton fibres and size, and this 



20 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



makes the yam somewhat finer than 
it was on the loom beam, but not so 
fine as when first spun, so that the 
cloth is somewhat heavier than the 
spinning frame yarn sizes would indi- 
cate. 

A good many manufacturers allow 
for this added weight when arriving 
at their cloth weights, while others 
do not. If some such arrangement is 
not used, the cloth weights as sold 
will be heavier than other manufac- 
turers are delivering. The size which 
is applied is entirely washed out when 
the material is bleached, and unless 
more is added in the finishing process, 
the cloth is lighter when sold than 
it is when woven. In addition to the 
loss due to size, there is a stretching 
and pulling of the fabric which usu- 
ally makes it lighter per yard, and 
besides there are losses caused by 
the bleaching process. 

There are also other factors which 
affect the cloth losses, and in ex- 
ceptionally few cases cloth gains, 
such as the kind of cotton used, the 
amount of twist which the 
yam contains, the cloth con- 
stmction used, the method of finish- 
ing, and the kind of dyestuff used. 
Short cotton will cause greater losses 
than longer staple, a soft 
twist yam will lose more than 
a hard twist one, and there will be 
more friction and a greater resulting 
loss in a firmly constructed fabric 
than one where there are few threads 
and picks per inch. Mercerization 
and lother details of finishing also 
affect the result, and dyeing is likely to 
add somewhat to the weight, although 
in cotton finishing results these 
changes are in no case comparable to 
those noted when other materials are 
being dyed. There are other condi- 
tions which may at times affect the 
results, so that the same fabric or 
the same yam when finished may ap- 
pear to have been entirely different 
when first made, whereas their changed 
appearance is due entirely to the pro- 
cesses through which they have gone. 

FINISHING. 

The first step in the finishing of a 
fabric such as that considered is no 
different than that employed on very 



many other similar fabrics which are 
to be used for dress goods, for they 
are bleached and handled in a manner 
simiHr to that ordinarily employed in 
bleaching. After the cloth has been 
bleached, instead of being sold in this 
condition, it is subjected to a process 
of mercerization, and this is the method 
by which the glossy appearance is im- 
parted and which makes it possible 
to use the material in imitation of 
linens. 

How much the m.ercerization process 
has improved in results and the influ- 
ence it is exerting generally on a 
great many classes of fabrics is cl-ear- 
ly shown by the fabrics analyzed. 
Only a comparatively short time ago, 
mercerization was not applied to yams 
or fabrics made from short staples of 
cotton, for the results were n'^t espe- 
cially good, but it is now seen that 
the poor results were not caused so 
much by the short fibres not merceriz- 
ing as it was because there was so 
much twist placed in yarns which were 
composed of short fibre cotton. This 
large amount of twist, which was nec- 
essary to give the yarn strength, de- 
tracted a great deal from the lustre 
which could be imparted, because the 
fibres did not have their parallel posi- 
tion by which the greatest amount of 
lustre w^as imported. When a yam is 
soft twisted a longer staple of cotton 
is used and this allows the fibres to 
lie more nearly parallel, so that it was 
practical rather than theoretical diffi- 
culties which made the mercerization 
process undesirable, excepting for the 
better cloths, a short time ago. 

Not only h^s the process been im- 
proved greatly, so th^t results are 
good even on low quality of cloths, 
but the costs of application have de- 
clined quite a little, so that this fact 
makes it possible to apnly the process 
extensively, w^hereas the price alone 
a short time aero prohibited its use 
somewhat. Note the cost which we 
have given in arriving at the cost of 
the goods. This is 15 cents per yard 
and it includes bleaching, dyeing, mer- 
cerizing and the other processes which 
go to make a finished fabric such as 
that described. 

Expensive finishing processes are not 
often available lor the cheaper grades 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tl 



of fabrics, for they place them in 
a higher range of prices, for wliich they 
cannot always be sold, and in any case 
curtail their distribution quite extenr 
sively. Sometimes, in finishing, starch 
is added to give fullness to these fab- 
rics, but when this is done, some kind 
of a softener is also applied to give the 
cloth the soft effect desired. A light 
calendering is sometimes used, 
although it is not especial- 
ly necessary when the fab- 
ric has had a good mercerization 
process. As a general statement it 
can be said that the application of fin- 
ishes to fabrics and the combination 
of weaves and stripes to make desir- 
able finished materials have improved 
very much during the past five years, 
which is a good indication regarding 
what the future of the industry will 
be. A good many converters are just 
beginning to realize the possibilities 
of the various fabrics, and the methods 
of finishing which are available, and 
the results have been surprisingly 
good when comparisons are made. 

YARNS. 

The yams used in these cloths are 
very uneven, in fact, the more irregu- 
larity they show, the better 
is the cloth produced, so 
that it might be said that the 
making of the cloth lies largely in 
the yarns which are used in weaving 
It. The cotton staple used is likely 
to be short, about the shortest which 
is obtainable in the domestic market, 
and often waste of various 
kinds is used to make the yarns pro- 
duced more uneven. Inasmuch as un- 
even results are desirable, it is often 
advisable to crowd the machines up 
to the limit of their capacity, although 
even for this ki^d of work, there is a 
limit beyond which it is uneconomical 
to go in the making of any yam, that 
is, it would not be a good policy to 
have the yam so poor that the per- 
centage of production on the loom is 
very low, because weaving is an ex- 
pensive process. 

The mixture of short waste does not 
draw like the other cotton, and helps 
in making uneven roving and yam. 
The sliver can be run heavier than it 
can. even for ordinary cloths such as 



prints, sheetings, etc., and possibly a 
70-grain finislier sliver could be used 
satisfactorily. It might also be pos- 
sible to cut out one of the processes 
of roving frames and make the yarn 
on two processes instead of on three, 
as is ordinarily noted. In some cases, 
it is entirely possible and probably 
more economical to use single roving 
for spinning, for the yarn is heavy 
and should cause little trouble even if 
it is not as strong as it naturally 
would be for the sizes of yam used. 
The finished hank roving which is used 
on the spinning frame might be from 
1 to 11, for this would tend to develop 
a more irregular fabric than if more 
doublings were used. 

In making such yams as those con- 
sidered there is as little waste as pos- 
sible taken out in the various machines 
through which the cotton passes for 
short fibres, and bunches are of de- 
cided advantage instead of being ob- 
jectionable as they are in ordinary 
yarns. The main idea in the production 
of any uneven fabric such as that con- 
sidered is to get the cotton into a 
workable yam of the size desired in 
as quick and cheap a manner as pos- 
sible, and the plan of production 
'should be made accordingly. 

DYEING PARTICULARS. 

ORANGE. 

Toluylene Fast Orange L X !%%• 
10-30% Glauber's salt crystals. 
1-2% soda ash. 

Enter at boiling point and work with the 
steam turned oft. 

RED. 

Benso fast eoslne B L 2%. 
20-60% Glauber's salt crystals. 
1-2% soda ash. 

Enter at boiling- point and work with the 
steam turned off. 

BLUE. 

Oxamine Blue 3 B M % %. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 



Stilbene yellow 2 G P extra cons. 1%. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 

PINK. 

Benso fast eoslne B L %%. 

20-60% Glauber's salt crystals. 

1-2% soda ash. 

Enter at a rather low temperature and 

warm up rather slowly. 
The Glauber's salt Is added subsequently 

and In several portions. 



22 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



HELIOTROPE. 

Benso fast heliotrope % %.■ 
10-30% Glauber's salt crystals. 
1-2% soda ash. 

Enter at boiling point and work with the 
steam turned oft. 

BROWN. 

Cotton Brown G 2 %%. 
10-20% Glauber's salt crystals. 



CREPE FABRICS 

There is a continual change in the 
styles of fabrics in demand on ordi- 
nary cotton dress goods. One year 



Voiles when first produced did not 
show the same results which they re- 
cently have, and through the addition 
of silk stripes and a more attractive 
finish, they have been good sellers 
for some time. Novelty yarn effects, 
such as are used in the ordinary 
eponge fabrics, had been selling well 
for some time, but this had been ac- 
complished by adding these features 
to voiles and other ground fabrics. 
Possibly, the present season there has 
been a oetter sale for crepes and crepe 
effects than there ever has in the past, 
and for this reason, it may be well to 
consider certain of such fabrics and 
their method of production. 



(n\7fF ■■'■ ' ■ TT 




Fabric For Which Cost and Analysis Is Given. 



Bedford cords will be used extensively, 
another season voiles will be stylish, 
and other years, radically different 
materials will be sold and used ex- 
tensively, and when such a fabric is in 
demand, it will be likely to return 
larger dividends than at other times 
to cloth makers and sellers. By com- 
bining various weaves and styles and 
producing a somewhat different effect 
the cloth styles will often last or sell 
well more than a single season, and 
this policy is generally taken by man- 
ufacturers. 



In a general way, it can be said that 
there are many uses for such cloths, 
and this affords a large production and 
distribution, not only when there is an 
exceptional demand, but regularly 
year in and year out. They are used 
in the plain state and are also com- 
bined with silk and other materials 
in stripes and checks, for waistings 
and various kinds of dress materials. 
In certain instances they are used for 
men's shirtings, and they are also 
used in large quantities for the low- 
priced kimonos, dressing sacques and 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



4her similar articles. The lighter 
weight materials are the ones which 
are ordinarily used for dresses, while 
the heavier fabrics are used for some 
of the other purposes mentioned. The 
materials when sold are of a widely 
different appearance, not only in 
weight, some being light enough to 
be used as over-dresses, but also as 
to the effects produced on them. 
Crepes have been produced for a long 
time, not only on the domestic mar- 
ket, but also in foreign countries, and 
on both power and hand looms, al- 



When a fabric is made with a low 
count, such as is seen on voiles and 
crepes, it is practically always the 
case that plain weave is used in their 
production, inasmuch as this method 
gives the greatest amount of firmness 
with the fewest number of threads 
and picks per inch. Of course, many 
of such materials are woven on dobby 
and jacquard looms, but this is not 
because the ground weave or crepe 
portion of the cloth demands it, but 
because of the special weave made nec- 
essary to obtain the effects desired. 




The Striped Crepe Analyzed. 



though it is probable that the fabrics 
now being sold are an improvement 
on anything formerly produced* at 
least in cotton cloth. A good many 
of the high-class crepe materials now 
being sold are woven with silk stripes, 
which contain jacquard figures with 
novelty yarn in stripes and checks, and 
even in complicated leno fabrics there 
are yarns used, which, when the cloth 
is finished, gives a combination crepe 
fabric. 

An ordinary crepe fabric is made 
with a rather low count, for unless 
this were done, there would not be 
opportunity for the yarns to contract 
and the crinkled effect to be produced. 



A good many ordinary crepe fabrics 
can be and are made on automatic 
looms, and through such means the 
cost of production is appreciably low- 
ered. This can be done, because, on the 
ordinary fabrics, the yams are rather 
coarse in size, and, necessarily, strong, 
and also because plain weave is used, 
making exceptional ability on the part 
of the operative unnecessary. 

The one fact which is largely re- 
sponsible for the producing of 

THE CREPE EFFECT 

is the amount of twist which 
is given to the filling in the 
production of such cloth. In a cer- 



34 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tain few instances, the warp yam is 
made with a small amount of extra 
crisp, but usually the warp yarn in 
a crepe fabric is absolutely no differ- 
ent from that of an ordinary fabric. 
In the production of cloth which is to 
be piece mercerized, the standard of 
twist in the filling yarn will be from 
2% to three times the square root 
of the yarn size; on ordinary fabrics 
the twist standard of the filling is like- 
ly to be from 31/2 to 31, while if the 
filling is to be used for a crepe ma- 
terial, the standard of twist is likely 
to vary from six to as high as nine 
times the square root of the yarn size. 
This extra amount of twist will 
make the filling yarn kink up if it is 
unwound from a filling bobbin, and 
when a cloth is woven and immersed 
in hot water, the same effects are< 
noted in the cloth. Because of this 
shrinkage, it is necessary to set the 
twist in the yarn so that it can be 
used in the weaving operation. This 
is done in a number of methods, de- 
pending on the mill system being 
used, but possibly the method having 
the largest use is to place the filling 
bobbins as they come from the spin- 
ning frame in a box where they are 
treated with live steam. This is the 
process which is ordinarily used for 
grey, hard twist filling yarn. In order 
to have the yarn clean and the bobbin 
unaffected by this steaming process, 
it is necessary to use enameled bob- 
bins in the spinning room. 

HARD TWIST YARNS 
will vary in size to a somewhat great- 
er extent than regular yarns, and as 
there is a certain amount of contrac- 
tion when spinning, the yarn size is 
likely to be heavier than the frame 
drafts and roving size would indicate. 
Usually changes are made in the 
drafts of the frames until the result- 
ing yarn size is the one desired. Nat- 
urally, when a yarn has an extra 
amount of twist inserted, it will lose 
a good deal of its strength, for a yarn 
is strongest with a standard of about 
41/^ times the square root of the yam 
size, and not only does the above oc- 
cur, but the production per spindle 
will decrease radically and this fact 
affects the cost of production. In 
ordinary crepes the filling yarn is 



hard twisted in the same direction 
as for ordinary filling, only there is 
a greater amount of twist inserted, but 
there are other crepe fabrics in which 
filling is used with both regular and 
reverse twist. Such kinds of cloth 
are necessarily woven on a box loom 
and by far the largest amount of such 
fabrics is produced with two picks 
of regular twist and two picks of re- 
verse twist fillings, although quite 
large quantities are made in which the 
picking is one of regular and one of 
reverse twist. VVhen cloth is made 
from regular and reverse twisted 
yarns, it can be easily distinguished 
from that made with only one kind 
of twist, because in the first instance, 
there is a regular shrinkage of the 
cloth with one kind of filling acting 
against the other in producing the 
crepe effect, while in the second meth- 
od the filling all shrinks in the same 
direction, thus producing a fabric 
which contains a wavy appearance. 
Most of the ordinary cheap crepe fab- 
rics are made with filling of only one 
twist, while a good many of the more 
expensive lines contain regular and 
reverse twisted yarn. 

METHOD OF PRODUCING. 
There are a great many kinds of 
crepe fabrics, different not only be- 
cause of their cloth construction, yarn 
sizes and woven patterns, but also be- 
cause there are entirely different 
methods of production used. 
First, there is the method by 
which the majority of ordinary crepes 
are produced, namely their making 
from grey yams. Fabrics made 
through this method, are often dec- 
orated by stripes and checks not only 
of cotton, but also of silk, and when 
silk is used a fancy weave is often 
employed. When these cloths are 
made entirely of plain weave they can 
be sold in the white state or any 
piece dyed color, or they can be print- 
ed in almost any style of pattern or 
colors, and, without doubt, more of the 
coarser cloths are sold in the printed 
state than in any other form. For a 
real crepe fabric, it is cheaper to pro- 
duce in the grey cloth method than 
in any other, and this is probably the 
reason why these cloths form the bulk 
of the sale. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



25 



A second method is to produce the 
cloth from bleached and dyed yams, 
thus producing woven stripes 
similar in appearance to the styles 
used in ordinary shirtings. In fact, 
this method is used extensively when 
the fabrics are to be used for shirt- 
ings. The introduction of fast colors 
which will stanJ the bleaching opera- 
tion is, however, likely to result in 
fewer of such materials being pro- 
duced, and it is radically cheaper 
to-day to make these lines, with the 
exception of the cloths which contain 
a large proportion of color by the grey 



sider it as a seersucker effect, and 
while it naturally belongs in the seer 
sucker class, it is being sold as i 
crepe and in competition with it, and 
should be included in the general de- 
scription. A good many sellers have 
not considered certain of the results 
which mercerization causes. To-day 
most sellers are familiar with the fact 
that a lustre is imparted when cloth 
is treated with a solution of caustic 
soda and held out tightly, but they 
do not always know that cloth treat- 
ed with the same solution and not 
held out will shrink radically. Upon 




A Crinkled Crepe Produced by Mercerizing Process. 



cloth method. There are also a few 
crepe fabrics which are produced by 
a method of pressing, but the quan- 
tity produced is very small, and the 
cloth cannot be washed and still re- 
tain the effect which it contained, so 
it is not an actual crepe fabric. 

RESULTS OF MERCERIZATION. 

Another method of production 
which might be considered, for it is 
having a very large use at present, 
is that which results in making a 
crinkled effect by the mercerization 
process. Some sellers class the fabric 
pToduced as a crepe while others con- 



the above fact the production of this 
class of seersucker or crepe Is based. 
An ordinary fabric is printed with 
a paste or solution, and where this is 
applied the fabric will shrink, and 
one portion of the fabric being treat- 
ed causes the portion not treated to 
shrink up or crinkle, producing 
the crepe effect. Many of such fab- 
rics are sold in the white or colored 
state, but there are many others 
which have in addition to the crinkled 
effect a printed pattern applied, the 
variety being just about ag large as 
it is for ordinary dress materials. One 
feature which has to be considered 



26 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



when such a method is used is that 
there is a large working loss in the 
cloth yardage treated, and the amount 
received by the buyer, and this in- 
creases the cloth cost quite radically. 
Finishers require a large worlcing 
loss clause in their contracts, but 
often do not hold themselves to the 
amount stipulated. Generally, the 
actual loss in yards received and de- 
livered is from 18 per cent to 20 per 
cent. The amount an ordinary crepe 
fabric will shrink in width in the fin- 
ishing operation is from 25 per cent 
to 30 per cent, although there is a 
wider variation than this due to the 
results desired. The harder the fill- 
ing yam is twisted, the greater the 
amount the fabric will shrink or crepe 
within reasonable limits, but it is 
usually the case that the cloth is not 
finished as narrow as it actually will 
shrink. Naturally, the warp count 
when finished is radically higher than 
it is when the cloth is first woven. It 
is sometimes the case that certain 
of the better fabrics are not merely 
shrunk by hot water, but they are giv- 
en a processing in caustic soda solu- 
tion, which method gives them an ef- 
fect which is otherwise not obtain- 
able, for it makes the yam softer and 
adds to the cloth attractiveness. 

FANCY PATTERNS, 

A good many crepe fabrics are made 
with warp which is entirely silk, and 
such fabrics are often decorated with 
fancy jacquard figures or by stripes 
of various kinds. The filling used in 
such fabrics is single hard twist yams, 
although in certain Instances two-ply 
filling is used, and in the filling there 
can be either one direction of twist 
or the cloth can be woven on a box 
loom with regular and reverse twist- 
ed yam, possibly the second method 
is more extensively used in the pro- 
duction of high-class crepes. In the 
making of patteijis for such fabrics 



there are a number of facts to be con- 
sidered which makes the problem 
somewhat different from ordinary 
work. In the first place, there are 
only a comparatively few picks per 
inch in the cloth, and care must be 
used so that the patterns will show 
the best results possible. There is 
also likely to be a certain amount of 
stretch in finishing, and this should 
be considered when making the de- 
sign, for the cloth is sold finished to 
the consumers, and not in the grey 
state. The 

LARGE SHRINKAGE IN WIDTH, 

at least, must be considered, if the 
other facts are ignored; thus, a fabric 
which counts, say, 96 threads when 
it comes from the loom, may count 
130, or even more, when it is finished, 
so that a pattern wliich is correct for 
the grey material will be out of pro- 
portion when the cloth is finished. For 
this reason, a good many patterns 
have to be wider in the grey cloth 
than they would be in any other case, 
and do not look right, but when the 
cloth is finished the correct results 
are shown. This condition should be 
regulated on the design paper, which 
is used in planning the pattern. That 
is, a fabric might call for a design 
paper which was 12x7 if the grey 
count were considered, whereas it 
vvould actually need a paper which 
was 12x5 if the conditions of finish- 
ing be correctly considered. On cer- 
tain of these crepe fabrics, it is true 
that the shrinkage in count is not so 
great as the width would indicate, for 
there is a certain waviness in the 
cloth which will affect the pattern. 
Inasmuch as there are so few picks 
per inch in tlie woven fabric, care 
must be used to break up the figures, 
so that there will be no iong floats 
to make the fabric objectionable. 
Practically all fabrics are produced 
with plain weave grounds, so that the 
making of the design is a rather sim- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



27 



pie process. As previously explained, 
plain weave is necessary, if the fabric 
is to have a sufficient amount of firm- 
ness and if the threads are to remain 
in their respective positions. 

YARNS AND WEIGHTS. 

The yarns used in crepe fabrics are 
of widely different quality and sizes, 
because the range of fabric quality is 
so great. Some of the low-priced ma- 
terials are made with yarns which 
are not better than those used in the 
most common materials, and in such 
cases the yarn production is large 
and the stock used not of especially 
high quality. In other materials, fine 
or rather fine yarns are used and the 
stock is of high quality and often 
combed and a good deal of care is 
used in producing, in fact, more care 
than is noted on most kinds of fancy 
fabrics. We present in another por- 
tion of this description an analysis 
with costs of one of the most com- 
mon crepes sold, but following is an 
analysis of an imported crepe which 
contains dyed yarns: 

width of warp in reed, 59% Inches. 
Width of cloth from loom, 56 Inches. 
Width of cloth finished, 44 Inches. 
Threads per inch, finished, 72. 
Reed, 27 X 2. 

2 £ 

Ends In the warp — 3,2C0 — = 3,232, total 

8 h 

ends. 
Warp yarn size 40/1. 
Filling yarn size 30/1 hard twist. 
Picks per inch finished, 47. 
Total warp taks-up. 1;;%. 
Warp weight. .1093. 
Filling weight, .1110. 

Total .veight per yard finished, .2203. 
Yaids per pound finished, 4.54. 
Plain weave. 
Warp dressed 12 ends white, 4 ends black. 

The yarns used would be made from 
roving of similar sizes to those used 
for ordinary yarn of the same size, 
except that for fine filling it is better 
to have roving finer than the yarn size 
indicated would require, due to the 
contraction of twist. 

A correct estimate should be made 
of the losses sustf.ined when obtain- 



ing the sizes of the original grey 
yarns used. Take the fabric for 
which the cost is given. On this the 
warp in the finished cloth actually 
sized 391^, while the filling sized about 
2214, whereas 36 warp and 20 filling 
were used. This shows that the sizes 
are much finer in finished fabrics than 
many have been accustomed to be 
lieve, and this fabric has been printed 
a fact that is likely to add some 
weight to the yam. 

THE WARP LOSS 
is not entirely clue to the bleaching, 
loss in size, and weaving operation, 
but a portion of it is due to the stretch 
which is given the cloth in finishing 
as can be noted from thu picks, 40 
when the cloth was in the grey state 
and 37 when it was finished. Not all 
of this stretch is actual gain in yard- 
age to the finisher, but, without doubt, 
the extra amount obtained is at least 
5 per cent or 6 per cent. When ob- 
taining the yarn sizes for a crepe fab- 
ric which has been produced by the 
mercerization process, it is a good 
plan to size the yam from the crinkled 
portion of the cloth, for this is the 
yarn which has not been shrunk be- 
low its actual size by the method of 
finishing used. Note the cloth weights 
(5.32 in the grey state and 6.10, or 
about this amount, when finished), 
which fact shows in a general way 
what the cloth losses are when this 
kind of crepe fabric is being pro- 
duced. The method of obtaining the 
weights of the yam used and the cloth 
weight when woven is as follows: 

2,388 ends -i- (840 X 36/1) = .0790, weight 

of warp without take-up. 
5% take-up in weaving. 
.0790 -=- .95 = .083J, total weight of warp 

yarn per yard of cloth. 
40 picks per In. X 44" width In reed X 36" 

36" 

1,760 yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1,760 -4- (840 X 20/1) = .1048, total weight 

of filling per yard of cloth. 
.0832 -I- .1048 = .1880, total weight per 

yard. 
1.0000 -f- .1880 = 5.32 yarda per pound 

(grey). 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



PATTERN. 
2 2 

86/1 Am. carded warp — 2,3(i4 — = 2,388, total ends. 

6 ti 

20/1 Am. carded filling, hard twist, 40 picks. 
27 reed, 44" tvidtti in reed, 41" grey width, 30" finished width. 
68 X 40 grey count, 79 X 37 finished count 

YARNS. 

Labor, 
Cotton. waste, etc. 
36/1 Am. carded warp, 1%" staple, 8 hank double, 15 "4 c. Sc. = 23%c. 

20/1 Am. carded filling, l^a" staple, 4.75 hank double, 13»4c. 6 Vic = 19%c. 

COST. 

2,388 ends 36/1 Am. carded warp + 5% take-up = .0832 @ 23>4c = $ .0194 

40 picks 20/1 Am. carded filling, hard twist = .1048 @ 19 %c ^ .0205 

Weaving .0020 

Expenses .0038 

$ .0457 
Selling (grey) .0018 

Mill cost % .0475 

Mill selling price to converter .0537 

Cost 01 crepemg, bleaching and printing .0300 

Cosi of selling, etc .0125 

Cost to converter .0962 

Cost to jobber .1125 

Cost to retailer .1300 

Cost to consumer .1800 

Yards per pound, 5.32 (grey). 

Yards per pound, 6.10 (finished). 

Plain weave. 

■ *~»^ 



COUTIL OR CORSET CLOTH 

In preparing the new edition of our 
"Cotton Fabrics' Glossary" it becomes 
necessary to consider many cloth 
constructions which had not appear- 
ed three or four years ago. Improve- 
ments in the construction of cotton 
machinery and the accompanying de- 
velopment which has made possible the 
use of cotton fibres which were origi- 
nally considered too short to be of 
much value have led to entirely new 
fabrics and to new modifications of old 
ones. 

One fabric which is seldom men- 
tioned as forming any great portion 
of textile sales, but which neverthe- 
less is of quite large importance, is 
the general class of fabrics known as 
coutils. Possibly the production of 
the above named material is as reg- 
ular as any of the numerous novelty 
or special constructions made, and 
while the weave, count and yarns 
used will vary, the general character 
of the cloth does not change as much 
as it does in other lines. 

Dress goods colors, styles, weaves 
and cloth constructions will vary rad- 
ically in different years, but, due to 



certain fundamental necessities, cou- 
als might be called more or less a 
staple fancy product. Of course, 
there are different qualities of these 
materials which sell at various prices, 
just as in any other lines, but the re- 
sults are more limited in such fab- 
rics. In general, these materials are 
used largely in the white state, as 
there is great objection to dyed 
goods for such uses. Then there must 
be a construction used which will 
give a great deal of strength and 
wear. 
Most users of these fabrics test 

THE BREAKING STRENGTH 

of the cloth which they purchase, and 
unless deliveries are satisfactory in 
this regard there is likely to be a 
great deal of friction between buyer 
and seller, and, without doubt, this 
is the reason why a good many mills 
do not care to atteir.pt to produce 
them. Probably the lar^^t.t portion 
of cuutil production is used in the 
making of corsets, but it is also 
utilized in other ways, su<,h as bands 
for children's garments where there 
is likely to be a good deal of wear 
and tear, and in other similar meth- 
ods, and recently we have been 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



29 



brought in contact with a firm which 
claims to export as much as 50,000 
pieces a year of a fabric such as that 
analyzed. 

It has been generally supposed that 
very httle of such material was sold 
outside of the domestic market, for 
the price is high, anj conditions of 
: .akiag are such that the labor costs 
form a comparatively large portion of 
the total cost. The use which is made 
of this exported cloth is one not usual- 
ly noted, lor it is made into white 
suits of various kinds whijh receive 
a good deal of wear, at least this is 
the use which the exporters claim is 
m-.de of it. Probably there are nor 
over half a dozen manufacturers in 
the domestic market who produce a 
high class coutil fabric such as that 
analyzed. 

CLOTH CONSTRUCTION. 

Crnsidered as a fabric, coutils are 
not radically different from many of 
the ordinary cloths which are made 
and sold in enormous quantities. It 
is the weight and strength and the 
difficulties encountered in obtaining 
these that make care necessary. Gen- 
erally, tlie weave which is employed 
is a five-harness warp satin, although 
it may be some other similar weave. 
In some instances, jacquard or dobby 
patterns are employed, but when this 
is done, it is usually with a satin 
ground effect, while in special cases 
certain constructions are made with 
plain weaves. 

The reason a satin or a similar 
weave is used is because, through 
such a method, a high cloth count can 
be obtained, also the requisite 
strength. Of course, strength can be 
obtained by the use of plain weave 
together with heavy yarn, but such 
cloth would have no sale for corsets, 
for, in addition to strength, a smooth, 
good looking cloth is necessary, and 
the use of a satin weave answers 
both purposes. Whenever a fabric is 
made with a satin weave a high count 
is necessary, so that the cloth will 
be firm, and t^lthough coutils are high- 
count materials they are likely to be 
quite heavy in weight. Not only is 
the warp count high just the same 
as it is in galateas and similar lines, 
but the filling count is also high, al- 



though it is not usually quite so high 
as it is in the warp. Although the 
yarns used are rather coarse in size, 
when compared with those used in 
lawns and similar fine yarn lines, 
they are often made from combed 
stock, and this fact adds much to the 
cost of production. 

Combed yarns not only produce a 
better appearing fabric, and one con- 
taining a greater amount of strength, 
but they also make the weaving of 
cloth an easier problem from a man- 
ufacturing standpoint, for the warp 
breakages are much fewer in num- 
ber. One fact in weaving such ma- 
terials is that quality is one of the 
prime necessities, and many fabrics 
which are considered seconds in such 
production would be ranked as firsts 
were their conditions of selling not 
so strict. Because there is a good 
deal of strength necessary it is often 
the case that ply combed yarns are 
used in making the cloth, not only in 
the warp but also in the filling. When 
this is done, the yarn sizes are natu- 
rally finer than when single yarns are 
used. This method of manufacturing 
produces a better and stronger cloth, 
but it increases the cost of making 
quite radically. 

LOOM USED. 

So far as the weave and the yarn 
used are concerned, it might be con- 
sidered that automatic looms would 
be suitable for producing such mate- 
rials, but there are certain other fea- 
tures which, up to the present time, 
have made it more or less necessary 
for non-automatic looms to be used. 
One item is that the weave is likely 
to vary quite a little in the number 
of harnesses necessary to produce. 

Another is that high quality pro- 
duction is necessary, a condition 
which is not always true when auto- 
matic looms are used, and another is 
that the ratio of saving made possible 
by the use of automatic looms is not 
so large as it is on cheaper ordinary 
fabrics. A saving of a cent or more 
a pound is not of so great moment 
in a fabric which sells for 15 or 20 
cents a yard as it is in a fabric which 
sells for less than 5 cents a yard. 
Because the cloth is very firm with 
a high count and rather coarse yarns. 



30 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



it is necessary for it to be woven on 
a loom which is much heavier than 
that used in producing ordinary fancy 
fabrics. Unless this were done, poor 
cloth would result and the light loom 
would be knocked to pieces in a com- 
paratively short time. 

WOVEN FACE DOWN. 

In making satin weave cloths it is 
oftea the practice to weave the cloth 
face down in the loom, as this makes 
it necessary for the loom to lift but 
one-fifth of the warp instead of four- 
fifths at every pick, that is, if the 
weave happens to be a five-harness 
warp satin. A good deal of judgment 
nas to be used in the method which 
is employed, for it is sometimes bet- 
ter to weave a cloth face up, espe- 
cially if the weaving is very difficult. 
Inasmuch as the warp contains a 
large number of threads of rather 
coarse yarn, it is necessary to use a 
great deal of care in the placing of 
the yarn on the loom beam. 

Any irregularities of tension or 
other features which are of little ac- 
count in ordinary fabrics will cause 
very evident streaks and much 
trouble in coutil fabrics, at least in 
the high-class ones. It is usually the 
custom to use a reed in making these 
materials which corresponds with the 
fabric weave used. That is, if a five- 
harness weave is used, the warp will 
be reeded five threads per dent, and 
if another weave be used a different 
arrangement would be made. 

This policy will result in less 
streaks than through any other meth- 
od, .and allows a rather coarse reed 
to be used, a fact which results in 
more space being available for the 
operation of the heavy warp. The 
choosing of a correct reed has much 
to do with the satisfactory production 
of many kinds of cotton cloth. Some 
manufacturers are inclined to always 
use a reed which permits two ends 
per dent just because the lines of 
cloth which they have regularly pro- 
duced are made in this manner, but 
it often happens that when a mill's 
cloth constructions vary widely other 
methods are better on certain fabrics. 
Sometimes it is necessary to use a 
coarse reed, because 3arn knots 
on heavy material will not pass 



through without breaking. In other 
cases, a high warp count and with a 
reeding of two in a dent will cause 
excessive friction and breakage, with 
a low percentage of loom production. 
Then in certain other fabrics the use 
of a coarse reed with quite a number 
of ends per dent is often objection- 
able, because in finishing the reed 
marks cannot be entirely taken out. 
One reason why grey yarn fabrics 
look much smoother than similar yarn 
bleached, or dyed materials, is because 
one is likely to contain very evident 
reed marks when sold, while the other 
is not. One problem which often 
causes a great deal of trouble when 
coutils are being produced is the con- 
struction of the selvages. When 
these are made from the same warp 
as the ground of the fabric, it is very 
likely that unless the right number 
of threads per dent are used the 
edges will curl up or will not appear 
smooth like the body of the fabric, 
and will cause a large amount of crit- 
icism. 

Because of the uses of the fabric be 
ing considered it is not necessary in 
many instances to have any decora- 
tion applied to the fabric so as to 
make it more attractive. Whenever 
such decoration is desired, it is usu- 
ally applied by methods in the weave 
rather than by dyeing or printing, but 
in the large majority of instances the 
cloth is sold in the white state and 
with a comparatively simple weave. 
Naturally, the above conditions make 
the operation of finishing a rather 
simple one, for all that is necessary 
19 to bleach the cloth and 
handle it in a similar manner to that 
on fabrics which are sold in the white 
state. 

Many ordinary fabrics when sold 
are also sized or starched a good deal, 
and some of the cheaper lines aro 
filled with clay or some similar sub- 
stance, but the firmness of coutil fab- 
rics makes this largely unnecessary. 
Most of these fabrics have a some- 
what higher count in the warp than 
they do in the filling, for this makes 
possible a larger loom production and 
a corresponding decrease in the cost 
of making. The price of such mate- 
rials is very high per yard when com- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



81 



pared with others which have about 
the same weight, but this is caused 
by the use of combed stock, the large 
number of threads and piclcs per inch 
and the rather small loom production. 
It is also true that the cost is high, 
because more care is necessary in 
weaving, and fewer looms can be op- 
erated per weaver than on the simi- 
lar weight ordinary fabrics. The cost 
of finishing will depend a good deal 
on the conditions governing the fab- 
ric, that is, a small order may have 
a high cost, while a larger one will 
be lower. There is this advantage, 
however, in coutils in that the order 
is usually finished entirely in the same 
method, there being no different col- 
ors or printed patterns. In general, 
the price is somewhat similar to what 
it is on other fancy white goods which 
are only bleached. 

As previously stated, the yarns 
used, when single, are quite coarse in 
size, but they are often combed, and 
so manufacturing processes are some- 
what different from those usually not- 
ed, coutil cloths are made largely by 
fancy mills, ones which have an equip- 
ment capable of producing a wide 
range of fabrics, and so the yarn prob- 
lem is not an especially difficult one. 
Naturally, when combed yams for 
cloth are being produced it is likely 
that the staple will be as short 
as can be conveniently handled on a 
comber, and in most mills one and 
one-eighth inches is the shortest fibre 
which can be combed. Because the 
roving necessary is so coarse, it is 
customary to use shorter drafts than 
when ordinary yarn is being made, 
for this aids in making a better yarn. 
For the two yams used in Fabric No. 
I the layout would be somewhat as 
follows: 

30/1 warp. 
.2778 grains = 1 yard. 

.98 2% contraction In twisting. 



24/1 filling. 
.3472 grains = 1 yard. 

.98 2% contraction in twisting. 



.2722 

9.5 spinning frame d.'aft. 



2.58 -T- 2 = 1.29 = 6.46 hank roving. 
6.25 fine frame draft. 



8.06 -H 2 = 4.03 = 2.06 hank roving. 
5.25 intermediate frame draft. 



.3403 
7.58 spinning frame draft. 



2.58 -^ 2 = 1.29 = 6.46 hank roving. 
6.25 fine frame draft. 



8.06 -J- 2 = 4.03 = 2.06 hank roving. 
5.25 intermediate frame draft. 



21.16 -^ 2 = 10.58 = .79 hank roving. 
4.25 slubber frame draft. 



21.16 -H 2 = 10.58 = .79 hank roving. 
4.25 slubber frame draft. 

4S grs. finisher drawing sliver. 



45 grs. finisher drawing sliver. 

It will be noted that we have plan- 
ned the drafts for warp and filling 
so that both can be made from the 
same size of fine roving, and while 
this policy makes the spinning draft 
for filling somewhat shorter than it 
otherwise would be, it probably is a 
good plan to adopt such a method. 
The spinning drafts for both warp and 
filling can be increased somewhat, 
and the roving draft decreased to cor- 
respond, with very little difference in 
the quality of the yarn produced. In 
some cases, it is not possible to make 
warp and filling from the same size 
of roving because different stock may 
be used for the various yarns, and 
the sizes may vary so widely that 
either yarn may show some excessive 
draft, a condition which is not de- 
sirable for practically all kinds of 
yarn making. Machinery organiza- 
tions and mill working conditions 
often make it inadvisable to change 
certain yarn schedules which 
in other instances would be more 
desirable, and there is no defi- 
nite set rule as to Just the exact 
means for producing the best results 
on any single yarn. 

The method of obtaining the yarn 
weights and the yards per pound of 
the woven cloth Is a very simple proc- 
ess, because there are no stripes 
used or complicated methods of mak- 
ing, neither is there any great change 
from grey to finished materials, a fact 
which is not noted on a good many 
of the ordinary fabrics. Following 
are two layouts for radically different 
coutils, one made from single yams 
and the other from ply yams: 



18 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



FABRIC NO. 1. 
Width of warp In reed, 30 "^ inches. 
Width of cloth grey, 28 inches. 
Width of clJth finished, 26% Inches. 
Ends per Inch finished, 148. 
Reed 26 X 5. 

Ends In the warp, 3.964 total. 
Warp yarn 30.5/1. 
Filling yarn 24/1. 
Picks per inch, 96. 
Warp take-up, 9%. 
Warp weight per yard, .1700. 
Filling weight per yard, .1453. 
Total weight per yard, .3153. 
Yards per pound grey, 3.17. 
Five harness warp &atin weave used. 

FABRIC NO 2. 
Width of warp In reed, 30 Inches. 
Width of cloth grey, 28 Incl-es. 
Wlcth of cloth finished, 27 inches. 
Ends per inch finished, 145. 
Reed 26 X 5. 

Ends In tne warp, 3,936 total. 
Warp yarn, 70/2. 
Filling yarn. 70/3. 
Picks per Inch. 92. 
Warp take-up. 10% 
Warp weight per yaid, .14^8. 
Filling weight per yard, .1408. 
Total weight per yard, .2896. 
Yards per pound grey, 3.45. 
Five harness warp satin weave used. 

The cost of iLaking the second fab- 
ric given is much higher than for the 
first one, mainly because the yarns 
are much finer in size when spun, and 
this requires a longer and higher pric- 
ed cotton, and a good deal higher la- 
bor cost and expense in spinning, and 
In addition, there is the charge for 
twisting and the extra cost of han- 
dling, especially on the price of fill- 
ing, a cost which would not be not- 
ed at all if single filling had been 
used. So far as the weaving cost item 
is concerned, the difference in the 
two fabrics is not very wide. The 
method of obtaining thi yam and 
cloth weight for Fabric No. 1 is as 
follows: 

3.694 ends -t- (30%/l X 840) = .1547, 

weight of warp without take-up. 
9% take-up in weaving. 
.1547 -4- .91 = .1700, total weight of warp 

per yard of cloth. 
96 picks X 30%" reed width X 36" 

= 2,928 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
2,928 ^ (24/1 X 840) = .1453, total weight 

of filling per yard of cloth. 
.1700 -f .1453 = .3153, total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -*- .3153 = 3.17 yards per pound 

(grey). 

^-t-* 

CREPE DE CHINE 

One fabric which has had a more or 
less regular sale but which has of 
late been of especial interest to man- 



ufacturers and sellers is crepe de 
chine. Naturally, when this fabric is 
mentioned an all-silk material is 
brought to mind, but there are also 
cotton and silk, mixed fabrics which 
bear this name, and at certain times, 
even all-cotton fabrics have been so 
designated, by the retailer at least. 
Inasmuch as these fabrics hold such a 
large place in regular distribution a 
few facts regarding their appearance, 
construction and method of making 
may be of interest. All the materi- 
als which are known as crepe de 
chines have a comparatively light 
weight, and are clinging fabrics which 
are very desirable when soft effects 
are in style. 

These fabrics are used extensively 
for "resses, waists, trimmings, over- 
dresses and similar purposes where 
practically no other cloth fills the pur- 
pose so well. Prices for making are 
likely to vary quite widely, due to con- 
ditions in the market for materials 
and largely due to the demand for the 
goods. Generally, the prices for most 
of the all-silk fabrics at retail vill be 
from $1 to $1.50 per yard, although 
these prices in no way expiess the 
possible variation. 

SILK AND COTTON MIXTURES. 

The silk and cotton mixtures will 
also vary according to their construc- 
tion and the market selling conditions, 
but usually the price will be from 
25 to 50 cents a yard for ordinary ma- 
terials. The price for all-cotton fab- 
rics is largely dependent upon the 
stripes or otlie - decorative cloth fea- 
tures, of which there are many. More 
often the all-cotton cloth is not called 
crepe de chine, but is simply desig- 
nated as crepe, which is a much bet- 
ter name to use, as it more definitely 
expresses to consumers and others 
the materials from which it is made. 
The name crepe de chine has, how- 
ever, come to be more or less a term 
which designates a method of con- 
structing a c^oth rather than the ma- 
terials of which it is made, for we 
have quite often seen all-silk crepe 
de chine which could hardly be dis- 
tinguished from some of the higher 
classes of cotton crepe, at least by a 
good many consumers. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



33 



In all-silk fabrics, the cloth con- 
struction will vary widely. Some of 
the warps are drawn in two-ply, that 
is, two threads work as one in the 
weaving operation, while others 
are drawn in single. One fab- 
ric which has been analyzed has a 
finished warp count of 280, w'ith two 
threads used as one, thus making the 
warp count appear like 140 in the 
cloth, with 94 picks per inch, an- 
other has a warp count of 220, with 
the threads drawn singly and with 80 
picks per inch, and still another has a 
warp count of 125 threads and with 
76 picks. The number of the threads 
and picks per inch affects the result 
when finished somewhat, for if a 
count which is too high is used the 
fabric will not have the soft effect 
which is so desirable. This does not 
mean, however, that a low construc- 
tion is entirely suitable. In practical- 
ly all of these fabrics the lustre is 
imparted by the w^arp yarns. For this 
reason, the warp is likely to be of 
better silk than the filling, and not 
only better but also of finer size and 
of a higher number of threads per 
inch. The reason w^hy the warp gives 
the cloth lustre is as follows: 

To make the soft and crepy effect 
the filling yarn both in the all-silk 
and in the silk-mixture fabrics is 
twisted harder than for ordinary 
cloth. The hard tw^isting of any yarn 
will so curl up the fibres that they 
will not lie parallel an-d so will not 
reflect light and give lustre. It is 
In the yarn which is twisted the least 
that the greatest sheen appears, and 
so w'hen the filling is hard twisted 
the opportunity for lustre from it is 
either partially or wholly destroyed. 
The filling is hard twisted rather than 
the warp, because this is the most 
economical method of making. 

Hard-twisted warp would be the 
cause of untold trouble, for it would 
make the percentage of production in 
weaving very low, create many sec- 
onds, and when the cloth was finished 
would entail a r idical loss in yardage, 
thereby increasing the cost of making. 
Filling yarn has to be handled much 
less than warp, and for this reason, 
it is more economical to make hard- 
twist filling than it is warp. 



In all varieties of crepe fabrics 
there are two kinds of effects which 
can be produced with practically no 
"change in the sizes of yarns used or 
in the method of construction, and 
which are easily distinguished even 
by the ordinary consumer. These 
are first the ordinary crepe de chine 
cloth, and second, the ones often des- 
ignated as crinkle crepes. The stand- 
ard of twist or the turns per inch in 
tLe fillings of these two fabrics are 
often identical, and the warp counts 
often the same, but the differences 
are produced by the direction of twist 
which is inserted in the yarn. 

A crinkle crepe has filling in which 
only one twist has been applied, and 
it matters very little which direction 
of twist is used so long as it is all in 
the same direction. Crepe de chines 
are woven with filling which has two 
kinds of twist, regular and reverse. 
This fact makes it necessary that the 
cloth be produced on a box loom 
which can insert first one or more 
picks of yarn twisted in one direction 
and then insert yarn twis^^d in the 
opposite direction. In the large ma- 
jority of instances when two direc- 
tions of twist are used the filling is 
placed in the cloth two picks in one 
direction and two picks of filling 
twisted in the opposite direction. 

These two twnsts react against each 
other, thus making the regular crepy 
appearance in crepe de chine, whereas 
when but one direction of twist is used 
the filling all twists in the same di- 
rection, making waves, or the so-call- 
ed crinkle crepe effect. Because the 
filling is hard twisted and more or 
less irregular in appearance, it is 
often the case that schappe filling is 
used so as to make a lower cost of 
production, and it is also a customary 
proceeding to use a hard-twist Can- 
ton silk for filling, whereas in the 
warp organzine silk is used. 

It is just as important in manufac- 
turing crepes of any kind not to get 
the amount of twist excessive as it 
is not to get the twist high enough, 
for too much twist will cause exces- 
sive irregularities and add apprecia- 
tively to the cost of producing, and 
besides will cause excessive shrink- 
age in the cloth width. One feature 



34 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



regarding crepe fabrics is that the 
width of the cloth as it comes from 
the loom is much wider than it is 
when finished. That is, an all-silk fab- 
ric may be from 15 to 20 per cent 
narrower when finished than when 
woven, while a silk and cotton mixed 
fabric may have a little greater 
shrinkage, or from 20 to 25 per cent. 
These foregoing figures are only gen- 
eral ones, and special instances may 
be noted where they are exceeded, 
but they apply to very many crepe de 
chines and also to similar crinkle 
crepe fabrics. 

YARNS. 

As stated previously, the kind of 
yarns used and the amount of twist 
inserted is largely dependent on the 
cloth results which are desired and 
the price at which the cloth can be 
sol-d. A fact which enters into the 
cost of making crepe fabrics, but 
which is not always considered as 
carefully as it might be, is the con- 
traction in the filling yarn, due to the 
hard twisting operation. This process 
makes silk yarn heavier in size, and, 
therefore, have a smaller yardage 
per pound, and this naturally in- 
creases the cost of the cloth in which 
such yarn is used. 

The harder the yarn is twisted the 
greater the contraction is likely to be. 
Accurate tests should be made on the 
yarn previous to the weaving opera- 
tion, so as to obtain as near as pos- 
sible the average yardage in the fill- 
ing yarn. When silk mixture mate- 
rials are being made, the filling is usu- 
ally, although not always, combed 
yarn. Inasmuch as cotton yarn is 
much heavier in size than silk, the 
variation due to the contraction in 
twisting is somewhat more evident, 
but because the cotton cost in such 
cloth is a comparatively small pro- 
portion of the trtal cost, the variation 
does not greatly affect results, yet in 
any accurate estimates, the shrink- 
age should al . ays be considered. 
Some cotton manufacturers regulate 
their roving weights and drafts so as 
to have their finished yarn the exact 
size desired, while others take a dif- 
ferent policy ard use regular roving 
sizes, allowing the yarn to contract, 
and then to use for figures the yarn 



size which is actually obtained by 
weighing. 

With silk yarn the problem is one 
very similar to that in these last- 
named cotton mills, where an allow- 
ance in size is made for the shrinkage 
due to the twist. The hard twisting 
of yarn also affects the cost of produc- 
tion, because the amount produced is 
smaller than it would be under nor- 
mal conditions. On silk yarns the 
percentage of increase on the total 
cost is not so feieat as for cotton 
yarns, because the origi-iil silk cost 
forms such a large proportion of the 
cost of silk yarn. For a filling of 40s-l 
the cost of spinning or hard twisting, 
including all the various items, would 
be from 12^^ to 15 cents per pound, 
or about twice as high as it is for 
ordinary warp yarn of the same size. 

The standard of twist which is ap- 
plied for cotton yarn for use in crepes 
is likely to be about seven and a half 
to eight times the square root of the 
yarn number, but there are cases 
where the standard is as low as six 
and as high as ten, or even higher, 
although the excessive twist does not 
seem to be of any great advantage in 
producing a better cloth effect. A 
greater amount of twist increases 
the cost of making and weakens the 
yam, because, as the standard of 
twist advances over 4h to 43, the 
breaking strength of a yarn will de- 
crease. Hard-twisted cotton yam is 
also likely to cause a good deal of 
trouble in the spin: ing room, because 
the yarn acts more or less as a saw, 
and will cut through the travelers so 
that they will have to be renewed 
quite frequently. 

TYPICAL ANALYSES. 

One silk fabric which is an at- 
tractive material is actually construct- 
ed as follows in the finished state: 

Cloth width finished 40". 
Warp count 280 threads per inch. 
Warp drawn double. 
Filling count 94 picks per inch. 
Warp size 128,500 yards per pound. 
Filling size 138,800 yards per pound. 
Warp probably 2 thread 13/15 organzlne. 
Filling probably 26/28 Canton (hard twist). 
Threads in the warp 11,296. 
Weaving take-up 3%. 
Width in reed about 48". 
Warp weight finished .0906. 
Filling weight finished .0325. 
Yards per pound finished 8.12. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



35 



It is a weil-known fact that silk 
j-arn when first purchased contains a 
varying amount of gum wliich holds 
the fibres together and which \z not 
apparent on examination Wnen boil- 
ed out, all or nearly all of this gum 
will disappear, leaving the yarn light- 
er in weight than it was when pur- 
chased. To make silk fabrics heavier 
and to appear better it is a customary 
proceeding to add weight when yarns 
or cloths are dyed, so as to more than 
offset this loss in gum, in some cases 
enough weight being added to render 
the service of the cloth rather short. 
In the sample analyzed the amount 



In the foregoing analysis the warp 
yar-dage has been assumed as 185,000 
yards per pound, and this figure is 
somewhat coarser than the yarn fig- 
ures would indicate, but it is done as 
a protection for variation in silk size, 
and is a customary proceeding when 
cotton mills are making silk mixture 
fabrics. One fact of interest is that 
the yarn size and the weight of silk 
in cotton mixture fabrics are usually 
quite a little lighter than when wov- 
en, for the silk gum has been removed 
and no large amount of weight added 
to make up for this loss. On entire 
silk goods the difference is that the 




One of the New Crepe de Chine Fab."ics. 



of weighting added accounts for the 
difference between the silk yardage in 
the cloth and that which the yarn size 
used would indicate when the yam 
was first purchased. 

COTTON AND SILK MIXTURE GOODS. 

Cloth width finished 27". 
Cloth width grey 36". 
Warp count grey 97 threads per inch. 
Warp count finished 129 threads per Inch. 
Filling count grey 08 picks per inch. 
Filing count finished 66 picks per inch. 
Warp size 185.000 yards per pound. 
Warp size 22/24 Italian silk. 
Filling size 40/1 hard twist cotton. 
Threads in the warp 3.500. 
Take-up in weaving 107c. 
Reed width 37". 
Warp w^eight grey .0210. 
Filling weight grey .0749. 
Yards per pound grey 10.43. 



yarn and cloth is usually heavier in 
the '^nished state, tor weight has been 
added to more than make up for the 
loss of the gum. 

FINISHING RESULTS. 
In general, it can be said that most 
all crepe de chines and crinkle crepes 
of the class described are piece-dyed 
fabrics, not only when composed en- 
tirely of silk but also when partially 
made of cotton. Probably a much 
larger proportion of crepe materials is 
made in the crepe de chine method 
than in the crinkle effect, and 
plain weave is employed in a large 
number of the fabrics. This does 
not mean that fancy weaves are not 



36 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



used in quite a good many of such 
materials, for they are, and with an 
additional attractiveness in the result 
obtained. Both dubby and jacquard 
effects are used, although care has 
to be exercised so that in the result 
finished the proportion of the figures 
will be correct. 

In a good many fabrics, especially 
those made partially from cottons, 

SILK STRIPES 
are introduced with advantage, and 
often make possible a better mill div- 
idend. Because the filling is hard 
twisted, it is the usual custom to 
make ail woven hgures from the warp 
yarn, as this portion of the cloth is 
lustrous and produces a contrasting 
effect when compared with the ground 
fabric. The method of obtaining the 
yarn and cloth weights in a mixed ma- 
terial is as follows. 

3,500 threads -h 185, OOQ yards = .0189. 

warp weight without cake-up. 
10% take-up in weaving. 
_01S9 -H .90 = .0210, total weight of warp 

yarn per yard of cloth. 
68 picks X 37" reed width X 36" 

. ^ = 2,516 yds. 

36" 

of filling per yard of cloth. 
2,516 -^ (40/1 X 840) = .0749, total weight 

' of lining per yard. 
.0210 + .0749 = .0959, total weight per 

yard. 
1 0000 H- .0959 — 10.43 yards per pound 

(grey). 



. *~»^ — 

COTTON MARQUISETTE 

There are quite a number of fab- 
rics which have one name to the con- 
sumers and that are known by some 
other term to the manufacturers. This 
is largely because one of the parties 
considers the fabric weave, and the 
other the trade names. Marquisettes 
are one of such fabrics, for they are 
usually designated as plain gauze by 
the manufacturer. Gauze, considered 
as a manufacturing term, is the weave 
which is applied to the cloth, and does 
not have any reference at all to the 
material used or the construction of 
the fabric. In a general way this class 
of fabric does not have so large a 
use as many of the ordinary cloths, 
but at certain times, <here is 
quite a demand with an additional 
regular sale. A few years ago 



the demand was quite extensive, and 
at present, there are more of such 
cloths being offered, so that an analy- 
sis with a short description may be of 
interest. 

These materials are used largely 
for overdresses and similar purposes, 
and while their use is likely to make 
a garment somewhat more expensive, 
it often does produce more attractive 
results, although the prevailing styles 
of garments have much to do with 
the amount of attractiveness impart- 
ed. Probably most of such cloth is 
made entirely from silk yarn, but 
there is also quite a quantity manu- 
factured from cotton and silk in com- 
bination, while many fabrics are com- 
posed entirely of cotton. 

MAIN IDEA. 

The main idea in constructing a 
marquisette fabric is to have a very 
open material, but one in which the 
threads do not slip to any great ex- 
tent. Even when the fabric is made 
wholly of silk there is no great effort 
made to impart a lustrous finish, be- 
cause this is not especially desirable 
nor possible, as the threads twist so 
much. Because the texture of the 
cloth is so low and the yarns used are 
so fine, it is necessary to employ a 
weave which appears radically differ- 
ent from that noted on all ordinary 
fabrics. This weave is generally 
known as gauze by fabric makers, 
and Is the simplest leno weave used. 

Naturally, one of these fabrics made 
entirely from cotton does not com- 
pare in effect or sell at as high a price 
as most of the all-silk or even the 
mixture fabrics, but, nevertheless, the 
improvement in finishing methods has 
made it possible to make cotton fab- 
rics of this character very attractive 
and much more desirable than they 
formerly were. Only a short time 
ago most open-work fabrics woven 
with a gauze weave were merely dyed 
solid colors when they were woven, 
but to-day these cloths contain vari- 
ous printed patterns and colors, and 
also form the groundwork for addi- 
tional woven effects, which are sold 
in quite large quantities and are 
very attractive. There are other fin- 
ishing processes employed which give 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



37 



quite satisfactory results in addition 
vO the printing process. Some of the 
results obtained are desirable for the 
reason that they can be obtained in 
no other manufacturing method, and 
when in style quite large profits are 
secured from their manufacture. 

The weave used in the ordinary 
marquisette is called plain gauze, a 
method by which one thread twists 
around another, first to one side and 
then to the other, this thread usually 
called the ground thread. The thread 
which twists around the ground 
thread is usually known as the cross- 
ing or douping thread, and is the one 



the fact that between each pick it 
crosses to the opposite side of the 
ground thread. Different methods are 
used in producing cloth of this char- 
acter. Probably the method used most 
extensively is the ordinary leno mo- 
tion, which we will describe later in 
a little more detail. 

Then there is a method which is 
often tried wherein a specially con- 
structed reed is used which forces 
the crossing thread first to one and 
then to the other side of the ground 
thread through a lateral motion. 
Then there are a number of varieties 
of special heddles which have been 




Cotton Marquisette. 



which is ordinarily forced into a 
twisted position by the weave, but in 
the cloth analyzed, the warp, both 
ground and crossing, threads are of 
the same size, and for this reason, the 
twisted effect produced is noted on 
both. Inasmuch as the threads twist 
around each other they bind in the 
filling much more firmly than in or- 
dinary cloths and prevent any great 
amount of slipping. The result pro- 
duced by the twisting of the threads 
should be clearly seen from the illus- 
tration which we have presented. It 
will be noticed that the ground thread 
on the cloth considered is never lift- 
ed, while the crossing thread is raised 
at every pick, being held in place by 



developed for producing leno work 
and which are used to a certain ex- 
tent. While these methods all appear 
somewhat different from the ordinary 
processes, the results produced are 
identical, for the principle is the same. 
In our illustration we have given four 
picks of the cloth, separated so that 
they can be easily distinguished, and 
the weave by which they were pro- 
duced. 

Naturally, a special weave such as 
that considered has to be made in a 
different manner than that ordinarily 
noted. In the first place, it will be 
seen that two heavy lines have been 
drawn close together at the bottom 
of the illustration. The first one of 



38 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



these lines represents a harness 
which contains no heddles at all, and 
which is generally called the doup or 
slip harness. The second line which 
we have drawn represents a second 
harness, which is generally called the 
standard harness. On this standard 
harness are placed heddles of various 
kinds, that is, so far as their make- 
up is concerned, although they act 
similarly. On the bottom of the first 
or doup harness are tied loops of yarn 
which pass up and through the eye 
in the second or standard harness, 
sometimes being held in place by the 
warp threads when drawn in, but in 
most cases being held in place by 
passing through a double heddle eye. 
The remaining two harnesses are ex- 
actly the same as are used in making 
ordinary cloth. The fifth heavy line 
which we have drawn does not repre- 
sent a harness, but is a slackener rod, 
which is necessary for successful 
loom operation, because when the 
threads are in a crossed position there 
is an undue strain on the yarn which 
may cause excessive breakage unless 
relieved. The crossing threads are 
all held up by this rod and let off 
when the threads take a crossed posi- 
tion, being pulled up again when the 
threads are reversed. 

The warp is drawn in as follows: 
All the threads are first drawn in on 
the two harnesses which are marked 
"ground" just as if plain weave cloth 
were to be produced, that is, one 
thread is drawn on one harness, the 
next on a following one, and the op- 
eration continued until the whole 
warp has been drawn in. When this 
has been done, the crossing thread is 
taken and crossed over or under the 
ground thread, as the case may be, 
and then drawn into the loop of the 
doup which passes through the eye 
in the second or standard harness. 
This operation is done for each cross- 
ing thread, and when completed the 
whole warp is drawn through the 
r^ed. It should be understood that 
the crossing and ground threads 
which operate together must be reed- 
ed in the same dent or a crossing will 
not take place. The slackener rod is 
usually adjusted after the warp is 
drawn in and placed in the loom- 



By referring to the illustration the 
method of drawing in should be very 
clear, the white spaces showing the 
harness on which the threads are 
drawn. One item which is important 
is that when the standard harness is 
raised the doup harness must also be 
raised, because the loops pass 
through the heddle eyes of this har- 
ness, and if it were not done, the 
doups would soon wear out. Usually, 
an arrangement is made whereby this 
is done without considering it in the 
design, but we have treated each har- 
ness separately, so as to make the 
method more evident. If the stand- 
ard and doup harness be lifted it will 
be noted that the crossing thread 
will be on the right side of the 
ground thread. This crosses the two 
threads, so that the slackener must be 
operated to let off a few inches of 
yarn and lessen the strain. This is 
for the pick which is marked No. 1. 

On the second pick the ground har- 
npss which contains the crossing 
thread is raised, and, at the same 
time, the first or doup harness Is 
raised. The lifting of the ground har- 
ness causes the doup to slip through 
the eye of the standard harness and 
around the ground thread, thus bring- 
ing the crossing thread to the op- 
posite side of the ground thread from 
that noted when pick No. 1 was in 
serted. The following picks are a 
repetition of these first two described. 

It will be seen that the ground 
thread harness is never raised, while 
the crossing thread is actually lifted 
every pick, but, due to the crossing of 
the threads, it is bound in tightly. 
Practical working conditions make It 
necessary for loom changes to be 
made so that an o.pen she J dobby will 
work satisfactorily, but the principle 
of the weave is no different from that 
described. We have explained the op- 
eration of bottom doups, that is, ones 
which have the doups tied to the bot- 
tom of the slip harness, but there are 
also leno fabrics made which have top 
doups on which the doups are tied to 
the top of the slip harness. 

Because of the fact that the cloth 
is an openwork one and rather light 
in weight, silk yarns are used exten- 
sively in its manufacture. Not only 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



39 



does this method of production make 
a light fabric, but it also results in an 
even or regular product, for the silk 
yarns have practically no fibres pro- 
jecting, which condition is likely to 
fill up somewhat the open spaces in a 
fabric composed of cotton yam. To 
make a regular appearance when cot- 
ton yarns are used, it is customary 
to use fine two-ply yarns, for this re- 
sults in a smoother product, besides 
making the yarns stronger and more 
able to stand the crossing operation, 
with fewer breakages. Naturally, the 
use of fine two-ply cotton yam will 
increase the cost of making, but the 



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Weave Plan. 

fabrics are usually light in weight, and 

good results must be obtained even at 
an increased price. 

It is rather hard to ascertain just 
what the best cloth construction is 
when any sizes of yarn are consider- 
ed. This is because a change of a 
few picks will either produce a good 
or an unsatisfactory fabric. The 
crossing or twisting of the threads 
makes it impossible to place very 
many picks in the fabric, and for this 
reason, the correct construction should 
be left largely to the mill. The right 
number of picks per inch will cause 
fewer breakages and seconds and less 
trouble in manufacturing. The pro- 
duction per loom is quite large, due 
to the comparatively few picks per 



inch, and loom speeds are slower than 
for ordinary cloths, because more 
time is necessary for the satisfactory 
changing of the thread, so that ex- 
cessive wear may not occur on the 
doup yarn. 

FABRIC VARIETY. 

While it is true that most of the 
gauze cloth produced is similar in ef- 
fect to the cloth analyzed, it is also 
a fact that this weave is used with 
dobby and also with fancy jacquard 
figures. Sometimes the crossing thread 
will cross over more than a single 
ground thread and at other times more 
than a single thread is used for cross- 
ing purposes. In fancy weaving, all 
these threads can be woven plain or 
in various figures as desired, thus 
producing a pattern similar to that 
made on the ordinary jacquard, and 
with the remainder of the cloth of 
openwork material similar to that of 
the fabric considered. Other fabrics 
are produced wherein the woven fig- 
ures will be made in jacquard style 
and woven on a box loom, with the 
ground of the cloth composed of or- 
dinary gauze. Where the figure is not 
woven in the extra yarn is sheared 
off, leaving practically a transparent 
ground decorated with more or less 
heavy jacquard figures. Such cloths 
are used for window curtains, door 
panels and similar purposes, and have 
quite a steady distribution. 

The principle of weaving is, howev- 
er, founded on the features which we 
have explained and should be evident 
from the illustration which we present. 
Not only are grey yams used in these 
fancy fabrics, but often colored yarn 
is introduced with good results. The 
analysis of fabrics which are produced 
with leno weave is no more complicat- 
ed than it is for ordinary cloth, the 
one item which should be especially 
considered being the take-ups noted 
on the yarn. Because of the crossing 
of the threads the take-ups on the 
yarn are likely to be a greater amount 
than for ordinary cloths, both for warp 
and filling, and this feature naturally 
affects the cloth weiglits and the cost 
of production. 

It is well to remember that fabrics 
such as those analyzed have a very 
large proportion of labor and expense 



40 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



included and a comparatively small 
cost, due to material, so that any sav- 
ing which can be effected through a 
greater production is usually much 
larger than can be obtained through 
cutting dovs^n the material. An extra 
loom per weaver, through the use of 
a longer or better cotton, is often re- 
sponsible for a lower cost of making, 
because the weaving cost is high, and 
a greater number of looms per weaver 
more than makes up for the additional 
cost due to higher-priced stock. Each 
mill has conditions of operation which 
are somewhat different and has to de- 
termine which course is best for them 
through experience. 

The yarns in any fabric which have 
to be duplicated usually have to be 
considered from the finished sample, 
and some allowance must be made for 
the losses in finishing. It is very 
likely that the losses in the yarns used 
in this cloth are in the vicinity of 10 
per cent, due to stretch, loss in bleach- 
ing and other items. It is believed by 
those who have made experiments 
along this line that allowances for the 
above conditions have been altogether 
too low and that finished cloths are 
lighter than when grey to a greater 
extent than generally believed. The 
method of obtaining the weights of 
the yarn and the yards per pound in 
a fabric such as that analyzed is as 
follows : 

2,104 threads in ground warp. 
272 threads in selvage warp. 



2,376 total. 

Ground warp take-up 13%. 
Selvage warp take-up 5%. 
Warp size 100/2. 
Filling size 100/2. 
Reed width 47%". 
Picks per inch 36. 

2,104 ends -h (100/2 X 840) = .0501, weight 

of ground warp without take-up. 
13% take-up in weaving. 
.0501 -H .87 = .0576, total weight of ground 

warp per yard of cloth. 
272 ends -¥- (100/2 X 840) = .0065, weight 

of selvages without take-up. 
5% take-up in weaving. 
.0065 H- .y5 = .0068, total weight of selvage 

warp per yard of cloth. 
36 picks X 47%" reed width X 36" 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1.701 -H 100/2 X 840 = .0405, total weight 

of filling per yard of cloth. 
.0576 -t- .0068 + .0405 = .1049, total weight 

per yard. 
1.0000 -r- .1049 = 9.53 yards per lb. (grey). 



LAPPET DOTTED SWISS 

One variety of fabric which has a 
more or less steady sale, and in quite 
large quantities, is the cloth usually 
sold for a cheap dotted swiss. In a 
general way, such materials are of a 
light character and made from medi- 
um and fine sizes of yarns, either 
carded or combed, and have a rather 
sheer effect when finished. They are 
used for cheap dresses, waists, win- 
dow-curtains, portiers and similar 
purposes where there can be large 
quantities disposed of. Possibly, the 
majority of such cloths are made with 
patterns which consist of dots spaced 
in a diamond position on the cloth 
These dots may be either large or 
small in size and spaced up to about 
one and one-quarter inches apart in a 
lateral direction, although special ap- 
pliances are sometimes used which 
increase this distance. There are, 
however, many fabrics made in which 
there are what are called trailing pat- 
terns where the lappet figure is con- 
tinuous and no shearing operation has 
to be done, as is noted in the case 
where separate spots are produced. 

.Most of the lappet patterns made 
are imitations of those made on em- 
broidery and swivel looms, although 
the results are not so accurate, be- 
cause the lappet mechanism is not so 
exact, and for this reason, is usually, 
although not always, applied to fabrics 
of lower quality. At certain times, it 
is also true that lappet figures, both 
of the spot and trailing variety, are 
applied to various kinds of medium 
and even heavy-weight waisting and 
dress materials, with a resulting im- 
provement in their appearance, and 
not only are grey cotton yarns used, 
but there are also colors employed, 
and in quite a number of cases, both 
raw and dyed silks. It is also pos- 
sible to have the loom attachment 
such that three different patterns can 
be placed on the cloth simultaneously, 
so that quite intricate and varied ef- 
fects can be obtained. The illustra- 
tion which we use shows two widely 
different varieties of lappet patterns, 
one made from grey yarns with a spot 
effect which has to be sheared before 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



41 



selling and finishing, and another 
which contains dyed yarns and is 
woven with a trailing pattern, and not 
only is one lappet pattern employed, 
but it will be noted that two distinct 
lappet patterns have been used, thus 
making it necessary for two needle 
bars to be used on the loom lay, which 
are operated by two entirely different 
lappet chains. 

1 he motion or attachment which 
permits the making of a pattern some- 
w hat similar to embroidery is gener- 
ally known as a lappet motion. It 
can be used either on a plain or a 



When the slide is held up, no pat- 
tern is made, because the threads are 
above the warp, but when it is lower- 
ed at the proper time, or when the 
shed is open, the filling passes over 
the yarn in the needle's eyes, thus 
binding it in the cloth, and then by 
moving the slide back and forth for 
the succeeding picks, the various lap- 
pet patterns are produced. The nee- 
dles have to be lifted w'hen the lay 
beats the filling into the fell of the 
cloth or else the fabric w^ould be spoil- 
ed, and this operation is accomplished 
by a loom mechanism. The shuttle 



An Inexpensive Uappet Made From Grey Yarns and Sheared After Being 

Woven. 



dobby loom, and is a system of levers 
operated by a cam or by a chain 
composed of different sizes of balls, 
arranged according to the pattern de- 
sired. On the loom lay, and moving 
back and forth with it, is a slide 
which is free to move latterly, and 
which can also be raised and lowered 
at the correct time. This slide con- 
tains a number of needles, the lower 
portion of which have eyes through 
which a thread or threads can be 
drawn. The number of needles on 
the slide is determined entirely by the 
pattern which is to be produced. 
Through a system of levers this slide 
is operated by a cam or by a chain as 
explained. 



does not run close to the reed as in 
ordinary cloth making, but next to a 
row of pins between which and the 
reed there is space for the lappet nee- 
dles when they are depressed to form 
the pattern. :\Iuch of the evenness of 
a lappet pattern is secured by the 
tightness of the motion, for any great 
amount of play will cause unsatis- 
factory results. The lappet yarn is 
not placed on a heavy beam at tiit; 
bade of the loom, but is wound on a 
light spool which is placed near the 
front over the warp yarn and on the 
loom frame. 

Due to the large take-up in weav- 
ing, which will be explained more 
fully later, these spools contain yarn 



42 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



to weave out only a portion of the 
ground warp. If they were made 
heavier the operation would not be 
so successful, so when one spool runs 
out another is inserted and the vari- 
ous threads drawn in by the weaver, 
this operation taking but a short time, 
inasmuch as there are usually only a 
comparatively few lappet ends. One 
other feature which has to be consid- 
ered in producing patterns by this 
motion is that the movement back 
and forth of the loom lay cavises the 
lappet yarn to be regularly slack and 
tight to an excessive amount and some 
arrangement has to be used so as to 
take up the slack yarn. Usually this 
arrangement is very simple, being 
nothing more than a light wire appa- 
ratus over which the lappet yarn pass- 
es and is operated by a light spring. 
Through such a method the yarn 
slips back and forth through the 
needle eyes and causes no great trou- 
ble. 

The variety of cloths to which lap- 
pet patterns are applied is so wide 
that any statements regarding the fab- 
ric constructions used would be rather 
inadequate, but for the simple cloths 
which contain dots a number of gen- 
eral statements may be made. Usually 
the main idea in producing a fabric of 
this character is to get it out as 
cheaply as possible, and therefore 
the number of threads and picks per 
inch are comparatively low. It is also 
true that a light sheer ground cloth 
is desired, for this allows the lappet 
dot or figure to show in contrast with 
the body of the fabric. To produce 
this light ground cloth the yarns nat- 
urally would be of comparatively fine 
sizes. Both carded and combed stock 
is used, depending a good deal on the 
results desired and on the mill pro- 
ducing the goods. 

The lappet yarn is usually of heavy 
size so as to form a distinct figure 
in contrast to the ground cloth, and 
it is also to be noted in the majority 
of cases that the lappet yarn is two 
or more ply. This is done because the 
continuous rubbing of the lappet nee- 
dles, as the loom lay moves back and 
forth, would cause many breakages if 
the yam was single, while with ply 
yarn practically no lappet yarn break- 



age is noted. When cheap results are 
desired it is customury to use carded 
yarn for the lappet, in fact, it is usual- 
ly used because the continuous twist- 
ing of the yarn in the pattern elimi- 
nates the uneven yarn effects which 
may be present, and also because a 
greater or less portion of the yarn is 
sheared off in spot patterns. 

Naturally, when a higher price is be- 
ing received for the woven material 
a greater amount of leeway is allowed 
in the yarns used, and sometimes 
combed cotton yarn, especially if it is 
first mercerized, is utilized and often- 
times silk yarn is used both for spot 
and for trailing patterns. Often silk 
filling is used for some of the more 
expensive fabrics, and in these cases 
the cloth has quite a high count, al- 
though still light in weight, due to the 
use of silk. Recently, there has been 
a large number of lappet dots applied 
to fabrics which contain hard twist 
filling and which are finished as crepes 
in fact, the ground cloth construction 
is identical with many of the cheaper 
or medium priced crepe fabrics. One 
of the most coinmon lappet construc- 
tions used is 72 threads per inch and 
48 picks per inch, with 50s warp and 
60-1 or 70-1 filling, the yarn sizes vary- 
ing somewhat, due to mill conditions. 
The lappet yarn is usually in the vicin- 
ity of 30-2 and is of carded stock, while 
the other yarns are often of combed 

PATTERN MAKING. 
There are two general classifications 
of the various lappet patterns, first, 
those which consist of a spot effect in 
different arrangements and in which 
the lappet end floats over a portion of 
the cloth and second those which are 
designated as trailing patterns where 
the lappet end or ends weave in con- 
tinuously on practically every pick. 
When the first class of pattern is be- 
ing made an extra process is neces- 
sary after the cloth is woven, for the 
lappet yarn, which floats from one 
spot to the one following, must be 
cut off so as to leave the ground cloth 
entirely clear. In shearing these floats 
off, the loose thread is first cut and 
then, in a second process, the cut ends 
are brushed up and clipped off close 
to the woven spot or figure. In t^a 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



43 



toajority of cases where the first kind 
of patterns are being made, it is bet- 
ter to produce the effect through 
means of a cam, as this results in 
more accurate mechanical operation. 
There is, however, a limit to the ex- 
tent of pattern which can be placed 
on a cam and usually such methods are 
confined alii.ost entirely to dots of va- 
rious sizes. 

When the trailing patterns are to 
be produced a chain of balls is the 
common method, the diameter of the 
ball regulating the operation of the 
lappet needles. If the extreme range 
of pattern which can be produced is 



in demand and this is an advantage 
wlien some looms are considered. 
When clipped spots are being pro- 
duced it is sometimes the case that 
a process is used whereby the cut 
ends are pulled through to the b?ck o! 
the cloth, although this is not done 
when a low-priced material is desired. 
Usually a lappet loom will be oper- 
ated at a somewhat slower speed than 
plain or dobby looms producing the 
ground cloth alone, that is, a dobby 
loom which was operated at about 160 
picks per minute would be operated 
at possibly 14.5 or 150 picks per min- 
ute if a lappet pattern were to be 







A Lappet Woven from Dyed Yarns and Containing a Trailing Pattern. 



one and one-half inches, and there 
are 20 sizes of balls employed, the ef- 
fect desired is divided into 20 parts, 
and each part will be represented by 
a certain size of ball. When this has 
been done it is easy enough to make 
up the loom chain after making due 
allowances for the number of picks 
per inch in the fabrics. Because there 
is some variation in the mechanical 
operation of the lappet motion, it is 
often necessary that the pattern be 
tried and then adjusted at the loom 
especially when balls are used to pro- 
duce the pattern. The use of a lappet 
motion on a loom does not prevent 
the making of ordinary plain or dobby 
fabrics when ordinary lappets are not 



added to the effect. The looms per 
weaver are approximately as many as 
when no lappet pattern is used, that 
is, if six dobby looms were operated 
by a weaver on a certain pattern the 
same number would be likely to be 
operated if a lappet effect were added. 
The weaving cost is slightly higher 
because of the slower loom speed and 
a somewhat smaller percentage of pro- 
duction. There are, of course, many 
patterns where the above is not true, 
when more than one lappet bar is 
used on a cloth, but for a one-bar lap- 
pet the statement applies to the ma- 
jority of fabrics. 

One important feature which has 
been alluded to before is the take-up 



44 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



of the lappet yarns. This is of im- 
portance because unless care is exer- 
cised the cloth weights obtained will 
not be correct, and the cloth cost re- 
sulting will be likely to cause losses. 
Due to the crossing back and forth 
of the lappet threads it takes an ex- 
cessive amount of yarn to weave the 
cloth, the extra amount depending en- 
tirely on the fabric and the cloth con- 
struction. Spot patterns are likely to 
take from three to five times the 
length of yarn to produce any certain 
lengths of cloth, while trailing pat- 
terns may take from five to fifteen 
times as mu^h as the length of cloth 
produced. A cloth with a large num- 
ber of picks per inch usually has a 
very high take-up on the lappet yarns. 
It is a very good plan whenever pos- 
sible to leave from one-half to three- 
quarters of an inch of plain cloth next 
to the selvages when arranging for 
lappet patterns, as this facilitates 
the handling of the cloth and makes 
a better result, and besides causes 
less trouble in weaving with a smaller 
percentage of seconds. It is some- 
times almost impossible to eliminate 
streaks in a lappet fabric of light con- 
struction, because a heavy lappet yarn 
has a tendency to hold the picks back 
and thereby cause thick and thin 
places in the cloth. Too much tension 
on the lappet yarn spool will cause 
the heavy yarn to pull the ground 
warp ends together, thus creating an 
uneven finished effect. 

The yarns used in making this kind ' 
of fabric will vary widely due to the 
different conditions of manufacture. 
It is, however, necessary to have the 
yarns of fairly good quality, because 
the light character of most of the 
cloth will show up any irregularities 
and cause criticism of the finished re- 
sults. When yarns are to be dyed be- 
fore the weaving operation they will 
probably contain a longer staple of 
cotton for the same size of yarn than 
those which are to be used in the grey 
state. The filling when dyed is also 
likely to contain quite a little more 
twist per inch than when used in the 
grey state, because the extra twist 
makes the yarn stronger and facili- 
tates handliiig. In a general way the 
use of dyed yarns will make a fabric 



cost a greater amount than would oth- 
erwise be noted. For the yarns used 
in the grey fabrics, the yarn layouts 
would be approximately as follows, al- 
though they may vary widely from 
the Lgures given, due to manufactur- 
ing conditions in the different mills: 

5 0/1 combed warp. 
IGUT grs. per yard. 
.!h8 2% contraction in twist. 

.1634 

10 spinning frame draft. 

1.G.34 -r- 2 = .817 = 10.2 hank roving. 
6.6 jack frame draft. 

5 39 -H 2 = 2.70 = 3.08 hank roving. 
5.5 second intermediate frame draft. 

14.S.T -^ 2 = 7.43 = 1.12 hank roving. 
4.4 first intermediate frame draft. 



32.69 -^ 2 = 16.35 = .51 hank roving 
3.7 slubber frame draft. 



60 grains finisher drawing sliver 
45 grains card sliver. 
12 oz. lap. 

65/1 filling combed. 
.1282 grains = 1 yard. 

.98 2% contraction in twist. 



.1256 

9 spinning frame draft. 



1.1304 -^ 2 = .565 = 14.75 hank roving. 
G.S jack frame draft. 



3.84 -^ 2 = 1.92 = 4.34 hank roving. 
5.S second intermediate frame draft. 



11.14 H- 2 = 5.57 = 1.49 hank roving. 
5 first intermediate frame draft. 

27.85 -^ 2 = 13.92 = .60 hank roving. 
4.3 slubber frame draft. 

60 grains finisher drawing sll\or. 
45 grains card sliver. 
12 oz. lap. 

30/1 carded warp. 
2778 grains = 1 yard. 
.98 2% contraction in twist. 



spinning frame draft. 



2.58 H- 2 = 1.29 = 6.46 hank roving. 
G.25 fine frame draft. 



8.00 -i- 2 = 4.03 = 2.06 hank roving. 
5.25 intermediate frame draft. 



21.16 H- 2 = 10.58 = .79 hank roving. 
4.25 slubber frame draft. 



45 grains finisher draw.ng sliver. 
4 5 grains card sliver. 
12 oz. lap. 

The method of finding the weights 
on grey lappet fabrics is no more diffi- 
cult than it is for ordinary cloths, if 
due care be exercised in obtaining the 
take-ups, especially on the lappet 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



45 



yams. On ordinary fabrics of this 
nature the finishing processes are 
quite simple, the white cloths being 
bleached and then starched and folded 
or, if dyed, they are dyed in a similar 
manner to an ordinary piecp-dyed ma 
terial, while the fabrics which contain 
bleached and dyed yarns are usually 
washed and starched and are then 
ready for sale. The amount o: starch 
added depends altogether on the fab- 
ric, many of the cheap white materi- 
als being treated to quite a large 
amount, so as to keep the threads in 
place and make the cloth appear bet- 
ter, while many of the bettei' cloths 
contain comparatively little of such 
sizing material. The process for ob- 
taining the weights on the dotted fab- 
rics for which the yarn layouts are 
given is as follows: 

Cloth width finished 27". 

Cloth width grey 27%". 

Width in reed 29 Vi". 

Threads per inch 72, finished. 

Picks per Inch 47, finished. 

Threads per inch 71, grey. 

Picks per inch 4S, grey. 

Threads in warp 19fi2. 

Lappett ends in warp 27. 

Reed (2 in a dent) 33. 

Warp size 50/1. 

Filling size 65/1. 

Lappet size 30/2. 

W'arp take-up 5%. 

Lappet take-up 75%. 

Price to converter about 5i^c. grey. 

Price to consumer usually 12 %c. per yard. 

1.962 ends -h (50/1 X 840) = .0467, ground 

warp weight without take-up. 
5% take-up. 
.0467 -f- .95 = .0492, total ground warp 

weight per yard of cloth. 
48 picks X 29%" reed width X 36" 

= 1,404 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1,404 -H (65/1 X 840) = .0257, total weight 

of filling per vard of cloth. 
27 ends lappet h- (30/2 X 840) = .00214, 

weight without take-up. 
75% take-up in weaving. 
.00214 ~ .25 = .0086, total weight per yard 

of cloth for lappet yarn. 
.0492 -f- .0257 + .0086 = .0835. total weight 

per yard. 
1.0000 -=- .0835 = 11.98 yards before shear- 
ing (grey). 



■♦ » » 



MERCERIZED POPLIN 

There is one line of cloths which is 
being used in increasing quantities and 
which is certain to have more or less 
of an influence on future cloth sales. 
This line cf fabrics is the one gen- 
erally known as mercerized poplin. 



There are certain styles of materials 
which sell in large quantities when 
the market is right for them, but 
which at other times have a compara- 
tively small sale, and are replaced by 
other fabrics, and it can be said that 
the cause of such fluctuating sales is 
largely Decause of the whims of fash- 
ion. 

The fabric which we are to consider 
was generally thought of, a number of 
years ago, in the same class as other 
fancy materials, and sellers expected 
to see a big decrease in sales which, 
up to the present time, has not been 
noted. It is true that the quantity 
used in the future may not be as 
large as it has been in the recent 
past, but it is very unlikely that the 
sale of mercerized poplins will ever 
again be of small proportions. This 
is because consumers in general have 
realized the great value and beauty 
of the cloth and the wide variety of 
uses to which it can be successfully 
applied. Such fabrics are used for 
dresses, waists, children's suits and 
rompers, men's shirts, ladies' belts, 
raincoats, and, in fact, about any 
place where attractive appearance and 
cloth-wearing value is of importance. 

A good many sellers have adopted 
one of the ordinary good poplin con- 
structions and are trade-marking and 
advertising it, and expect that it will 
be in the future the most important 
staple fancy cloth in the market. In 
addition to the ordinary plain white 
material which is so often seen, there 
are similar cloths dyed in solid colors, 
the same kind of materials decorated 
with plain and fancy silk stripes in 
white and various colors, and dobby 
and jacquard weaves are offer ap- 
plied to the poplin fabrics, so that 
the variety of effects possible is about 
as wide as it is on any ordinary fancy 
cotton mill product. 

A NEW CONSTRUCTION. 

When a poplin construction is men- 
tioned it is generally well recognized 
what kind of a cloth is designated, 
and many ^yould be inclined to view 
the fabric as being one which has 
been produced for a good many years 
but this is not true, inasmuch as tl e 
present mercerized fabric bears vei y 



46 



A COTTON FABKlCiS GLUSSAivi 



little resemblance to the old style, 
well-known poplin. This is mainly 
because the fabric is mercerized be- 
fore being sold, and as mercerization 
is a comparatively new process, the 
methods having been available not 
much in excess of ten years and used 
in large quantities a much shorter 
time than this, it can be said that the 
present poplin is a rather new cloth. 

Inasmuch as the mercerization proc- 
ess is aided by certain yarn construc- 
tions, the yarns which are used in the 
present fabrics are made in a differ- 
ent manner than those formerly used, 
although the yarn sizes are approxi- 
mately the same. It is also probably 
true that the recent large develop- 
ment in fine cloth-making has made 
the quality of the yarns for the same 
sizes used in poplin much better than 
ever before, naturally resulting in a 
bettei j,pp earing cloth. In any kind 
of fabric which is to be mercerized 
there are a few general manufactur- 
ing features to be considered. The 
more nearly parallel the cotton fibres 
in the yarn are the better is the re- 
sult likely to be when finished. 

Mercerization makes the cotton 
fibre, which is a small, fiat-twisted 
tube under ordinary conditions, change 
into a tiny round fibre very much 
like a small glass rod when examined 
under the microscope. As the ordi- 
nary spinning process twists the fibres 
together, the more they are twisted, 
or the higher the standard of twist is, 
the less will be the lustre imparted 
by mercerization because the paral- 
lelism of the fibres will have been 
destroyed through the twisting, while 
the less twist the yarn contains the 
greater is the lustre likely to be. It 
is for this reason that the yarns for 
use in cloths which are to be mercer- 
ized are spun with a low standard of 
twist. 

The reduction of the twist stan- 
dard naturally results in the produc- 
tion of a weaker yarn, and as the 
length of the cotton fibre has much 
to do with the strength of the yarn, 
it is customary to use a somewhat 
longer staple of cotton so as to ob- 
tain adequate yarn strength. 

Mercerization is produced by the 
action of caustic soda on cotton cloth. 



but the cloth when being treated 
must be held tightly or no mercerized 
effect is produced, thus, if the filling 
is the portion being treated the cloth 
is held out wide, while if the warp 
is being treated the cloth is held 
tightly in that direction. Single fill- 
ing can be spun satisfactorily with a 
low standard of twist, because there 
are no processes after the yarn is 
spun, while in practically all cases 
where the warp is to be mercerized 
the yarn must be twisted after spin- 
ning, because soft twist single warp 
would be impractical through exces- 
sive breakage due to the soft twist, 
while with two-ply this trouble is 
largely eliminated. 

FABRIC CONSTRUCTION. 

A poplin fabric is one wherein there 
is a greater number of threads than 
there are picks per inch, usually two 
or more times as many, and in most 
cases, the warp is of finer size than 
the filling. The above method of de- 
veloping a cloth produces one where 
there appears to be ribs in the filling 
direction, the number and size of 
which are regulated by the picks per 
inch and the size of the filling yarns, 
and the excessive number of threads 
per inch in the warp practically cov- 
ers up the filling which is used. 

Under these conditions most of the 
fabric wear is noted on the warp 
yarns, and the fabric will wear as long 
as the warp yarn is strong enough to 
hold together. The idea is used in 
cloths made from various materials, 
for it is adopted in silk, wool and 
cotton and not only in the materials 
as mentioned, but also in mixture fab- 
rics, such as silk and cotton, silk and 
wool, cotton and linen and also in 
some cases entirely from linen. Not 
only are poplins made entirely from 
cotton, but they are made from dif- 
ferent qualities of stock for warp and 
filling, that is, the warp will be made 
from combed stock, while the filling 
will be produced from carded stock, 
and the warp may be of fine two-ply, 
while the filling may be of heavier 
single yarns. 

This is entirely possib.e, because the 
warp practically covers up the cheaper 
filling. Many poplins are made of 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



47 



single yarns, but the largest sellers 
of recent years and the ones which 
will have a continuous sale are those 
made from two-ply yarns, at least so 
far as the warp yarn is considered. 
Possibly the fabric which is selling 
in largest quantity is that which 
counts about one hundred threads 
and 48 picks per inch in the grey 
state, is about 28 inches wide, and 
contains 60-2 soft twist warp, and 
from 24-1 to 30-1 filling. There has 
been a large sale of a carded poplin 
construction which has a count some- 
what similar to that above mentioned 
and which is made from 30-1 carded 
warp and 25-1 filling, but which is not 
mercerized, and which is not so at- 
tractive, neither does it sell for as 
high a price as the fabric which is 
now considered the standard poplin. 

There are also many poplin fabrics 
made where the count of the yarn is 
higher than the 60-2 previously men- 
tioned, for 70-2 and 60-2 are often 
used with a greater number of threads 
per inch and in many cases with the 
filling of' two-ply yarn and a corre- 
sponding increase in the number of 
picks per inch. As a usual thing the 

GROUND WEAVE 
of all poplin cloths is plain, the 
effects being largely stripes, com- 
posed of either silk or cotton, and 
the figures, when produced on a jac- 
quard loom, are not especially at- 
tractive because of the small number 
of picks per inch. 

When a few picks are used in any 
cloth it is almost impossible to pro- 
duce very good woven effects, because 
the filling does not cover up well, and 
when floated will produce a rather 
ragged appearance. Because a plain 
weave is used on many of these fab- 
rics, it might be supposed that the 
automatic loom would be available 
for the weaving operation, and while 
this is sometimes the case on many 
of the cheap lines, the higher quality 
of most of the fabrics seen makes it 
necessary that more attention be giv- 
en to the weaving of the cloth, and 
besides the saving through the use of 
the automatic loom is not especially 
large, because the cost of production 
is not very high in most cases. The 
fabric weight will vary, due to the 



count and the sizes of yarn used, but 
in most cases the weight of the cloth 
in the grey state is from iVz to 5% 
yards per pound for cloth which is 
28 inches wide. 

SELLING PRICES. 

Possibly the new style of poplin il- 
lustrates very well the reduction 
which consumers have been obtaining 
the past year or so on quite a number 
of what might be designated as fancy 
goods. Not only are prices radically 
lower, but the fabrics are much bet- 
ter at the low prices than they were 
at the former high prices. Somewhat 
less than ten years ago poplin cloths 
for mercerization were developed, and 
because they were a new thing and 
manufacturers and finishers were not 
experienced in their production, the 
costs of making and finishing were 
higher, or appeared higher, than they 
do to-day, although the quantities 
made were so small that the returns 
received were not bo large. 

Cotnpetition was also responsible for 
lower prices, because a larger sale 
was possible as consumers realized 
the large cloth value. Prices for fin- 
ishing have also declined quite a good 
deal, due to the handling of large 
amounts, although the lower finish- 
ing prices do not indicate that finish- 
ing profits have been less desirable 
than they were. The 

GREATER PRODUCTION 
at the mill, and the more extended fin- 
ishing has produced a better and 
cheaper cloth. 

In some cases, when such fabrics 
were first woven, the operatives ran 
but a single loom, while to-day the 
usual method is to operate six, the 
increase being due to the greater ex- 
perience of the operatives and the bet- 
ter adaptation of yarns and processes. 
When first sold these fabrics were 
retailed at about 50 cents per yard, 
and in some cases even higher, while 
to-day the standard retail price is 25 
cents per yard, with good profits to 
all sellers, although in some cases 
there is even a lower price than 25 
cents per yard. The reduction in price 
has not occurred in a single year, 
but has been gradual as the various 
makers ^nd sellers became accus: 



48 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tomed to making and handling tlie 
fabric. It is, however, likely that the 
standard price will remain at 25 cents 
per yard, for there seems to be very 
few opportunities for any further re- 
duction. 

The price for bleaching, merceriz- 
ing and finishing the cloth as it 
is sold to-day varies somewhat, but 
in a general way is about one and 
one-half cents per yard. Similar re- 
ductions to that noted on poplins have 
been seen on many of the silk mixed 
fabrics, and also on other lines of 
all-cotton fabrics, so that, although a 
great many more expensive cotton 
cloths are being produced than ever 
before, the consumer is obtaining far 
more value on a good many lines than 
was previously the case. 

MANUFACTURING FACTS. 

There is comparatively little shrink- 
age in width between the woven cloth 
and the width of the warp in the 
reed. The high number of warp 
threads and the heavy size of the fill- 
ing tend to hold out the cloth when 
it is weaving and make the above 
noted small shrinkage. Possibly a 
shrinkage from reed to cloth of about 
one-half inch will cover most fabrics 
of this character. Because of the 
cloth construction it is necessary to 
use a fine reed in weaving, thus, for 
such a cloth as that described, a 50 
reed would be used with two ends per 
dent. If three or more ends were 
placed in a dent and a coarser reed 
used the weaving operation would un- 
doubtedly be facilitated, but the reed 
marks would probably be very notice- 
able in the finished cloth, and trouble 
will arise from this fact, so that mills 
do not care to attempt such a method. 

Inasmuch as a fine reed is used, the 
two-ply yarn will sometimes cause 
trouble, because the knots will not 
pass through the reed and will break, 
causing a loss in loom production. 
The reed will rub the soft twisted 
warp yarn if the number of threads 
per inch be too high or if the yarn 
size be too coarse for the reed. Good 
cotton is generally used because of 
the soft twist in the yarn and to 
cause less loss of production in weav- 
ing. The fabric is piece mercerized, 
that is, it is treated after it comes 



from the loom. The mercerizing 
process can be accomplished either 
before or after the bleaching process, 
in most cases being done before the 
bleaching takes place. 

The reason the cloth has so 
much wearing value is because there 
is so much material included and such 
a comparatively small weaving and 
expense cost, these two items often 
being less than 20 per cent of the to- 
tal mill cost, a condition seldom noted 
on fancy cotton cloths which are pro- 
duced in large quantities. 

MILL PRICES 
for the ordinary poplins have varied 
somewhat, partly through the fluctua- 
tion in demand, partly because of the 
varying prices of cotton, and partly 
because different mills produce slight- 
ly different constructions. The cloth 
we have analyzed contains 50-2 warp 
instead of 60-2, as is usually noted, 
and this added weight makes the cosi 
to manufacturers slightly higher than 
when 60-2 is used, even though the 
price for 50-2 is less per pound than 
for 60-2. The regular poplin construc- 
tion with 60-2 warp has sold as low 
as 9% cents per yard, and the price 
of 101^ cents, which we have given, 
can probably be bettered in a good 
many cases, at least when 60-2 is used 
for the warp. 

A net profit of one cent per yard 
to the mill will return a rate of profit 
of over 15 per cent, and while fancy 
cloth profits have recently been high, 
it is not likely that they will continue 
so on a staple construction such as 
that considered. The reason why the 
net profit per loom is so large when 
such a small profit per yard is se- 
cured is because the loom produces 
a large number of yards per day or 
per week, due to the comparatively 
small number of picks per inch. 

YARN AND CLOTH WEIGHTS. 

The ordinary poplin construction, 
such as that considered, is a simple 
fabric construction, and although the 
threads and picks per inch, together 
with the yarn sizes, bear no resem- 
blance to the yarn of an ordinary 
print cloth, this method of obtaining 
the weight of the yarn and the yards 
per pound is no more complicated. It 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



49 



is very true that most of the poplins through which the warp yarn passes, 

sold contain very little sizing materi- and also to the finishing of the cloth, 

als, such as is noted in a good many of the filling being used in the loom as it 

the ordinary print cloths when in a comes from the frame, and being cov- 

finished state, and for this reason the ered up by the warp, so that the loss 

finished weight of the fabric will vary is not so high as it is on the warp 

somewhat from print cloths. yarn. The method of obtaining the 

In a general way a poplin cloth yarn and cloth weights is as follows: 

will be anywhere from five per 2,874 ends -^ (50/2 x 840) = .1369, warp 

cent to ten per cent lighter when weight per yard without take-up. 

finished than when woven. The .^fgg^^-l^^^ss = .m^' tftai weight of warp 

warp, which sizes in the grey per yard of woven cloth. 

state 50-2, will be in the finished ^8 Picks x 2 8 y^- width in reed x 36" ^ ^^^^ 
cloth size about 55-2, and in this kind 36" 

nf a fahnV the lns<? on the warn will yards of filling per yard of cloth. 

01 a iduric me lobb 011 uie wdip wm ^ ^g^ ^ ^28/i x 840) = .0582, total weight 

be greater than the loss on the filling. cf fiiung per yard of cloth. 

This is due to the soft twist employed ■"'^S + .0582 = .2054, total weight per yard 

and the greater number of processes 1 ijooo %- .2054 = 4.87 yards per ib. (grey). 

PATTERN. 
•i 2 

■^0/2 Am. combed warp — 2,826 — = 2,874, total onds. 

12 12 

2i-/l Am. combed filling. 48 picks. 

f.ii reed; 28^:" width in reed; 28" grey width; 27" finished width. 
102 X 48 grey count; 106 X 47 finished count 

YARNS. 

Labor, 

waste, Twist- 
Cotton, etc. ing. 
50/2 Am. combed warp. 1 5-16" staple; 10 hank dou. rov., 21c. 16%c. 2?ic. = 4014c. 
28/1 Am. combed filling, l%" staple; 6% hank dou. rov., 15c. 8V4c. = 23^40. 

COST. 

2.874 ends 50/2 Am. combed -t- 7% take-up = .1472 @ 40^c. = $ .0593 

48 picks 28/1 Am. combed filling = .0582 @ 23Vic. = .0136 

Weaving = .0074 

Expenses = .0080 

* 0883 
Selling (grey) !o018 

% .0901 

Mill selling price (grey) .1050 

Bleaching, mercerizing and finishing .0150 

Cost to converter (not including expenses) $ .1200 

Cost to jobber .1350 

Cost to retailer .1750 

Cost to consumer .2500 

Yards per pound 4.87 (grey). 
Yards per pound about 5.30 finished. 
Plain weave. 



" MOCK-TWIST " SUITING 

One line of fabrics which is of in- 
terest at present and which shows a 
variation in method of making from 
that ordinarily noted is so-called 
"mock twist." Because of a number 
of reasons, mixture fabrics have been 
selling very well in woolen goods, 
and, naturally, it would be expected 
that similar effects would be in de- 



mand when produced from cotton. 
Usually, when made from cotton, 
cloth prices are comparatively low, 
and yarns are not made of especially 
good stock or very fine sizes, possibly 
in the majority of cases being between 
lOs-1 and 20s-l for both warp and fill- 
ing. These materials are used for 
dresses and other similar purposes 
where a rather heavy colored fabric 
can be used. 



50 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



With the exception of the color ef- 
fect, the cloth is not unlike many of 
the piece-dyed cotton fabrics which 
are now being sold in some cases as 
linens. The width of the fabric will 
vary somewhat, for they are sold at 
27 and 32 inches wide, although pos- 
sibly the largest portion is being sold 
at the wider width. Most of the 
cloths are made with a plain weave, 
although in a few cases, some of the 
more simple weaves, such as twills, 
baskets and sateens are used. For 
the above reason, these cloths can 
be made on automatic looms with ad- 
vantage, and probably many of them 



is ordinarily known as stoci: dyeing. 
Inasmuch as most of the colors used 
are dark shades it is seldom that the 
cotton fibre is bleached before dye- 
ing. 

When the raw cotton has been dyed 
it is handled in the same manner as 
ordinary raw cotton, and is drawn 
and spun into roving of the size de- 
sired, for the yarn in the fabric con- 
sidered the roving being approximate- 
ly 2.50 hank. The white cotton which 
forms the contrast with the darker 
color is given what is often called a 
half bleach before it is handled, that 
is, it is given a processing which 




"Mock-Twist" Suiting. 



are produced in this manner. Tne ir- 
regularity of the cloth effect, due to 
the mixture yarns, makes the standard 
of quality somewhat lower than it 
otherwise would be, and allows the 
most ordinary mills to produce them 
if their equipment is such that they 
can dye the cotton in the raw state 
before the yarn is spun. 

In a general way, the yarn as it 
stands in the cloth appears much the 
same as if it were two colored yarns 
twisted, and because it is not regular 
two-ply yarn it is called "mock twist," 
so as to distinguish it. A mill to be 
able to produce yarn of this charac- 
ter must have an equipment which 
permits the dyeing of raw cotton, and 



eliminates a great portion of the cot- 
ton color and makes it seem white 
when twisted with the dyed stock. The 
white cotton is made into the same size 
of roving as the colored cotton, and 
after being bleached is handled in ex- 
actly the same method. Up to the 
spinning frame the two kinds of cot- 
ton are kept separate, and care must 
be exercised not to have colored waste 
or cotton fly become mixed with the 
white stock. 

Usually, when stock-dyed cotton is 
being handled a certain number of 
cards and following machines are kept 
running on one color continually, thus 
making the problem somewhat more 
simple and keeping the various cojors 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



51 



from becoming mixed. One fact which 
is noted is that when stock dyeing is 
used the fabrics produced are almost 
always staple ones, and the range of 
colors is limited, often being as few 
as a half dozen, and not changing from 
season to season as on other lines. 
Stock dyeing is used not only for mix- 
ed fabrics such as that analyzed, but 
also for many lines of ordinary ging- 
hans, drills, twills, and, in fact, most 
kinds of ordinary staple fabrics, and, 
in addition, is utilized in making a cer- 
tain class of novelty yarns which have 
a more or less steady use. When the 
dyed and bleached rovings are com- 
pleted at the fly frame they are placed 
on the spinning frame, one end of 
color and one end of white stock be- 
ing placed together. The operation of 
this frame is no different than in 
ordinary cases, and the rovings are 
drawn out, this process keeping the 
colors practically separate. The in- 
sertion of the twist by the spindle 
twists these two elongated roving 
ends together, and inasmuch as the 
colors are contrasting ones, the ef- 
fect produced is not unlike a two-ply 
yarn made with two colors. 

It is, however, apparent on examina- 
tion that this "mock-twist" is not so 
regular as ordinary two-ply yarn, for 
the irregularity of the single yarns 
allows the twist to run into the fine 
portion of the thread, resulting in an 
uneven twisted effect. Of course, this 
running down of twist would be less 
prominent in a better yarn, but for 
the fabric considered, and for gener- 
al fabrics of this nature the irregular- 
ity of twist does not make much differ- 
ence. The above result is also seen 
in ply colored yarns to a certain ex- 
tent, but it is not nearly so prominent 
as in the stock-dyed material. There 
are certain advantages to be gained 
by making some fabrics by the "mock- 
twist" method. In the first place, it 
results in a fabric being made from 
single yarns instead of ply yarns, thus 
• nabling the mill to produce a lighter 
material and one which has a different 
appearance than a ply yarn fabric. 

For another reason, it allows more 
twist to be introduced without making 
a harsh cloth than if ply yarns were 
placed in the fabric, thus giving a 



better mottled effect. It also makes it 
possible for a mill which does not 
contain twisting frames to produce 
two-ply effects, and, naturally, does 
not upset the organization of the plant, 
for it allows the yarn sizes to be made 
for which the machinery is best 
adapted. 

Possibly, the largest item of inter- 
est is the fact that the making of 
"mock-twist" yarn results in a colored 
two-ply effect, but at a very much 
lower cost than it could otherwise be 
obtained. This statement is made 
even after due consideration has been 
given to the better effect produced by 
the use of ply yarns in a fabric. One 
reason why the cost is lower is be- 
cause the charge for dyeing raw cot- 
ton is less than it is for dyeing yarns, 
and the process eliminates many ex- 
pensive after-processes which are not- 
ed when yarn is dyed. With stock- 
dyed cotton the processes used in pro- 
ducing cloth are practically the same 
as for grey cloth, that is, the yarn is 
spun and the warp is spooled, warped 
and slashed, while the filling is ready 
for the loom when it comes from the 
spinning frame. 

With bleached and dyed yarns the 
method is usually more extensive and 
costly, for after the yarn has been 
spun it is spooled, warped and then 
doubled, making it easier to handle, 
dyed, sized and then separated and 
beamed. Afterward, it is put togetli- 
er in any warp pattern desired. The 
filling is treated in much the same 
manner as warp, except that it is not 
beamed but is quilled instead. The 
above method applies to yarns which 
are not to be twisted. When colored 
twisted yarns are to be produced, the 
g"ey spun yarn is often made into 
skeins and then dyed, after which it 
is spooled and twisted. After the 
twisting operation, the warp is spool- 
ed, warped and slashed in a method 
similar to that used on any other ply 
yarn, while the filling is spooled, ball- 
warped and quilled. Often method? 
are changed somewhat so as to be 
more economical for the individual 
mill, but in all cases the cost of mak- 
ing colored two-ply yarns is very 
much higher than for making the 
"mock-twist" yarn which is used in thr 



6'A 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



fabric considered. Without doubt, 
the use of stock-dyed yarns will in- 
crease quite a little, and will ultimate- 
ly form the bulk of the materials used 
in the production of colored staple 
fabrics on which the cloth construc- 
tion and colors change but little, and 
where profits are made through eco- 
nomical mill methods rather than 
through the fabric style. 

It will readily be recognized that 
the effect in the cloth considered is 
made almost entirely by the novelty 
yarn which has been used, and for 
this reason, the cloth as it comes from 
the loom is practically ready for sale. 
Before shipment, however, it is wash- 
ed and sized, so that it presents a 
somewhat better appearance. The 
amount of size or starch placed in this 
variety of cloth will vary according 
to selling conditions and the ideas of 
various buyers, but usually it contains 
a rather small amount, so that it is 
not too stiff. Instead of being folded 
and sold in the way most colored 
cloths are, this material is often sold 
in the roll form. One fact which is 
particularly noticeable on this sort of 
material is that the reed marks are 
quite prominent, especially when the 
fabric is held up to the light, and they 
detract a great deal from the cloth 
appearance. This condition is almost 
always apparent in fabrics which are 
practically ready for sale as they 
come from the loom, but is seldom 
noticed on cloths which have to be 
bleached, dyed or finished after the 
weaving operation. For this reason, 
the last named fabrics usually have a 
more regular finished appearance and 
are more desirable in some cases. 

There has been at certain times a 
line of printed fabrics produced which 
are very similar to the woven material 
which we have analyzed. The ground 
cloth used in such cases is a grey 
cloth of just about the same construc- 
tion as the one which has been an- 
alyzed and which is first bleached and 
then printed with an irregular or all- 
over pattern which closely resembles 
the woven effect noted in this cloth. 
Naturally, because of manufacturing 
fa^ts, there is not so wide a difference 
between the cost of the printed and 
dyed material as in most fabrics of 



such character, and for this reason, 
buyers are apt to prefer the stock- 
dyed cloth. 

Because of the appearance of the 
fabric it would not be expected that 
it would be sold at any exceptionally 
high retail price, or compete in any 
way with the high-class novelty cloths 
now offered, but it does offer quite 
an attractive appearance, and it can 
be sold so as to allow a fair margin 
of profit to the various sellers and 
also to the mills which manufacture 
it. One of these cloths is selling at 
9i cents per yard by the mill selling 
house to the jobber. This makes it 
possible for the latter to sell at about 
lOi cents a yard to the retailer, who 
can offer the cloth to the consumer at 
15 cents a yard. Other similar fab- 
rics are being sold at prices which 
place them in the 19-cent retail class, 
but it is probable that few are selling 
at any higher figures. Inasmuch as 
this cloth weighs about 31 yards per 
pound, the mill selling price with 
cloth at 9| cents a yard, is about 36 
cents a pound, a good price when the 
production costs are compared with 
ordinary grey cloths. An analysis of 
the fabric shows the following de- 
tails: 

Cloth width finished, 32". 
5Varp count finished, 40". 
Filling count finished, 34". 
threads in warp 2/8—1 262—2/8 = 1,294 

total ends. 
Warp size 12/1 "mock twist." 
Filling size 12/1 "mock twist."' 
W^idth in the reed, 35%". 
Reed, 18 (2 ends per dent.) 
Warp take-up. 7%. 
Warp weight per yard, .1380 
Filling weight per yard, .1197 
Yards per pound, 3.88 
Plain weave. 

The standard of twist in the filling 
in many of these cloths is about the 
same as it is for the warp yarn used. 
This makes a stronger filling, which, 
of course, is not at all necessary, but 
it also makes the filling effect the 
same as that of the warp yarn, often 
a more important feature in some ma- 
terials, although it is not always not- 
ed and not entirely necessary. Dur- 
ing the last year or so all kinds of 
special yarn effects have been in de- 
mand for the making of cloths, not 
only when colors are used but also 
when irregular effects such as those 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARV 



6S 



Used in eponge are considered, and it 
is very likely that the making of spe- 
cial cloths or constructions has com- 
pelled manufacturers to realize that 
there are unlimited possibilities in 
the making of cloth, which, up to the 
present have hardly been attempted, 
but which will receive a great deal 
more attention in the future. The ob- 
taining of experience is bound to show 
in the quality or variety of fabrics 
produced in domestic mills, in fact, 
it is already noticeable in the greater 
variety and more attractive appear- 
ance of the fabrics now offered, and 
in the profits which are being secur- 
ed in their making. 

It has already been noted that the 
quality of the yarn used in a good 
many fabrics similar to that analyzed 
is not especially high, and is, there- 
fore, made in a manner to result in a 
low cost of production. A good many 
coarse yarns of the sizes used in the 
cloth are made from single roving on 
a spinning frame, but this method is 
impossible for the yarn considered, 
for it is necessary to have double rov- 
ing on the spinning frame, so as to 
obtain the twisted effect. When sin- 
gle roving is used, it is possible to 
make yarn of the sizes considered 
with two processes of fly frames, but 
when double roving is used on the 
spinning frame it woi.ld be necessary 
to have three procesfj-es of fly frames, 
so as to obtain practical m: nufactur- 
ing conditions. One l^.yout for 12s-l 
warp, which may give a general idea 
as to the draft and sizes at the va- 
rious frames, is as follows: 

12/1 carded "mock twist" warp. 
I yd. = .6944 grs. 

.0098 2% contraction in twist. 

.6805 

9V4 spinning frame draft. 



6.46 -H 2 = 3.23 = 2.58 hank roving. 
5 fine frame draft. 



16.15 -V- 2 = 8.08 = 1.03 hank roving. 
4^4 Intermediate frame draft. 



34.34-^2 = 17.17 = .48 hank roving. 
3% slubber frame draft. 



65 grains finisher drawing sliver. 
65 grains card sliver. 
95 card draft. 
14 oz. lap. 

The method of obtaining the 
weights of the yarn per yard of cloth 



is exactly the same as for any or- 
dinary grey or colored fabr'-. When 
the material contains any size or fill- 
ing, it should be eliminated by wash- 
ing or boiling, but care should be ex- 
ercised in obtaining the take-ups be- 
fore the boiling out process, as the 
fabric may shrink quite a little when 
treated in a small piece. One fact 
which is often of importance is that 
stock-dyed yarns are not likely to be 
lighter, in the cloth than they are 
when they come from the spinning 
room, a condition which is often not- 
ed, sometimes to an excessive degree, 
on yarns which are dyed after they 
are spun and handled in a number of 
processes. Dyed yarns have never 
been considered light enov~h when 
compared with the sizes of the yarn 
as they come rrom the spinning frame. 
The process for the fabric considered 
is as follows: 

1.294 ends H- (12/1 X 840) = .1283. weight 

of warp yarn per yard without take-up. 
7% take-up in weaving. 
.1283 -=- .93 = .1380, total weight of warp 

yarn per yard of woven cloth. 

34 picks X 35^" width in ree d X _36^ 

36" 

= 1,207 yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1,207 -T- (12/1 X 840) = .1197. total weight 

of filling per yard of cloth. 
.1380 -f- .1197 = .2577, total weight per yard. 
1.0000 H- .2577 = 3.88 yards per lb. 



■***■ 



PRINTED SILKALINE 

There is one line of fabrics which 
has a more or less regular sale, and 
which, for a number of reasons, is of 
much interest. This is the fabric 
which is known as silkaline, although 
it must be admitted that the count and 
yarns used in producing it will vary 
to quite an extent. In a general way 
the material is of a light character, 
usually weighing more than eight 
yards per pound in 36-inch cloth and 
in the majority of cases probably 
between 10 and 11 yards per pound 
in the grey state. The effects 
produced on the cloth are made en- 
tirely by the finishing process and 
consist largely of floral patterns, oft- 
en in quite a number of colors. 

Styles of figures and the colors 
used will change somewhat, but the 
distribution of these lines offers op- 



54 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



portunities which are not noted in 
many of the higher priced fabrics for 
building up an output and a reputa- 
tion. Silkalines are used for a wide 
variety of coverings, and recently 
printed cloth coverings have been ap- 
plied to articles never before treated 
in such a manner, thus giving a large- 
ly increased sale. They are used for 
curtains, a certain range of styles for 
drapery purposes, portieres, and, in 
fact, for any use where a light fabric is 
suitable, but one which has desirable 
decorations and can be purchased at 
a relatively low price. There is much 
which might be said regarding the 



paratively few, and when plain weave 
is used the greatest arnount of cloth 
firmness is obtained. Plain weave is 
also used, because any woven effect 
is not very prominent when fine or 
comparatively fine yarns are used 
in making the cloth, and would 
be a waste of effort, because it would 
increase the cost of making with 
very little advance in style, and 
in addition the printing operation is 
very likely to cover up and render 
valueless any patterns which may be 
woven. Inasmuch as plain weave is 
used almost entirely, this cloth can 
lie made successfully on an automatic 




Printed Silkaline. 



producing of the patterns which are 
Lised on this style of cloth, but they 
a: e laigely ornamental ones, and their 
beauty depends upon the adaptability 
and a. so upon the blending of the col- 
o; s to produce the desired effect. 

Sometimes the use of one color 
which does not harmonize with the 
others may render undesirable an 
otherwise beautiful result, so a good 
many features must be considered in 
this style of cloth which are seldom 
thought of when woven effects are be- 
ing made. 

iho foundation cloth' which is used 
in the production of silkaline is most 
always made with plain weaves. This 
is necessary, because the number of 
threads and picks per inch are corn- 



loom, although, for various reasons, 
some mills have never adopted them. 
Of course, there is not so much sav- 
ing through the use of automatic 
looms on fine as there is on coarse 
cloth, but with competition as keen as 
it is to-day, every new appliance which 
brings about economy must be used or 
profits are likely to be small and ir- 
regular. The reason fine cloth is 
not made as successfully as coarse on 
an, automatic loom is because fine 
warp is not so strong as coarse and 
will break more easily, thus causing 
a loss of production. Fine cloth usu- 
ally contains a large number of 
threads per inch, thus increasing the 
number of stops per loom. Automatic 
loom warps must be made strong, so 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



65 



as to have few breakages if the great- 
est advantage is to be obtained from 
the automatic filling or shuttle-chang- 
ing attachment. 

Practically all the fabrics which are 
used in the production of silkalines 
are made from grey yarns, a fact 
which results in the lowest possible 
cost of production. Fabrics are pro- 
duced both from carded and from 
combed yarns, the price varying ac- 
cording to the kind of yarns used, the 
cloth construction purchased and the 
demand noted at any particular time. 
One construction, which is used exten- 
sively is 72 X 60, containing 50-1 warp 
and 80-1 filling, and weighing about 
ten yards per pound in the grey state. 
The price for a combed cloth of this 
character is likely to be somewhere in 
the vicinity of 5 to 5% cents per yard, 
while that of a carded one is likely to 
be about 4% cents per yard, although 
sales have been made at various times 
at much below these figures. 

The fabric which we have analyzed is 
somewhat similar to the one previous- 
ly mentioned, inasmuch as the warp 
contains the same number of threads 
per inch and the yarns are very sim- 
ilar, although the picks per inch are 
slightly less. 

The details regarding this cloth are 
as follows: 

Width of cloth finished 36 inches. 

Width of cloth grey 36 inches. 

Width of warp in the reed 38 inches. 

Threads per inch finished 72. 

Threads per inch grey 72. 

Picks per inch finished 52. 

Picks per inch grey 51. 

Threads in warp 2/10 2,564 2/10 = 2,604. 

total ends. 
Reed 34 (2 ends per dent). 
Warp size 50/1 carded. 
Filling size 75/1 carded. 
Warp take-up 4%. 
Warp weight .0646 per yard. 
Filling weight .0314 per yard. 
Yards per pound 10.42 grey. 

Inasmuch as the grey cloth is more 
or less of a staple fabric, there is a 
good deal of competition among the 
mills which produce it and profits are 
regulated somewhat by the economy 
which is practiced in the manufactur- 
ing processes. The yarns used are 
about as fine as can be produced sat- 
isfactorily from carded stock, and the 
labor cost will vary to a much great- 
er extent than in the coarser lines. 
Not only will i.he labor costs vary, but 



the stock used will also differ, partly 
because of the machinery available 
and partly because of the quality of 
the fabric desired. 

The warp is usually of coarser size 
than the filling, for such a Tnethod 
allows it to be handled more satisfac- 
torily, while the filling is ready for use 
when the spinning operation is com- 
pleted and can be made into finer yarn 
from the same length of cotton sta- 
ple. This same condition is noted on 
a large proportion of ordinary print 
cloths, for although warp and filling 
are made of the same cotton, the size 
of the warp is less than that of the 
filling, being 30-1 for warp and 38-1 
for filling. Probably both warp and 
filling for this cloth would be pro- 
duced from cotton, which is about one 
and one-quarter inches in length, al- 
though the staple used for a plain 
fabric is somewhat shorter than for 
one which has any special features. 

A general idea regarding the mill 
layout for making these yarns may be 
obtained from the following schedule: 

50/1 carded warp. 
.1667 grains per yard. 

.98 2% contraction in twist. 



.1634 

10 spinning frame draft. 



1.634 -H 2 = .817 = 10.2 hank roving 
6.6 jack frame draft. 



5.39 -f- 2 = 2.70 = 3.08 hank roving. 
5.5 second intermediate frame draft. 



H- 2 = 7.43 = 1.12 hank roving, 
first Intermediate frame draft. 



14.85 
4.4 

32.69 
3.7 

60 
45 
12 

75/1 
.1111 

.98 

.1089 
9 

.9801 
6.9 

3.38 

5.9 



-^ 2 = 16.35 = .51 hank roving, 
slubber frame draft. 

grains finisher drawing sliver, 
grains card sliver, 
oz. lap. 

carded filling. 

grains per yard. 

2% contraction in twist. 



spinning frame draft. 



~- 2 = .Mf = 17 hank roving, 
jack frame draft. 



-^ 2 = 1.69 = 4.93 hank roving, 
second intermediate frame draft. 



9.97 -i- 2 = 4.99 = 1.67 hank roving. 
5.3 first intermediate frame draft. 



26.44 -f- 2 = 13.22 = .63 hank roving. 
4.5 slubber frame draft. 



60 grains finisher drawing 
45 grains card sliver. 
12 oz. lap. 



56 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Naturally en any carded yarns as 
fine as those used there must be as 

MUCH CARE EXERCISED 

in mixing the cotton bales and in hav- 
ing the machinery in good operating 
condition as there would be if combed 
yarn were to be produced. The 
use of a cotton which is too short 
or excessive drafts on any frame will 
probably handicap the weave room se- 
riously and make the percentage of 
production in that department decline 
radically, and will ultimately affect 
the cost of production more than if 
a reasonable policy had been adopted 
in the yarn making. 

Some manufacturers prefer to use 
but two processes of pickers when 
yarn of this character is being made, 
mainiy because the longer staple cot- 
ton is not so dirty and a smaller 
amount of beating is likely to pre- 
serve the fibre length better. As 
evenness is largely responsible for 
yarn strength the number of doublings 
is increased over that of the yarns 
used in many ordinary cloths, for 
there are three processes of drawing, 
and practically always four processes 
of fly frames. 

Single roving is never used on the 
spinning frame, as yarn made in this 
manner would not be sufficiently 
strong. When automatic looms are 
in use it is a good policy to use a 
somewhat better quality of cotton as 
this method will increase the weav- 
ing production, although mere is a 
certain point where the higher cost 
of cotton will more than onset the 
added loom production. The card 
production is decreased so that it is 
not over three-quarters as much as 
when making many ordinary carded 
yarns, oftentimes the production be- 
ing about 85 to 90 pounds per day. 

FINISHING. 

The fabric as received by the fin- 
ishing works is in what is called the 
grey state; that is, the cloth is prac- 
tically the same as the cotton when 
received Pt the mill, except that it 
is a different state, being cloth instead 



of raw cotton. Fabrics such as that 
considered are not generally finished 
by the mill which produces them, but 
by a party usually called a converter, 
who obtains a price from the various 
finishers for accomplishing the work, 
and who afterwards sells the goods. 
Some finishers also act in the same 
capacity as a converter, for they pur- 
chase the grey cloth from mills and 
finish it as they themselves desire, 
and then sell to the jobber in a meth- 
od very similar to that of the con- 
verter. 

Naturally, on some lines the finish- 
er, when he acts as a converter, has 
a certain advantage over the ordinary 
converter, although on other lines this 
is not so evident. The cloth is first 
boiled off and bleached so that the 
size, cotton wax and other impurities 
present will be removed. When the 
cloth is in the white state or practi- 
cally similar to many low count lawns 
or like fabrics, it is subjected to a 
further process which consists of run- 
ning through a printing machine, 
which machine places upon the fabric 
the colored pattern which is desired. 

Each different figured pattern pro- 
duced has to have a separate set of 
rolls. These rolls are compos- 
ed of copper and the pat- 
tern is engraved on them, 
the sunken portion containing the col- 
or, and, by contact, the cloth as it 
passes over the roll takes up the 
color. Instead of the dyestuff being 
in a liquid state, as in the ordinary 
ayelng operation, it is thickened with 
various gums and starches and made 
up into a paste form so that when 
taken up by the copper roll it will 
remain in the engraved portion. Ex- 
cess color paste is removed from the 
roll before it comes in contact with 
the cloth by a finely ground knife 
edge. Bach color on the cloth is rep- 
resented by a separate roll in the ma- 
chine; that is, for a pattern with five 
colors employed there would be five 
rolls used, each roll being engraved 
for the portion of the pattern where 
its color is used, with a suflicient al- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



57 



lowance for the spread of the color 
paste when it is taken up by the fab- 
ric. 

After the printing process the colors 
which are placed upon the cloth are 
set so as to make them satisfactory 
for wear, the method of setting de- 
pending on the colors used. As a 
last process, before folding, packing 
and shipping, the cloth is subjected to 
a heavy calendering process, which 
imparts to the cloth the glazed sur- 
face which reflects the light and 
makes the fabric have a silk-like lus- 
tre. Of course, this glazed surface 
and lustre is not permanent, but it 
serves to make the fabric surface 
smoother and very much less likely to 
soil. 

PRICES. 

As stated previously, there is quite 
a little competition on these fabrics, 
not only among the grey cloth makes, 
but also among the parties who dis- 
tribute them in the finished state. 
The 72x60 ten-yard combed regular 
grey goods have been sold at a com- 
paratively recent date for 4i^ cents 
per yard, although the quoted price 
is somewhat higher. The price for 
finishing will vary in the different 
plants and also according to the kind 
of pattern and number of colors used. 
For an ordinary printed fabric sim- 
ilar to that analyzed, and which con- 
tains no special features, the entire 
finishing price is about one and one- 
quarter cents per yard for patterns in 
which two colors are used, one and 
one-half cents per yard for patterns 
in which four colors are used, one 
and three-quarters cents per yard for 
patterns in which six colors are used, 
and two cents per yard for practically 
all other styles. Some finishers add 
one-eighth of a cent per yard for each 
additional color, beginning at one and 
one-quarter cents for two-color work. 

On this basis the cost of finishing 
the cloth considered would be one and 
three-quarters cents per yard. It often 
is the case that an overall price is 
made to cover the selection made for 
the entire order, which is, perhaps, 
a more satisfactory method for many 
cloths, inasmuch as the converter 



usually sells the whole color line at 
a regular set price, making no differ- 
ence in price in regard to the number 
of colors used in the pattern. The 
jobber's purchase price is usually 
about seven and one-half cents per 
yard, and in some cases the fabric i» 
sold to the retailer at from eight and 
one-half cents to eigh and three- 
quarters cents per yard. 

The retail price in a good many in- 
stances is 12 or 121/^ cents per yard, 
and in some cases 15 cents per yard 
is asked, this mainly because mate- 
rial is sold in the upholstery depart- 
ment, where the cost of selling is 
rather high and where excessive prof- 
its are sometimes made. There is 
very little reason why fabrics such 
as that analyzed should carry any 
higher profits than the ordinary dress 
goods, for the distribution is just 
about as large as for dress goods, 
and the actual costs of selling no 
higher, but in most cases the profit 
is somewhat higher, the extra gain 
being obtained by the retailer alone 
and not by the jobber or converter. 

An examination of the cost as giv- 
en will make the prices and ranges 
of profits of the various sellers clear- 
er. An analysis of a fabric such as 
that considered is not at all diffi- 
cult. It should be remembered that 
the yarn is finer when the cloth is 
sold than when the yarn was spun. 
The warp is likely to be from 5 per 
cent to ten per cent finer, depending 
on the amount of size in the finished 
cloth, while the filling Is not likely 
to lose quite so much weight as the 
warp, due to less handling and stretch- 
ing of the cloth in making and finish- 
ing. The method of obtaining the 
yarn and cloth weights for the fabric 
considered is as follows: 

2.604 ends -=- (.50/1 X 840) = .0620. weight 

of warp per yard without take-up. 
4% take-up in weaving. 
.0620 -f- .96 = .0646 total weight of warp 

per yard of woven cloth. 
52 picks X 38" width In reed X 36" 

= 1.976 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1,976 -i- (75/1 X 840) = .0314, weight o 

filling per yard of cloth. 
.u64ti -f .0814 = .0960, total weight per yard 
1.0000 -i- .0960 = 10.42 yards per lb. (grey) 



68 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



PATTERN. 
2 2 

50/1 Am. carded warp — 2,564 — = 2,604, total ends. 

10 10 

75/1 Am. carded filling, 52 picks. 

34 reed, 38" width in reed, 36" grey width, 36" finished width. 
72 X 52 grey count; 72 X 51 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Labor, 
Cotton. waste, etc. 

50/1 Am. carded warp; 1%" staple; 10 hank dou. rov., 19c. ll%c. = 30^*0 

75/1 Am. carded filling; 1V4" staple 19c. 15%c. = 34^c. 

COST. 

2,604 ends 50/1 Am. carded warp + 4% take-up = .0646 @ 3034c = $ .Olyd 

62 picks 75/1 Am. carded filling = .0314 @ 34 %c = .0108 

Weaving = .003(5 

Expenses = .0046 

S 0389 
Selling (grey) .0008 

$ .0397 

Price to buyer (about) .0425 

Cost of bleaching, printing, etc .0175 

Cost to converter (not including expenses) $ .0600 

Cost to jobber (about) .0750 

Cost to retailer (about) .0875 

Cost to consumer .1250 

Yards per pound 10.42 (grey). 
Plain weave. 



CREPE WEAVE FABRIC 

It is generally well known in the 
cotton goods trade that crepe fabrics 
have been in very good demand, and 
that quite large quantities are being 
sold at present, and, in addition, that 
there will be a more or less general 
sale of such materials in succeeding 
seasons, although, of course, the 
amount sol-d will ciepend a good deal 
upon the varying conditions of the 
market. Most of such crepe fabrics 
are produced through the use of hard- 
twisted yarn, usually the filling, and 
being woven in a few instances on an 
ordinary loom, and in the large ma- 
jority of cases produced on a box 
loom, especially those fabrics which 
are considered high class and which 
are sold for high prices. Of course, 
crepe fabrics in which hard-twisted 
yarn has been used do sometimes have 
woven figures placed upon them, but 
because of the method of production 
the cloth weave is practically always 
plain or at least very simple, the cloth 
effect being developed entirely by the 
yarns. 

The use of hard-twisted yarn is, 
however, not the only method by 



which a crepe effect can be obtained, 
for they are sometimes made through 
the fabric weave and with regular 
yarns, that is, yarns in which no ex- 
tra twist has been inserted. Naturally, 
a fabric which is made with a crepe 
weave does not appear very similar to 
a fabric made with crepe yarn, but 
the irregularity is present in both 
styles, and for general use it is prob- 
ably true that the crepe weave gives 
a better result on medium or heavy 
weight fabrics, while the crepe yarn 
is unquestionably better on the lighter 
materials; in fact, a crepe weave is of 
little value in many fine cloths, inas- 
much as woven figures do not show up 
well when fine yarns are used. Both 
kinds of crepe fabrics are used for 
dresses, waists and similar purposes, 
and are finished in the various popu- 
lar colors. A feature worth mention- 
ing is that the printed styles of the 
same fabric are being used for trim- 
ming purposes on the solid colors, 
and because the styles of printed pat- 
terns contain colors which are in de 
mand to-day they are having quite a 
distribution for the above purpose. 

As previously stated, yarns used in 
the fabrics considered are no dilTerent 
than in many ordinary cloths. A per- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



59 



tion of the cloth was originally made 
of two-ply yarn, and subsequently the 
filling was changed to single yarn 
with . the warp remaining of tw-o-ply, 
and later the entire cloth has been 
made from single yarns. 

The two-ply cloths appear to be 
made of combed stock, but at least 
some of the single yarn fabrics are 
made from carded yarns or from yarns 
which are no better than many mills 
can and do produce from carded stock. 
The reason why two-ply yarns are 
used is because the fabric is piece 
mercerized and because they allow a 
softer twist to be use! with a better 



in the ply-yarn material, while 20s-l 
is used in the single yarn fabrics. The 
count is about 84 by 53 in the finished 
cloth, the exact amount varying some- 
what through the yarns used and the 
method of finishing. The yards per 
pound in the grey cloth are about 4.25. 
The more nearly parallel cotton fibres 
are in yarn or cloth the more lustrous 
tlie material is likely to be when it is 
finished by mercerization, and one rea- 
son why a crepe weave will not be so 
silky in appearance as a soiesette con- 
struction even though the yarns be of 
equal quality in both fabrics is the 
irregular nature of the weave in one 




One of the Crepe Weave Fabrics. 



lustre when finishei in much the same 
manner as is noted in the ordinary 
two-ply warp £.nd single filling mer- 
cerized poplin which is having such a 
large sale at present. A comparison 
of the two-ply fabric with the single- 
ply cloth shows that the change lias 
not been of advantage if appearance 
be considered. Of course, if the crepe 
effect is the desirable feature of the 
cloth, and if a good volume of sales 
can be made in the single yarn mate- 
rial, then it is naturally good policy 
to sell the single yarn cloth, for it can 
be purchased at a lower price, and 
therefore allows a wider margin of 
profit at the same selling price. 

The yarn used in the cloth is 40s-2 



cloth and the regular appearance in 
the other. 

The kind of weave which is employ 
ed in this fabric is often used for many 
styles of shirting fabrics, and is also 
used extensively in certain kinds of 
dress materials. If there is no great 
objection to a certain amount of regu 
larity in weave it is customary to pro- 
duce the effect on a dobby loom, and 
where a fabric contains stripes of any 
nature this method is found very sat- 
isfactory, for the stripes partially 
eliminate the weave defects. Then it 
is sometimes the practice to combine 
a number of simple weaves in an ir- 
regular manner, thus making an ir- 
regular weave, and, in addition, to use 



60 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



an irregular drawing-in draft on the 
warp. This method partially elimi- 
nates the difficulties, but there are 
likely to be so-called patterns even 
when such a weave is made, and these 
are rather undesirable in a fabric such 
as that considered, and, in addition, 
the making of a crepe pattern with 
an irregular drawing-in draft on a 
dobby loom is likely to cause much 
trouble at the mill, and is avoided by 
the manufacturer whenever pos- 
sible. For the above reason, many 
woven crepe effects are produced on a 
jacquard loom, and this has been done 
m the present weave. 

The effect produced on a jacquard 
loom, through the great number of 
harnesses and the width of the pat- 
tern, tends to eliminate the 
irregularities of weave so that 
there are no long floats in the 
warp or in the filling. A crepe weave, 
to be very desirable, must be made 
with comparatively short floats and 
still contain very little plain weave in 
order to produce the irregularity 
which is desired. It is claimed that 
this fabric was developed in one' of 
the mills of the Southern states, and 
because of the wide distribution which 
the fabric nas had, at least four or 
five other mills, some in the North 
and others in the South, have been 
producing it. Without doubt, the fact 
that not all fancy mills contain twist- 
ing spindles may account for a portion 
of the cloth being made from single 
instead of two-ply yarn. 

Sometimes the production of large 
amounts of two-ply cloth tends to up- 
set a mill organization, and for this 
reason, it is sometimes impossible to 
obtain two-ply fabrics in the quanti- 
ties desired, especially when two-ply 
cloths are being sold in quantities. 
Jacquard patterns have been very 
good sellers on other fabrics, and mills 
containing jacquard looms have been 
pretty well supplied with orders, thus 
making it necessary to place contracts 
with different mills in order to obtain 
the total amount of cloth necessary. 

PRICES AND PROFITS. 

The grey cloths used in the produc 
tion of the f.nished m-^terials are now 
being sold at about 9J cents a yard by 



the mills, and as these single yari. 
fabrics are being finished and sold 
along with the two-ply article, and at 
the same price, a few statements re 
gar-ding the profits being secured may 
be of interest. 

For the single yarn fabric it will be 
noted from our analysis of cost that 
the net mill cost in the grey state is 
about 84 cents a yard, and as the mill 
selling price is about 9i cents a yard, 
the profit to the mill is about 1 cent a 
yard. With a reasonable loom produc 
tion the net profit per year to the mill 
would be about $102 per loom. This 
amount will return a profit of about 
10 to 12 per cent, depending on the 
mill organization, which is not an ex 
orbitant profit, when the facts of dis- 
tribution and profits being secured on 
grey cloths of the heavier grades are 
considered. Thus it will be seen that 
the mill is not obtaining any exor- 
bitant profits, and the cloth is being 
purchased by the converter at a rea- 
sonable price. 

PRICE FOR BLEACHING 

The price for bleaching, merceriz- 
ing and dyeing, including the casing, 
etc., is not over 1^^ cents per yard. 
Where the cloth is printed in addition, 
the price is about 2i^ cents per yard. 
This makes the plain materials cost 
the converter about 10% cents per 
yard, without including his various 
selling charges. These are not likely 
to be much over 10 per cent of the 
cost of the goo-ds, but, allowing about 
12 per cent or H cents per yard, tue 
total cost to the converter would be 
approximately 12 cents a yard. With 
out doubt, these goods (not printed) 
and composed of single yarns are cost- 
ing the converter somewhat less than 
this amount. The selling price to the 
retailer is about 17 cents a yard, be- 
cause the goods are sold direct. Thus 
it will be seen that the net profit per 
yard on the plain styles is at least 5 
cents a yard. 

The printed fabrics are, many ot 
them, two-ply materials, so, allowing 
the grey cloth price of 10 cents a yard, 
which approximately covers the dil- 
ference in mill cost between single 
and two-ply, and at which undoubtedly 
this material could be purchased, the 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



61 



cost to the converter for the printed 
fabric is about 12% cents a yard, not 
including his expenses. Adding 12 
per cent or l^^ cents per yard for ex- 
penses, the total cost for this style 
would be about 14 cents a yard. 

THE SELLING PRICE 
to the retailer is about 22 1/^ cents a 
yard, or a profit to the converter of 
about 8V^ cents a yard for the print- 
ed styles. Inasmuch as the distribu- 
tion of the ordinary plain cloth is wid- 
er than for the printed styles, it is 
likely that the net profit will average 
61^ cents a yard for this cloth. The 
distribution of the material is quitb 
large, the fact that there are a num- 
ber of mills producing it proving this 
statement, so there is little doubt but 
that a total sale of 25,000 pieces or 
even more will be noted. This quan- 
tity is approximately 1,375,000 yards, 
and at a net profit per yard of 6V2 
cents, the total profit to the converter 
would be practically $90,000. This ap- 
pears like a very large return, but it 
must be remembered that the con- 
verter's position in the distribution of 
goods allows for a good deal of chance, 
that is, there are likely to be other 
fabrics on which a loss is sustained 
and other fabrics on which a rather 
small profit is secured, so that the 
good sellers carry along the other fab- 
rics and make a normal profit pos- 
sible. 

SEASON'S INCREASE. 
There are certain seasons when ex- 
penses are increased, because the de- 
mand declines, and there are othei 
years when the reverse is true, al- 
though the 12 per cent expense item 
which we have allowed should be en- 
tirely sufficient for the whole charges 
of a normal season. The development 
of a desirable material at the time when 
it can be sold requires a good deal of 
ability, and the converter is the party 
who is carrying such responsibility. 
No doubt there would have been no 
great production of high-class domes- 
tic merchandise unless the converter 
had educated other buyers and ul- 
timately consumers into its use, 
and under such selling conditions, it 
is only fair that this party should re- 
ceive a rather high return upon his 



transactions. Then it is also true that 
the profit is large in the present in- 
stance, because the goods are sold di- 
rect from the converter to the retail- 
er. This method of selling eliminates 
the jobber, and while it increases 
somewhat the converter's cost of doing 
business, it permits of a wider margin 
of profit than is noted when the job 
her handles the goods. The converter 
to-day is in a position of advantage, 
and has been responsible for forcing 
a good many domestic manufacturers 
to be progressive. Otherwise, most ol 
them would soon be settled upon one 
or another kind of staple fabric from 
which they either could not or would 
not depart. This is of advantage to 
the industry, as it tends to keep up a 
varied domestic production and in- 
creases the taste of consumers in the 
matter of fabrics and keeps the in- 
dustry in a progressive condition. 

We have already mentioned some of 
the features in regard to the finishing 
of the cloth which is being consider- 
ed. In the first place, it illustrates 
well the fact that not only the bes^ 
materials which are made of combec 
yarn but also many grades of carded 
work are improved very much through 
the mercerization process when it can 
be done at the prices which are noted 
to-day. We do not state that some of 
this style, or even all of it, is not 
combed work, but if it is such there is 
similar weight carded work which Is 
even better by comparison, so that 
the single yarn cloths anyway may be 
considered on a carded yarn basis, at 
least so far as the result of the finish 
ing processes are concerned. The 
cloth is piece-mercerized, and this can 
be accomplished either before or aftei 
the bleaching operation. 

Possibly in the majority of instances 
it is done before the bleaching takes 
place. The cloth is also piece-dyed, 
and, naturally, solid colors are used 
because the cloth is made entirel: 
from cotton and no cross dyeing proc 
esses are possible. Prices have been 
quoted for this sort of work as low as 
li cents a yard, but we have in our 
description allowed IJ cents a yard 
as being a more reasonable figure 
and on the safe side, so far as produc- 
tion is considered. 



62 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Where printed patterns are employ- an accurate balance, and from this 
ed the fabric ground is left in a white the size of the warp and filling can be 
state, and the lustre, imparted obtained through the use of the stand- 
by the mercerization process, ard number for cotton, that is. No. 1 
makes a decided contrast with the contains 840 yards per pound, No. 2 
printed figure. The colors used in twice this number and No. 50 would, 
the printed patterns are those which therefore, contain 42,000 yards per 
are desirable at present, being ol pound. The pound basis, when yarn 
brighter shades than those used other weight is considered, is 7,000 grains 
years. One of the features which per pound. This separation is needed, 
helps to set off the figure is the out- because when small quantities of yarn 
line in black which makes a clear sep- are weighed on delicate balances the 
aration between the ground of the weight necessarily is small if accurate 
fabric and the printed figure. results are to be obtained. 

Prices for printing vary somewhat, The take-up of the warp can be ob- 
and in a good many cases are regulat tained when the threads are being 
ed for the entire order, a price being pulled out of the cloth, and the take- 
quoted which applies to all fabrics, up on the filling can also be obtained 
and which is a satisfactory method, in the same way, and by means of a 
inasmuch as the materials are sold at simple ratio the reed width can be 
the same price to jobber or retailer determined approxim.ately when the 
regardless of the number of colore finished cloth width is known. For 
employed. Where each style has a practical purposes the exact cloth 
separate quoted price, there is usually weight can be ascertained by analysis, 
an advance of about an eighth of a because the fabric as produced by the 
cent a yard for each additional color mill will vary as much as 5 per cent 
ill the printed pattern up to the point in some cases, due to the difference in 
V hero seven or eight colors are used, size of yarns and other producing con- 
and usually when the cloth is of such ditions. The method of obtaining the 
a highly decorative nature, special fea- yarn and cloth weights is as follows: 
tures or cloth constructions are likely 2,228 ends h- (40/2 x 840) = .1326, warp 

to affect the costs, so that no definite weight per yard without take-up. 

■ ,..,V.PQ nun hp nan-pf] "^ '^o take-up in weaving. 

jj.ices can oe na.i.LU. jgog ^ gg = .isgi, total warp weight per 

The obtaining of the yarn weights ,g-;-ts°x 2"""re"ed wmth x 36" 

?nd after these the total weight per = 1,624 yds. 

.ard of the fabric is a rather simple ^^ ^.„.^^^ ^^^ p^^ ^^^^ „^ ^^^^^ 

procedure. A certam number of 1,624 x (20/1 x 840) = .0966, total weight 

inches of yarn are pulled out of the , °/i *^'""?oP®'" y%'",^.,°^'=l°[^- • v,» 

, ,, •' , J .T. • 1, J .1381 -f- .0966 = .2347, total weight per yd. 

-cloth, measured and then weighed on 1.0000 -^ .2347 = 4.26 yards per ib. (grey). 

PATTERN. 

Ply yarn warp fabric. 
2 2 

•10/2 Am. combed warp — 2,180 — = 2.228, total ends. 

12 12 

L'0/1 Am. combed filling; 56 picks. 

:'.8 reed, 29" width in reed, 27-27%" grey width, 26% -26%" finished width. 
82 X 56 grey count. 84 X 53 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Cot- Labor, Twist- 
ton, waste, etc. Ing. 
10/2 Am. combed warp; 1*4" staple; 8 hank dou. rov., 15c. ll%c. 2c. = 28%c. 
20/1 Am. combed filling; l^^" staple; 4% hank dou. rov., 15c. 7V&C. = 22V6c. 

COST. 

2.228 ends 40/2 Am. combed warp + i% take-up = .1381 @ 28%c. = $ .0399 

£6 picks 20/1 Am. combed filling = .0966 @ 22 %c. = .0272 

Weaving = .0095 

Expenses = .0129 

$ .0895 
Selling (grey) .0018 

Net mill cost (grey) $ .091S 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



6:^ 



PATTERN. 

Single yarn fabric. 
2 2 

iO/l Am. combed warp — 2,180 — = 2,228. total ends. 

12 12 

21/1 Am. combed filling; 56 picks. 

3S reed, 29" width in reed, 27-27%" grey width, 26»4-26%" finished width. 
82 X 56 grey count, 84 X 53 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Labor, 
Cotton. waste, etc. 
20/1 Am. combed warp;l%" staple. 4 hank dou. rov., 15c. 7%c. = 22%c. 

20/1 Am. combed filling; 1%" staple; 4% hank dou. rov., 15c. 7%c. = 22%c. 

COST. 

2.228 ends 20/1 Am. combed warp + 4% take-up = .1381 @ 22%c. = I .0313 

56 picks 20/1 Am. combed filling = 0960 @ 22y8C. = .0272 

Weaving = -0095 

Expenses — .0129 

I .0809 
Selling (grey) -OOIS 

Net mill cost (grey) ? .0825 

Mill selling price to converter (about) .0925 

Cost of finishing (bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing) .0150 

Cost of finishing (printed styles) .0250 

Price to retailer (solid colors) about .1700 

Price to retailer (printed styles) about .2250 

Price to consumer (solid colors) .2500 

Price to consumer (printed styles) .3500 

Yards per pound 4.26 (grey). 
Woven on a jacquard loom. 

■*~*~^ 



COTTON BENGALINE 

There is one cloth which is being 
used largely at present in various 
forms and which, therefore, is of quite 
a little interest to buyers and sellers. 
It is true that so far as the yarns and 
cloth constructions used in producing 
such cloths are concerned the fabrics 
are very similar to the ordinary pop- 
lin, but, due to the method of weaving, 
a wholly differ^ t appearance results. 
In a general way a bengaline is a 
heavy corded fabric with the cords 
running in the filling direction, but re- 
cently many very similar fabrics have 
been produced with the cords appear- 
ing in the direction of the warp. Of 
course, when warp cords are noted 
the cloth construction is somewhat 
different than when filling cords are 
being produced, and many times they 
are used for the same purposes. Inas 
much as most of these cloths are noted 
with filling cords, we will confine 
our short description to fabrics of that 
character. That there is a wide range 
of these materials can readily be 
noted by examining offerings of large 
retailers who handle novelty fabrics. 



Not only are these cloths made en- 
tirely from cotton, but they are also 
made from silk and from combinations 
of various materials, mainly from silk 
and cotton. In addition to being made 
of different materials, they are also 
produced in 

DIFFERENT METHODS, 

that is, from grey cotton yarn either 
single or two ply or both and then 
piece dyed and mercerized, and they 
are also made from dyed yarn. Raw 
silk is also used in many of the fab- 
rics, and such materials are dyed 
solid colors in a similar manner to 
that when grey cotton yarns are used, 
and one of the large productions at 
present is obtained from dyed silk 
yarns which through the method of 
weaving produce changeable color ef- 
fects. 

The combination materials are often 
dyed solid colors and in other in- 
stances are cross dyed, a process 
which sometimes results in rathei 
novel effects being produced. Benga- 
line fabrics are used for various pur- 
poses, possibly the largest use being 
for dress materials, both cheap and 
expensive grades, but they are often 



64 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



printed in colors and are used for 
draperies, hangings and similar pur- 
poses. Some of the warp cords are 
used extensively for men's shirting 
materials, for the making in this man- 
ner allows a somewhat wider variety 
of pattern. 

These same materials are also used 
for ladies' waistings and for children's 
dresses. Certain expensive bengaline 
fabrics are also used largely for trim- 
ming purposes, both in solid colors 
and in a printed and enbossed state. 
It may be a fact that some years the 
sale of certain styles is rather small 
when they a:e compared with staple 



In a good many fabrics which con- 
sumers purchase as all silk, there is 
a cotton filling used, but the silk warp 
covers up the cotton filling and all<rws 
the cloth to be produced at a much 
lower price, because the filling often 
frrms quite a i-ortion of the cloth 
weight. It is seldom that the warp 
threads per inch are less than 100 in 
cotton fabrics and often in silk mate- 
rials there are two or three times as 
many or even more. Naturally, because 
there is a preponderance of warp 
threads in these cloths, the wear is 
practically all sustained by this yarn, 
and as warp is made of longer cotton 




Special Silk Bengaline Having a Changeable Color Effect. 



lines, but the variety of constructions 
is quite extensive, thus giving a large 
total sale. 

CLOTH CONSTRUCTION. 

Inasmuch as bengalines are some 
what similar to poplins, it is generally 
true that the warp is of 
finer yarn and has a high- 
er count than the filling. In a 
good many cases the number of picks 
per inch is not over one-half the num- 
ber of threads per inch. This method 
of constructing a fabric allows the 
warp yarn to cover up to a large ex- 
tent the filling, and often makes it 
possible to lose a lower grade of filling 
than might otherwise be the case. 



and with a higher standard of twist 
than filling, the cloth can be consid- 
ered as giving except onal wear. This 
is especially true of the bengalines 
made of cotton yarn with a two-ply 
warp, for they are just about as serv- 
iceable as the ordinary poplins, and 
these are now becoming recognized 
as offering one of the best values of 
any woven fabric. 

A good many cotton bengalines are 
now made with soft twist two-ply warp, 
a fact which increases the cost of mak- 
ing but which allows the cloth to be 
piece mercerized, thus increasing very 
much its attractiveness and making 
the policy worth while. Without doubt, 
mercerization w 11 be employed much 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



66 



more extensively on some of the sin- 
gle yarn bengalines in the future, for 
it is being ascertained that the results 
fully warrant the added expense. 

FABRIC WEAVE. 

Because they are so similar to ordi- 
nary poplins, the general cloth con- 
struction features of bengalines are 
easily understood, but the method of 
producing the corded effects is not 
so well known, especially outside of 
manufacturing circles. Some of the 
effects are madJ on ordinary plain 
looms, while others are made on box 
looms which can weave two picks ot 
any size or color of yarn, and still 
others, especially when a large amount 
of silk is used, are produced on a pick 
and pick loom where a single pick 
of any size or color of yarrn can be 
woven. The weave would ordinarily be 
designated as plain. That is, there are 
usually only two harnesses necessary, 
and the warp threads are drawn in in 
regular order, the cord being formed 
by the harnesses remaining stationary 
while a number of picks are being 
placed in the same shade. Sometimes 
the take-up pawl is lifted when the 
cord is being formed, thus placing in 
the cloth more picks than the loom 
pick gear would indicate, while at 
other times the pawl is not lifted, the 
natural tendency of the weave forcing 
the picks into a cord when the har- 
nesses remain stationary. The above 
policy is adopted where an ordinary 
loom is used and where only one size 
of filling yarn can be woven. 

Dobby looms are most always used 
in making bengalines of this character 
because orders are comparatively 
small and cams are expensive and 
often do not hold picks enough to 
make them practical, and the use 
of a dobby allows the filling thread to 
be caught and held out in a satisfac- 
tory manner when the cord is being 
formed. Box looms are used when 
different dzes or colors of filling are 
being used, and in a good many caseb 
produce a rounder cord and a some- 
what greater yardage even at a slower 
loom speed. When picks are forced into 
the shade to produce a round cord 
with only a single size of filling used 
it is likely to cause an excessive strain 



on the warp yarn and result in a 
great deal of trouble in the weaving 
operation. We are illustrating the 
weave on one of the ordinary fabrics 
which contains but one size of filling. 
It will be noted that we have made 

TWO REPEATS OF THE WEAVE 

in the filling direction, this being nec- 
essary because two picks are placed 
on a chain bar in a good many in- 
stances. We are also illustrat- 
ing a special silk fabric which 
has a changeable color ef- 
fect. This weave is identical 
with the ordinary three harness twill, 
but because of the different yarn sizes 
which are employed in the filling and 
the different colors which are used 
in the warp an entirely different effect 
is produced, and no one from a super- 
ficial examination of the cloth wnuld 
consider tha' the weave was similar 
to that of many simple twill fabrics. 
In the first cloth the cord is produced 
by placing a number of picks of the 
same filling in one shade, while in the 
other fabric the cord is produced by 
inserting a very much heavier pick of 
filling. 

Due to the stiffness of the cords the 
ordinary bengaline cloth does not 
shrink very much in the weaving 
operation, often only one-half to one 
inch from reed to cloth, and certain 
special fabrics have an even smaller 
shrinkage than the amount named. 
As a general thine the cloth weave is 
very simple, the cords being at various 
spacings up to ''bout three-eighths of 
an inch apart, and soL^etimes of differ- 
ent sizes, the fancy effects being al- 
most entirely *he result of yarn and 
color combinations, anci in som cases 
of both. Because the weaves w^hich 
are used are very simple, in many 
cases being just about thp same as 
that of a plain sheeting, it might be 
supposed that au omatlc k ;ms would 
be used in the production o some of 
the all-cotton fabrics, bu t)ii ? is not 
done, mainly because the losses due 
to seconds increase as tlie cloLh value 
is higher, and also because the weav- 
ing cost iz a much smaller proportion 
of the total cost than on some of the 
cheaper lines where they can be suc- 
cessfully used. Fewer automatic 



66 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



looms per weaver would be necessary, 
and this would naturally cut down the 
possible savings so that they are not 
used. Most bengalines would be con- 
sidered heavy fabrics, even the ones 
made entirely of silk being of quite 
good weight because of the cords 
used. 

FINISHING RESULTS. 

A good many of the all-cotton cloths 
are mercerized to-day in addition to the 
processes which were formerly em- 
ployed, and because of the us« of this 
process, the yarns composing the fab- 
ric are of somewhat different con- 
struction than they previously were. 



ton to anywhere near as great an ex- 
tent as it did the longer staples, but 
the variation in result has been found 
to be from manufacturing conditions 
more than from the chemical process 
employed. Long cotton yams can be 
twisted very much less than short 
ones, and still have them practical for 
a mill, and the less twist a yarn has 
the more nearly parallel the fibres are, 
and the greater the lustre obtained 
when the cloth is mercerized. 

Some fabrics have been made in 
large quantities with filling spun on a 
ring frame with a standard of twist be- 
low 2| times the square root of the 
yarn size, but it was done with a 




The Fabric A.nalyzed. 



The warp yam in such cloths is often 
of two-ply, and contains a compara- 
tively small amount of twist, for this 
produces letter results when finished. 
It is also true that Egyptian cotton is 
used to quite an extent in yams or 
cloths which are to be mercerized, but 
this is not so true as it previously 
was, for the yarns in woven cloth 
have been found to be satisfactory 
when made of American cotton. 

K all the fabrics which are sold to- 
day, and which contain mercerized 
yam or are piece mercerized, contain- 
ed Egyptian cotton, there would be a 
very much greater amount imported 
than there is at present. It used to be 
considered that the mercerizatlon 
process did not affect the short cot- 



long staple cotton, and price competi 
tion has made such a policy rather 
impossible at present, due to the ex 
tra price for cotton. Sometimes ben 
galine fabrics i^re printed with 

VARIOUS PATTERNS 

which make them very attractive, the 
colors and styles of figures varying 
with the season. Many of the good 
mercerized materials which are made 
from fine cotton yams approach very 
closely the effects which can be ob- 
tained from similar silk fabrics. Be^ 
cause of such facts, many of the silk 
bengalines are made to-day in change- 
able effec*^s. One cloth contains a 
warp of three colors, one thread of 
black, one thread of green and one 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



67 



thread of blue regularly throughout 
the whole warp. Because of the cloth 
construction, the black yarn weaves 
in such a manner that it appears only 
on the back of the fabric, while the 
green an<^ bit.--, threads alternating on 
the face create a changeable appear- 
ance. 

The filling consists of two picks of 
silk yarn and one pick of heavy cot- 
ton, which heavy pick produces the 
corded effect Both kinds of filling 
are dyed a red color, a fact which 
makes a red and black changeable ef- 
fect on the back of the cloth. Inas- 
much as the large amount of warp 
(two-thirds of the total amount) is on 
the face, it covers up the filling en- 
tirely. In addition to the color effect, 
many of these silk or part silk cloths 
are treated to an embossing process, 
which method presses a figure upon 
the fabric very similar in appearance 
to a jacquard woven effect. Because 
the cloths have such heavy cords, the 
results of embossing are much more 
prominent and last much longer than 
they do on many other kinds of fab- 
rics, in fact, a woven effect could not 
be used to produce the kinds of fig- 
ures which the embossing process 
does. 

These embossed fabrics are practi- 
cally never washed, so that the meth- 
od gives satisfactory results. Change- 
able effects are not always similar to 
that described, for they often have a 
bar effect rather than an all-over one. 
Without doubt, the increased demand 
for high priced and different materials 
has resulted in the production of many 
rather nc w effects or the variation of 
old ones in an attractive manner. It 
is not always necessary to have a 
fancy weave or complicated machin- 
ery in order to produce attractive 
cloth results, a fact which has recent- 
ly been recognized by some of the man- 
ufacturers who produce even the lowest 
quality of goods, but who, through 
ability and slight changes in their 
fabrics, have been able to obtain high- 
er prices with no great advance in 
their costs. One of the greatest les-. 
sons the American manufacturer is 
1 .arning to-day is the power of adapt- 
ability, and this will show results in 
more attractive materials in the fu- 



ture, if he is not forced into competi- 
tion too keenly by the present meth- 
ods of selling. 

LOSSES IN FINISHING. 
Possibly, one of the facts which 
has never been investigated at all 
regarding cloths is the loss and in 
some cases the gain which they have 
in the finishing processes. This does 
not mean the features which result 
from the addition of starch or vari- 
ous fillings, but the actual facts con- 
cerning the yarns and cloth construc- 
tion. It has generally been consider- 
ed that a dyed piece of cloth will 
weigh just about the same amount 
per yard as the grey cloth when it 
comes from the loom, but this is ab- 
solutely incorrect in the majority of 



<. 



The Weave. 

cases, even with the addition of siz- 
ing material, for, in most cases, accu- 
rate experiments will prove that the 
cloth is somewhat lighter. 

There has be'^n no great necessity 
for experiments being made along 
these lines, in fact, there are very few 



A C0TtOr4 FABRICS GLOSSiAlf 



opportunities for accurate investiga- 
tions of these conditions. The cloth 
we have analyzed has been treated 
very carefully, and the warp, which 
was approximately 60s-2 when used 
at the mill, in the finished cloth is 
66s-2, while the filling, which was ap- 
proximately 35S-1 in the grey, in the 
finished state is about 37s.5-l. In this 
case the warp yarn loses about the 
same amount as the filling, but other 
fabric constructions may show entire- 
ly different results. The fabric con- 
tained 54 picks per inch when it was 
in the grey state, but, due to the 
stretch in finishing, it contains only 
52 picks when sold. Not only does 
the yarn size change when the cloth 
is finished, but it is likely to be some- 
what different when various parties 
handle it. The stretch in finishing 
oftentimes has something to do with 
the lighter size of the warp, although 
this is not always the case. 

Results on fabrics which are made 
with dyed yarns are much easier to 
obtain, because the processes are usu- 
ally accomplished in a single plant, 
and the cloth can be followed careful- 
ly. In the analysis of fabrics which 
are woven of grey yarn and then fin- 



ished, a great deal of care must be 
exercised in determining the yarn 
sizes which are to be Uoed in weaving 
the cloth, and to base all estimates 
on the finished yarn in cloth is not a 
correct policy, and is one reason why 
the duplicating of cloth is not always 
the success which some buyers antici- 
pate. When the grey yarn sizes have 
been correctly estimated, and the 
threads and picks per inch in the 
grey cloth obtained, the cloth and 
yarn weights can be readily found 
and a fabric can easily be duplicated. 
In a bengaline cloth the warp take- 
up is usually greater than for a good 
many ordinary materials in which the 
same or similar yarn sizes are used. 
The method of obtaining the weights 
of the yarn and the weight of the grey 
cloth is as follows: 

2,920 ends -^ (60/2 X 840) = .1159. warp 

weight per yard without take-up. 
9% take-up in weaving. 
.1159 -s- .91 = .1274, total weight of warp 

yarn per yard of woven cloth. 
54 picks X 28%" width in reed X 36" 

= 1,552.5 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1.552.5 -H (35/1 X 840) = .0528, total 

weight of filling per yard of woven cloth. 
.1274 + .0528 = .1802. total weight per 

yard. 
1.000') -i- .1802 = 5.55 yards per lb. (grey). 



Cotton Bengaline. 

PATTERN. 
2 2 

60/2 Am. combed warp — 2,824 — = 2,920. total ends. 

24 24 

35/1 Am. combed filling; 54 picks. 

50 reed, 28%" width In reed. 28" grey width, 27" finished width. 
104 X 54 grey count; 107 X 52 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Cot- Labor, Twist- 
ton, waste, etc. ing. 

60/2 Am. combed warp; 1%" staple; 12 hank dou. rov., 23c. 19%c. 3V4c. = 46%c. 

35/1 Am. combed filling; 1%" staple; 8 hank dou. rov.. 15c. 9%c. = 24%c. 

COST. 

2,920 ends 60/2 Am. combed warp + 9% take-up = .1274 @ 46%c = $ .0591 

54 picks 35/1 Am. combed filling = .0528 @ 24%c = .0129 

Weaving .0079 

Expenses .0096 

} .0895 
Selling (grey) .0018 

I .0913 

Mill selling price (about) .1025 

Bleaching, finishing, dyeing, mercerizing ^ .0150 

Converter's expenses .• .0100 

Total cost to converter (about) $ .1275 

Price to jobber (about) .1400 

Price to retailer (about) .1750 

Price to consumer ., .2600 

Yards per pound 5.55 (grey). 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



<» 



MIXTURE MOIRE 

There is developing in the domes- 
tic market a very much larger de- 
mand for all kinds of pressed figures 
than has been noted for some years 
and of these lines moire is one of 
the leading styles. A good many of 
the pressed patterns now selling have 
been developed because of the demand 
for large woven figures, not only in 
silk but also in cotton and wool, and 
without doubt these large woven fig- 
ures cannot be satisfactorily pro- 
duced on a good many of the cloths 
now in demand, so that the pressing 
or embossing method offers opportu- 
nities in producing large effects not 
otherwise obtainable. 

It is claimed that the demand has 
recently been so good for certain of 
these lines that stocks have been 
practically cleaned up and that new 
merchandise is not readily obtainable 
especially in desirable weights. The 
various results are obtained almost 
entirely from different finishing proc- 
esses which are given th goods after 
they are woven, the prices varying 
according to the methods necessary, 
the quantity of cloth to be handled, 
and the demand for merchandise. 

A CERTAIN CLASS 

of pressed fabrics is continually 
sold in greater or less amounts and 
is used for different kinds of linings, 
book bindings, women's hats, portiers 
and similar purposes, although, of 
course, the large sale develops when 
such pressed materials can be used for 
dresses, trimmings and coatings. The 
p.ocess is applied to fabrics of differ- 
ent weights and constructions, but 
it is probable that the best and most 
permanent results are secured on 
what might be called the heavier 
lines.- 

Fabrics which are to be pressed 
are often made entirely from silk, 
although mixture materials are also 
sold extensively, as this allows the 
cloths to be produced at a lower price 
and the effects obtained are just 
about as satisfactory as if all silk 
had been used, while for certain uses 
fabrics made entirely from cotton are 



of advantage. Due to the character 
of most woolen yarns, there are very 
few attempts to press patterns upon 
cloth woven from this material. It is 
sometimes done, but the results are 
not often used for dress purposes, as 
the pressing makes the cloth, when 
composed of wool, rather impenetra- 
ble to air, which is of i^uportance in 
dress materials. 

CLOTH CONSTRUCTION. 

A good many of the fabrics which 
are now selling are woven with a silk 
warp and a cotton tilling, thus makinfe 
them very similar to many of the 
other mixture cloths sold in large, 
quantities and more or less regularly 
This sort of cloth could be made i> 
fancy cotton mills successfully, though 
it is probable that comparatively few 
of them are, due to the large numbei 
of threads per inch. In a general waj 
the cloth construction often is tht 
same as for many silk and cotton pop 
lins, with a large number of threads 
per inch of silk yarn and a compara 
tively small number of picks per inch 
of cotton yarn. 

The weave is plain in a good many 
cases, as this pro-ducas a firm cloth 
and allows a good foundation for 
the finishing effect, and does not break 
up the effect which is desired to be 
produced when the cloth is pressed. 
One feature is that the filling or cot- 
ton yarn is often a twisted one 
Through this method, the yarn size 
is likely to be more regular and fewer 
cotton fibres are likely to project, 
thus making a smoother fabric when 
woven. Not only does the ply yarn 
produce a fabric more similar to an 
entire silk one, but it is of advantage 
in obtaining the kind of effect desired, 
and a more lasting one than if single 
yarn had been used. The large num- 
ber of silk warp threads are likely 
to cover up to a large extent the cot- 
ton yarn filling, and because of the 
difference in the yarn sizes between 
warp and filling a corded cloth is pro- 
duced with the ribs running in the 
filling direction. 

The loom production Is quite 
large when compared with many 
other styles of rather ex- 
pensive cloth, mainly because 
there are so few picks per 



70 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



inch. It might be supposed that some 
of these mixture cloths would be pro- 
duced on automatic looms, but this 
is not true, inasmuch as the weavinj, 
cost is so small a portion of the total 
expense and inasmuch as care must 
be exercised in the weaving opera- 
tions. It is, however, true that some 
of the all-cotton fabrics are produced 
in this manner, for they are only ordi- 
nary plain cloths, and there is quite 
a little advantage obtained through 
the use of automatic machinery. 
Because the production is rather large 
per loom the cost of production is 
rather reasonable when tha weaving 
operation is considered. The shrink- 
age of the warp from reed width to 
woven cloth is rather small and the 
same is true when the fabric is finish- 
ed. The ply filling yarns, partly 
through the cloth construction used, 
appear in the cloth much the same as 
if they were small steel rods and all 
the interweaving is noted on the warp 
yarn. 

Naturally the number of picks 
which any fabric of the kind described 
can contain is limited by the yarn size 
or diameter. With the exception of 
the small space taken up by the fine 
silk warp as it crosses from the face 
to the back of the fabric, the whole 
space is taken up by the filling yarns 
which lie close together in horizon- 
tal lines. The number of picks must 
be nearly as many as the cloth will 
hold else the finished results will not 
be as good as they should be when 
the cloth is pressed. 

METHODS EMPLOYED. 

There are a number of methods 
employed by wnicn pressed figures 
are obtained on cloth. One method, 
and possibly the one used most ex- 
tensively and which is illus- 
trated well by the analyzed 
fabric, is to apply heavy pres- 
sure to the cloth with a smooth 
roll. The material is first folded 
lengthwise or elsatwo separate widths 
of cloth are used, one on top of the 
other, and while they are in a damp 
state heavy pressure is applied to- 
gether with heat. As will be readily 
noted, where the fabric has been fold- 
ed the pick of one half of the cloth 
or of another piece of cloth slips into 



the space between the picks of the 
opposing fabric, but, due to uneven- 
uesa 111 the material, this does not oc- 
cur throughout the entire cloth width. 
The great pressure used gives the 
smoothness which imparts the cloth 
lustre, for it makes the grooves be- 
tween the picks more regular, while 
the watered effect is produced at the 
points where the picks of one fabric 
slip over the picks of the opposing fab- 
ric and into another groove, thereby 
flattening out the pick over which 
it crosses when the pressure is ap- 
plied. 
A second method is somewhat 

SIMILAR TO THE ONE MENTIONED, 

for the cloth is rolled up and the 
pressure applied to it in a rolled up 
state. There is another method which 
is used extensively in certain lines 
when an engraved roller is used on 
which fine lines are cut, and while the 
cloth is being treated there is a lateral 
motion which causes a variation in 
the lines pressed into the cloth. Pos- 
sibly the method by which the widest 
variety of patterns is produced, but 
which is rather expensive, is where a 
separate roll is engraved for each 
pattern and on which the cloth con- 
struction may be entirely different 
from what it is in the cloth analyzed. 
This embossing process is practi- 
cally the same in results as the proc- 
ess which is used on paper in so 
many forms. It is however the case 
that many cloths have cotton filling 
yarn because this allows a lower cost 
of production and aids somewhat in 
obtaining gocd results whei> the cloth 
is finished. The engraved roller, when 
one is used, and a corresponding rol- 
ler, when one is not used, is heated by 
some method so that the damp cloth 
is dried and pressed at the same time, 
a fact which produces more pro- 
nounced effects and causes them to 
be of a more permanent nature. In 
other words, the pressed effect is iron- 
ed into the cloth, forcing the threads 
and picks into the patterns desired and 
making them desirable for many pur- 
poses. It must not be supposed that 
moir^ effects are the only ones which 
can be produced by a pressing proc- 
ess because there is a wide variety 
of styles possible. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



71 



Many kinds of cotton lining fabrics 
have milled surfaces, a method which 
increases their lustre and desirability 
and prevents them from getting soil- 
ed so quickly. Then there are cloths 
produced which contain pressed ef- 
fects, of slash lines, checks, mottled 
effects, cords and similar styles and 
in addition there are the many em- 
bossed cloths which are used for dec- 
orative purposes and which contain 
about as wide a range of styles as the 
woven brocade cloths which are sold 
in quite large quantities. In these ma- 
terials, ribs and other woven cloth 
effects are produced which have no 
direct relation to the picks per inch 
in the fabric, or the fabric weave, but 
which are so carefully done that they 
often deceive the most careful ob- 
servers and are not noted until the 
cloth is pulled to pieces in order to 
obtain the construction used. 

In a general way the cloths on 
which there is to be placed a pressed 
figure are woven from raw materials, 
that is, from grey cotton or from raw 
silk and not from dyed or bleached 
yarns. Naturally such cloths are 
woven just the same as an or- 
dinary material and when taken 
from the loom are bleached and 
dyed by the usual methods. Be- 
cause of the method of production 
the colors are most always solid ones 
and possibly the majority of colors 
used are dark, black and dark blues 
being used extensively, although there 
are instances where printed patterns 
and light shades are used. It is how- 
ever true that when the embossing or 
pressing is to take place the cloth 
contains somewhat more starch than 
is noted on many fabrics inasmuch 
as this tends to make the pattern or 
pressed effects of a more permanent 
iiuLUie. 

When a satin face silk and cotton 
material is to be treated to an emboss- 
ing process the cloth is given a 

BACK STARCHING PROCESS 

which allows the back of the cloth to 
be stiffened up in a satisfactory man- 
ner but keeps the face of the cloth 
free from starch and 3oes not detract 
from the face lustre. This is a desir- 
able policy inasmuch as the face is 
silk yam and any amount of starch 



would cause the finish to be less 
lustrous. Of course, the pressing proc- 
ess is practically the last one before 
the cloth is folded and shipped. 
Sometimes there is a decided loss in 
yardage in the finishing prooess 
because the embossing of the cloth 
creates ribs or undulations thereby 
taking up a certain amount of the fab- 
ric and increasing the cost per yard 
of the finished material. Care must 
be used by buyers when fabrics which 
shrink in finishing are being handled, 
especially when they are being made 
to sell at a certain price. A compara- 
tively small variation in the yardage 
received will seriously affect the prof- 
its which are obtained and in some 
instances is likely to cause losses. 

PRICES AND PROFITS. 

There is a very interesting situa- 
tion noted when the selling prices 
of silks or fabrics woven in silk mills 
are compared with some of the high- 
class fabrics which are now being pro- 
duced in cotton mills. Without doubt 
there are a majority of silk fabrics 
purchased by consumers at a smaller 
ratio of advance on the mill selling 
price than is noted on many styles 
of cotton fabrics. There are very 
many cotton cloths costing in a 
finished state not over 12 cents per 
yard which retail at approximately 
35 cents per yard and often styles are 
shown where the advance is much 
greater than this amount. 

There are very many silk cloths 
costing about 60 cents per yard 
to produce which are sold at retail 
for $1.25 per yard or less. Thus it 
will be seen that even though silks 
are more of a luxury than cottons 
they reach the consumer in very many 
instances at much more reasonable 
advances on the cost of production. 
This should never be noted in the 
distribution of merchandise because 
silks are made and sold in much 
smaller quantities than are cottons 
and not only this, but the retailer usu- 
ally adds a greater amount of profit 
to silk cloths than he does to cotton 
ones. Possibly the reason why many 
silk cloths show a smaller rate of in- 
crease Is because they go through a 
fewer number of hands, making small- 
er profits necessary. 



7S 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



One of the great needs in the sale 
of cotton goods is that they be sold in 
a more direct manner, especially the 
fabrics which are not considered as 
staples. The converting jobber has 
made a start in this direction and 
there will be a gradual increasing sale 
of such cloth in this method. At pres- 
ent the rate of profits of this party is 
sometimes rather large, but as more 
cloth is sold in this manner 

COMPETITION WILL INCREASE 
and profits be smaller, and, in addi- 
tion, there will De many economies 
effectea in selling goods in tnis 
manner. It can be said that 

there are many lines of fancy 



used, though the regular market price 
would not increase the total cloth cost 
to any gruat extent. Possibly this cloth 
would le sold at 67^ cents or less 
by a silk mill, and inasmuch as there 
is a very large demand at present the 
retailer is receiving a very large prof- 
it, probably as high as 100 per cent. 
In any case, including the retailer's 
high profit, the price to the consumer 
is only about three times the mill sell- 
ing price and ordinarily would be 
much less than this amount, a con- 
dition not often noted when a cotton 
fabric is selling as well as these silk 
and cotton moir6 materials. 

There are a number of features 




Sample of the Moire Fabric Analyzed. 



cotton goods which are made 
to-day which" could be produced in 
smaller quantities from bleached and 
dyed yarns and sold direct to retailers 
at prices which would allow a very 
satisfactory rate of profit. There 
should be a greater amount of cloth 
produced in this manner instead of 
as it is at present, with various small 
plants attempting to produce staples 
or near staples such as are woven in 
the larger mills. 

TaRe tae laoric for which the cost 
is given for an illustration. "We have 
given the actual cotton mill cost for 
30-3, but If tne ciotn were produced 
In a silk mill this yam could not be 
obtained at the price which we have 



which should be considered when a 
silk cloth or silk mixture cloth is being 
analyzed. One of the important facts 
is that raw silk contains a varying 
amount of gum which may or may 
not be removed when the cloth or 
yarn is finished. In addition, certain 
kinds of dyestuffs are often used 
which are likely to make tne yam 
or cloth weigh much more than when 
first used. Even if the cloth Is not 
weighted through the use of dye- 
stuffs the gum may not be entirely 
removcQ, t-o mat tne determining of 
the yarn size is sometimes diflJcult 
even to those familiar with the meth- 
od ana Is usually Impossible to those 
not familiar with conditions. In a 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



78 



good many cotton and silk mixed per inch a slight difference will makr 

cloths there is practically no weight- >iuite a little variation in the costs of 

ing applied when the cloth is finished production. 

and the silk yarn will be lighter than When cotton fabrics have been 

when first used, though various pressed they usually contain quite 

amounts of gum are removed in fin- large amounts of sizing material, 

ishing. and this should be removed before 

Comparatively few sizes of silk are any accurate estimate can be made 

used in large quantities in cotton mills, regarding the original yarn sizes. To 

and for this reason it is usually pos- obtain the weights of the yarns and 

sible to determine rather easily the the weight of the cloth the process 

sizes of silk used. Then a mill often is as follows: (The silk yardage used 

finds it advantageous to use certain is an assumed one, but it covers the 

yarn sizes and for this reason can contraction in twist and offers a cer- 

determine the approximate cost of a tain amount of protection to the cloth 

style of fabric as they will be likely manufacturer.) 

to produce it. Another fact which ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ (147.500 yds.) = .0633, warp 

needs careful attention is the take- weight without take-up. 

up on the warp yarn in the weaving oes^^''!!?"^ .o"729;'Voiaf- weight of warp 

process. Wlien a cotton warp yarn is in one yard of woven cioth. 

used, a small variation in the take-up 56 picks X36y4" reed width x 36 ^ ^^^^ 

used in figuring the cloth weights will 36" 

not affect the cost of the cloth greatly, ^.oTo''''-^ %o%''x^ s%') '=''.'1417. t°tai weight 

but where the warp is of silk and of suing in one yard of woven cloth. 

4, , X, a j.^ J .0729 + .2417 = .3146, total weight per yd. 

there are a large number of threads 1.0000^ .3146 = 3.17 yds. per ib. (grey). 

PATTERN. 
13/15 2 thread organzlne. 9.344, total ends. 
SO/3 Am. carded filling, 56 picks. 
64 reed, 36^4" width in reed, 36" finished width. 
259 X 56 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Labor, Twist- 
Cotton, waste, etc. Ing. 
30/3 Am. carded filling; IHa" staple, 6 hank dou. rov., 13%c. 6>^c. 3>4c. = 23Vic. 

13/15 2 thread organzlne on beams ready to use (per lb.) = $5.60 

COST. 

9,344 ends 13/15 2 thread organzlne -f 13% take-up = .0729 @ $5.60 = $ .4082 

56 picks 30/3 Am. carded filling = .2417 @ 23%c = .0562 

Weaving .0353 

Expenses .0283 

$ .5280 

Dyeing, finishing, etc. (about; .0500 

Selling price (about) .6750 

Retail selling price 2.0000 

Yards per pound 3.17 (grey). 



SLUB YARN NOVELTY 

The past few years there has been 
a great deal of discussion regarding 
the large increase in the number of 
special cotton fabrics made and 
whether or not it is well to go into 
this kind of business in any extensive 
manner. Years ago, or when the do 
mestic industry was comparatively 
small, the majority of mills were able 
to produce cloths, the best of which 
would be considered staples on to 
day's basis of quality. Gradually the 



tastes of consumers advanced, and 
<heir purchasing power became larger, 
so that mills were able to improve the 
quality of their fabrics and the prices 
at which they sold. Then, many new 
mills were built which were able to 
make fine yarns and fancy cloths, but 
the size of practically all of these 
mills was so large that for economic 
reasons what might be called staple 
fancy cloths had to be produced, at 
least they are so considered when 
compared with many of the novelties 
recently offered. 



74 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Of course, there Is a certain por- 
tion of higli-class novelties made in 
large domestic mills, but tliey are not 
the fabrics which we are considering, 
for these are sold in small quantities, 
and are usually produced by specialty 
manufacturers. The large production 
of cloths which would have been con- 
sidered extreme novelties only a short 
time ago have educated a certain num- 
ber of consumers into demanding ad- 
vances on previous novelties. The 
whole development has been one of 
progress, and there is no reason to 
believe that the recent interest is any- 
thing but logical and that it will con 
tinue to grow. 

At certain periods, progress seems 
to be greater than at other times, due 
to various improvements either in 
manufacturing m.ethods or else in the 
dyestuffs and methods of finishing, but 
it can be said that the results which 
are possible from combinations of dif- 
ferent materials, yarn sizes, colors, 
weaves and finishes are just begin- 
ning to be understood in anything like 
a scientific manner, and that the high- 
er range of prices makes it possible 
to use them in combination, whereas 
a short time ago their use was largely 
impracticable or not understood in 
most cases. About fifteen years ago 
some of the silk and cotton combina- 
tions often sold for from 75 cents to 
$1 a yard, while to-day they can be 
purchased at about 30 cents a yard in 
the same constructions and with a 
much better finish. These fabrics 
probably had much to do with educat- 
ing consumers into higher prices for 
cotton goods, because previously it 
was the custom to purchase woolen 
material when the price was much 
over 50 cents a yard. Now it is not 
at all unusual to see all-cotton cloths 
in the stocks of exclusive retailers 
on which the price is from $3 to $5 
a yard, and in some cases much 
higher. 

6'IELD FOR LARGE RETAILERS. 

Many of such cloths are without 
doubt out of the reach of the small 
retailer, because he finds it impos- 
sible to keep up to the latest fashions, 
and losses are likely even though the 
percentage of profit added is quite 



large. Consumers are not inclined to 
purchase high-priced novelties at a 
small establishment, so that even 
though they were carried the demand 
would probably be very small. Then 
the purchase of any quantity of high 
priced cloth ties up quite a little cap- 
ital, and curtails the amount of or- 
dinary stock which can be carried, 
this condition being liable to make an 
unsatisfactory merchandise situation. 

Large retailers can handle quite a 
few such novelties, and the possibili- 
ties of loss are much less, because thft 
purchase of one undesirable style af- 
fects the average profits but slightly, 
and, moreover, the probabilities of un- 
desirable styles being purchased is 
much less in the case of a large re- 
tailer, because of a greater familiarity 
with selling conditions and styles. 
Profits on such fabrics are large in 
some cases, but they were also 
large in the past upon some of the 
cloths which are considered staples 
to-day. On ordinary cloths, the price 
or value is partly determined by thb 
wearing qualities, but with many of 
these newer lines the fabric style has 
much more infiuence on price, in fact 
many of such materials have compar- 
atively little wearing value. This con- 
dition permits the making of special 
fabrics in a comparatively small quan- 
tity, and if desirable styles are creat- 
ed the price which can be obtained is 
practically always sufficient to allow 
a good profit. 

Such manufacturing cannot be suc- 
cessfully done by any excepting men 
of ability, who understand thoroughly 
the various features of cloth making 
and finishing, and who also can ad- 
just style to fabrics in an attractive 
and different manner. The problem 
does not call for the economical and 
systematic management necessary In 
large plants, mainly because changes 
are so frequent in styles and fabrics 
that each production is a problem in 
itself. The making of such novelties 
is necessarily a small business, be- 
cause exclusiveness is sacrificed when 
quantities are made, and perhaps this 
feature is demanded as much as any 
other in the purchase of such cloths. 
Possibly the greatest opportunity tOi 
day to build up a business and obtaiu 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



75 



an exceptional profit is in producing 
special fabrics in simall quantities. 
Thiese could be sold direct to the re- 
tailer, thereby maldng prices to the 
consumer more reasonable than at 
first would be considered possible. 

The cloth which we have illustrat- 
ed offers a good idea of the methods 
which are sometimes used in obtain- 
ing a certain result. This fabric was 
without doubt produced in a compara- 
tively small quantity, and sells at 
what would be considered a high 
price, namely $2 a yard, but when the 
selling price is compared with the 
cost of making the ratio of advance is 



or washed, produces the irregular 
ground effect which is so desirable at 
present. 

The warp yarn is not hard twisted, 
because a yarn is strongest when con- 
taining practically the ordinary warp 
twist, namely 4.50 to 4.75 times the 
square root of the yarn size in turns 
per inch, and, naturally, a strong warp 
yarn aids in the weaving operation. 
Fine single filling of a hard twist na- 
ture when dyed is also hard to han- 
dle, so this yarn was made of two-pl> 
instead of single, so as to aid in the 
cloth making. A very much heavier 
filling probably would not have been 






1% 



IT 









The Cottan Novelty Analyzed- 





^>iA^IlduI&L 



probably no greater, if it is as great, 
as some of the more ordinary fine and 
fancy materials, if the excessive ad 
vances by the retailers be ignored. In 
the first place, the yarns used are of 
quite a little interest, inasmuch as 
they represent three different types of 
material. 

The ordinary' warp is white, and 
the making of this yarn is no differ- 
ent than for ordinary work. The size 
of the yarn is 60s-l. The filling yarn is 
two-ply of a finer size, namely, 90s-2, 
and, in addition to this fact, the 
yarn is twisted iiarder than it is for 
ordinar>- work. This extra twist 
makes the yarn have a crepey char- 
axster. and when the cloth is finished 



so desirable, and this explains why 
the finer yarn was made two-ply, so 
that it would not differ very much 
from the size of the warp yarn used. 

The third yarn and the one of great- 
est interest is the novelty yarn which 
is identical for warp and filling. This 
is made of three single threads and 
the bunch of soft cotton which forms 
the heavy portion of the yarn. There 
are two twisting processes employed. 
The method of making is somewhat 
as follows, considering that the sin- 
gle yarns, which are 15s-], have al- 
ready been completed. 

A spinning frame or a similar ma- 
chine, which has more than one set 
of rolls, is used in twisting, and an 



76 



A COTTON FABRICS QLOSSART 



arrangement Is made whereby one set 
of rolls can be run intermittently. 
Two threads are placed in the front 
rolls, being separated, but not passing 
between the rolls which operate in- 
termittently. Between the rolls which 
operate irregularly is placed a soft 
roving yarn, and as these rolls move 
forward and stop short, pieces of rov- 
ing are fed out between the two 
threads which, when the twist is in- 
serted by the spindles in front of the 
rolls, twist together, and in twisting 
bind in the bunch of loose cotton. 

The loose cotton is not held very 
firmly, so the twisted yarn is then 
taken and again twisted, but in the 
opposite direction, this last twisting 
process binding the cotton so that it 
can be used satisfactorily. These 
yarns are used extensively in various 
kinds of napped goods where the 
bunches are of dyed cotton, thus pro- 
ducing quite attractive patterns. With- 
out doubt, the yarn used in this cloth 
was made on an ordinary spinning 
frame, which was readjusted because 
the spacings of the bunches are al- 
most exactly the distances which 
would be noted from the circum- 
ference of the ordinary spinning 
frame rolls. 

Prices for special yarns have been 
exceptionally high for some time^ in- 
asmuch as few are accustomed to 
making them or have machinery ca- 
pable of it, and the demand has been 
quite large. The total yarn size when 
completed is practically 2-5, the 
three ends of 15s-l producing a yarn 
equal to 5-1, and the loose cotton, 
which is fed in at the first twisting 
process, sui plies the additional weight 
to make the above named size. 

Not only are special yarns used in 
producing this fabric but it is also 
true that a good deal of ingenuity 
has been used in developing the 
weave and construction. In the first 
place, the crepe effect is produced by 
the hard twist filling, as previously 
noted. This crepe effect is not so 
great as if a larger number of turns 
per inch were inserted in the yarn, 
neither is it so great as would be 
noted if the heavy novelty yarn did 
not tend to hold out the fabric rather 
than to allow it to shrink in the 



width. The dyed yarn has been used 
so as to make the cotton bunches in 
the novelty yarn show up more promi 
nently. A hard twist white filling 
would have made the result less de- 
sirable in most cases, for it would not 
have made the effect produced by the 
novelty yarn so prominent. The 
weave is perhaps of as great interest 
as the yarns which have been used. 

It will be noted that the novelty 
yarn appears largely on the face of 
the cloth. This is of advantage for a 
number of reasons. First, it shows 
up the effect better, second, it does 
not bind down the novelty yarn, par- 
tially destroying the effect, and, third, 
it makes the weaving more practical, 
for there is less rubbing in the weav- 
ing process. We are illustrating the 
weave which has been used. The 
marks at the top and side designate 
the threads of novelty yarn, and we 
are giving a little m.ore than one re 
peat of the design, so that the opera- 
tion of the threads can be clearly 
understood. 

To make the effect it will be neces- 
sary to use eight harnesses, though 
possibly a greater number would be 
used because of practical reasons. 
Note that the novelty warp threads are 
lifted a large portion of the time, while 
the novelty filling is on the surface of 
the cloth in a like manner. To hold 
these novelty yarns in their correct 
places the fine warp is raised next to 
the novelty thread when it is lowered, 
and the relatively same method is 
adopted in regard to the filling. Note 
that all the novelty yarn weaves exact- 
ly the same, except that on succeed- 
ing threads or picks the weave is 
eight picks or threads farther advan- 
ced. One of the most troublesome 
features in the use of novelty yarns is 
the fact that what are called patterns 
are produced. They are present in the 
cloth considered, although the cloth 
construction is very advantageous for 
their partial elimination. The separa- 
tion of the novelty picks and threads 
by a ground cloth is likely to break 
up the undersirable effects to a cer- 
tain extent. 

Because of the cloth construction 
a box loom is usually necessary for the 
weaving, but in this cloth a pick and 



A OOTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



77 



pick box loom must be used or one 
which can insert a single pick of a 
yarn size or color. When such a loom 
Is being used, it is a very good plan to 
use two shuttles containing novelty 
yarn, inserting first one pick from one 
shuttle and then a second pick from 
another shuttle, for this breaks up the 
regularity of the nubs or bunches. 
A little care in planning the 
cloth width so that it does not 
correspond to the repeat of the bun- 
ches will help in obviating the trouble. 

COST OF MAKING. 
We have given an approximate cost 
of producing such a fabric as that con- 



i^i==E===iE=!!^| 



I ■ ■■■ 

■ ■ I 
I ■ ■ i 

■ ■ E 




The Weave. 

sidered, and it would probably be im- 
possible for the concerns which manu- 
facture this kind of cloth to produce 
at anywhere near the price which is 
given. In the first place we have con- 
sidered that the mill making the cloth 
also produced the yarn used, a con- 
dition which is entirely unlikely. If 
yarns were purchased it is very likel> 
that the special ones might cost nearly 
twice as much as the figures we have 
given, for there would be the extra 
profits resulting from the large de- 
mand, and, in addition, the various 
shipping and other expenses which 
are noted on yarns purchased, 
but that are not noted when 
the yarns are produced in the plant 
weaving the cloth. 



The figures given are for a reason- 
able production, but the cost might 
be increased somewhat, due to very 
small orders. Then the expenses of 
experimental work can never be es- 
timated very accurately for any one 
cloth, and much of this work might 
be necessary before the correct re- 
sults were obtained. With a concern 
purchasing its yarn it is very likely 
that the cost per yard would be some- 
where about 45 to 50 cents. Profits 
must be considerably higher per 
loom on such work than on ordinary 
fabrics, because the risk is greater, 
and because the small number of 
looms operated makes it necessary if 
a reasonable return is to be obtained. 
The demand for any style has much 
to do with the profit which 
is possible, and the variation 
will be wider than on ordi- 
nary cloths, because competition is 
not so keen. Possibly, a profit of ten 
cents a yard would not be exceptional 
for a cloth such as that considered. 

AN IMPORTED FABRIC. 

As this fabric is an imported one 
there are duties to be added to the 
foreign selling price, and this explains 
partly the high price. Assuming that 
the cloth was sold at 55 cents a yard, 
the retail price is not exceptionally 
high, as it is only about four times 
the mill selling price, and the higher 
cost over ordinary cloths is due to the 
retailer's added ratio of profit. There 
is a large opportunity for the develop- 
ment of special styles in the domes- 
tic market, inasmuch as prices to-day 
are quite high and are likely to con- 
tinue so. There is no great reason 
to believe that the domestic buyers 
will purchase foreign goods if the 
domestic product is just as desirable 
and contains up-to-date and exclusive 
styles. Whether the retailer sells 
such novelty cloths as imported or 
not is of comparatively little impor- 
tance to the manufacturer, because it 
he can obtain the bulk of such busi- 
ness the imported idea will be grad- 
ually eliminated, in fact it is fast be- 
ing outgrown to-day. 

Possibly, one of the greatest prob- 
lems in making yarns of a novelty 
character is in obtaining the correct 



78 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



cost of production. The various ele- After the correct yarn sizes are ob- 
ments of cost should he considered tained, the weight of the cloth is no 
carefully, such as the take-ups on the more difficult to obtain than for or- 
various yarns in the twisting process dinary materials, although the width 
and their cost, and the losses which ^f the cloth in the reed must be care- 
may be noted, and. in addition, care ^ jj ascertained, because there is 

must be used in such yarns as that .; , ,'. , . ., . ..-^^^ 

produced to see that correct per- ^.^^^e a large shr nkage in this direc- 

centages of the yarn size produced are ^lon. Probably there are very few 

obtained. The cost of experimenta- fabrics selling to-day which illustrate 

tion should also be considered careful- any better some of the extreme ideas 

ly, for this one feature sometimes will which are being successfully adapted 

make a very much higher cost than to high-class production on the cloth 

would otherwise be thought possible. we have presented. 

PATTERN WARP 
3 3 

60/1 Am. combed bleached — 4 3 — = 1,98.^) 

24 24 

2^ novelty 1 = 263 

263 X 2,248 total ends. 

PATTERN FILLING. 
90/2 Am. combed dyed 7 
2 V4 novelty 1 

48 picks per inch. 

YARN COST. 

60/1 bleached 52c. per lb. 

90/2 dyed, extra twist 91c. per lb. 

214 novelty (3 ends 15/1 and roving; 2 twisting operations) 24c. per lb. 

CLOTH COST. 

1,985 ends 60/1 bleached + 8% take-up = .0427 (5) 52c = $ .0223 

263 ends 2V4 novelty -f 2% take-up = .1419 ® 24c = .0340 

42 picks 90/2 dyed = .0600 @ 91c = .0546 

6 picks 214 novelty = .1714 (g) 24c = .0412 

Weaving .0705 

Expenses .0214 

$ .2439 
Finishing, etc .0250 

Mill cost under most favorable circumstances $ .2689 

Yards per pound, 2.4 finished. 



MERCERIZED CORD 

A new fabric which is now being 
offered for the first time in the finish- 
ed state by retailers is the mercerized 
corded fabric, of which we are giving 
an analysis, and of which an illustra- 
tion is presented. For a number of 
years, corded fabrics have been quite 
large sellers, and the lines have in- 
cluded Russian cords and Bedford 
cords in various combinations and 
colors, and on both light and heavy 
ground fabrics. The yarns used in 
making these cloths have been of 
widely varying sizes and qualities, al- 
though, as a general thing, the yarns 
used in Bedford cords have been of 
rather fine sizes, and the cloth count 
has been comparatively high, at least 



when compared with most lines of cot- 
ton goods. Russian cords being an 
addition to a fabric, rather than a 
component part of it, have been ap- 
plied to all kinds of materials, al- 
though because of the additional cost, 
the idea has been used more exten- 
sively on high quality merchandise 
which sells at a rather high price. 
The extensive sale of these two lines 
has made consumers familiar with 
such styles, but competition has be- 
come more keen thar. it was, and for 
this reason, the profit obtainable on 
the above two fabrics is smaller than 
it was. 

As usually happens with fancy 
cloths or new styles, a change has to 
be made through the use of addition- 
al cloth features, or by lower prices 
so as to make the cloth desirable for 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



79 



a longer time, although, naturally, oth- 
er fabrics will be developed, and take 
the place of some former styles. Voiles 
were sold in large quantities in the 
plain state when they were first de- 
veloped, and gradually novelty fea- 
tures had to be added, such as crowd- 
ed stripes, checks and silk stripes 
with jacquard figures, in order to keep 
up the distribution. The same thing 
has happened on poplins, and is now 
taking place on fabrlcj composed of 
novelty yarns, and the same condition 
will be noted on fancy fabrics which 
are in demand in the future. Of course, 
all kinds of voiles are still being sold, 
and so are poplins and other cloths 
which formerly sold well, but this is 
mainly because they are desirable to 
many consumers, although the above 
statements apply generally to the 
whole development in the sale of fancy 
fabrics. 

The corded fabric now being offered 
has been made so as to take the place 
of certain of the Russian and Bedford 
cords, inasmuch as the demand for 
these has been declining. The reason 
why it can be sold is partly because 
it can be made at a comparatively 
low price, and partly because the cloth 
contains some new ideas. In a gen- 
eral way, corded fabrics are used for 
all the purposes for which medium- 
weight cotton cloth is desirable, al- 
though, possibly, waistings, shirtings 
and dress materials form the largest 
portions of the sale. The cloth we have 
analyzed is rather stiff for some uses, 
mainly because there are so many 
cords in the material, but other pat- 
terns contain fewer cords, and would 
be possibly considered more desirable 
for ordinary use by many consumers. 

Inasmuch as the cloth is mercerized 
in the finishing process, the planning 
of the construction involves much the 
same principles as noted when mak- 
ing an ordinary mercerized fabric, 
that is, a soft twist filling yarn, and 
a greater number of picks than threads 
so ixs to produce a more lustrous ef- 
fect when mercerized. This method of 
making cloth is usually designated as 
a soisette construction. When the 
warp is to be treated, the same con- 
•litions apply, only it is impossible to 
weave a soft twist single warp yarn, 
and to obtain satisfactory results, the 



warp is made of fine yarn, and the 
single yarns twisted into a, two-ply 
form with a comparatively few turns 
per inch. One of the constructions 
which is largely used when the filling 
is to be mercerized is a count of 64 x 
72, and with 50-1 warp, and 30-1 soft 
twist filling, while when the warp is 
to be mercerized the most common con- 
struction used is 100 x 48, with 60-2 
soft twist warp and 25-1 filling. The 
yarns will vary slightly in different 
mills, but the general results are very 
similar. The ground construction 
which has been used in the cloth ana- 
lyzed is 74 X 96, with 50-1 warp and 
30-1 filling. Many fine mercerized fabr 
rics have a count of 72 x 104, with 
70-1 or 80-1 warp and 40-1 
soft twist filling. Thus, it will 
be noted that the well-known 
idea of fabric construction has 
been followed, but that a slightly low- 
er filling count has been used, togeth- 
er with yarns about the same as in 
the lower count mercerized fabric pre- 
viously mentioned. 

THE COARSER SIZES. 

The coarser sizes of yarns used 
more than offset the slightly lower fill- 
ing count, so that a rather firm fabric 
results, and the construction would 
not be used were the fabric to be 
made entirely of plan weave. The rea- 
son why these coarse yarns have been 
used is to make a satisfactory fabric 
when the large number of cords have 
been introduced. These are so large 
that with the ordinary fine yarn con- 
structions they would undoubtedly 
slip in the material, and produce an 
undesirable result. Another feature 
which is worthy of note is in regard 
to the weave, which has been applied 
to the cords. On most fabrics, when an 
ordinary cord is used, the cord will 
weave just the same as the threads in 
a plain cloth, namely, be raised for 
one pick, and depressed for the follow- 
ing one, while in this cloth, the cord 
is raised for one pick, and depressed 
for the following two picks. This 
causes the filling to float over the 
cords two-thirds of the time, and par- 
tially covers them up, acting in a sim- 
ilar manner to the crossing thread in 
a leno weave in a fabric containing 
the Russian cord. The method of 



80 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



weaving makes a rather soft cord, 
which will not wear out the picks of 
filling so rapidly when it is washed 
and ironed, as if it had been bound in 
more firmly, but the cord does not 
stand out so sharply as when produced 
by the leno weave. 

This fabric in a large majority of 
instances should be classed among 
fancy materials, and as a fancy mill 
product. There are various reasons 
why this should be so, and probably 
the first is that the yarns all vary so 
much in size and character. Few cloth 
mills, excepting those making fancy 
materials, produce any soft twist fill- 
ing. Second, some of the yarns are 



probable that changes to a more fancy 
cloth would soon take place, eliminat- 
ing the demand and causing a mill to 
be short of orders. This is one great 
reason why staple cloth make.s are so 
seldom desirous of changing from their 
regular fabrics even if the possibilities 
of profit appear somewhat greater when 
the demand is at its best. There are 
in addition the mechanical and labor 
troubles which often deter certain 
manufacturers from making lines of 
fabrics which are different from those 
which they regularly produce. Such 
troubles include such items as in- 
correct gears for frames and unbalanc- 
ed mill organization with too few or 




Mercerized Cord. 



■made of combed stock. There are mills 
which make combed yarn fabrics with 
what might be called plain weaves, but 
most of them use no ply yarn at all 
in any of their constructions and in 
few instances do they produce very 
heavy cloths. Third, because of the 
weave which has been used. This is a 
comparatively simple one, but it would 
not be liable to be woven on a cam 
loom or on other looms making simple 
effects, but rather in a fancy cloth 
mill where dobby looms are available. 
Fourth, such a construction would not 
be desirable for some mills, mainly be- 
cause the demand for the cloth would 
not last. Even if a mill might be able 
to produce such a fabric, it is entirely 



too many frames of certain kinds, 
reeds which are not suitable for the 
cloth count which is to be made or if 
new ones are purchased they are likely 
to spoil through subsequent standing 
without being used. Other features al- 
so might be added to those enumer 
ated. Regarding the labor diflicul- 
ties it can be said that sometimes 
there are too few or too many employ- 
es, if changes in product are to be 
made, and what is more of importance 
it usually happens that a change 
means that more complicated con- 
structions or weaves are to be used, 
and inasmuch as the help is unused to 
changes, time will be lost and percent- 
ages of production decline over nor- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



SI 



mal, and in addition the number of 
seconds are likely to increase, thus 
making the actual profits less than 
appearances would indicate if a cloth 
were to be continually woven. These 
fabrics are practically never produced 
on automatic looms, because very few 
fancy mills contain any such equip- 
ment and also because the quality of 
the cloth has to be somewhat better 
than is produced by such methods. 

It is very probable that the heavy 
cord is placed on more than a single 
harness because of the weight of yarn 
which has to be lifted, although so far 
as the weave is concerned a single 
harness would be sufficient. When the 
warp is drawn in and reeded it is 
necessary to place the cord in two sep- 
arate heddles and dents so as to make 
them weave satisfactorily, and this is 
also another reason why the cord 
would be placed on two harnesses 
which weave the same. 

Whenever a new idea is developed, 
either in connection with a fabric's 
construction, finish or both, it is very 
likely that a good profit is obtained 
therefor. Usually there will be a 
greater or less amount of competition 
afterward and these first high profits 
will be reduced so that it might be 
said that on some few fabrics man- 
ufacturers dictate the selling prices. 
Most grey fabrics have a good deal of 
competition regarding prices, and this 
keeps excessive profits at compara- 
tively low levels. For all fabrics ex- 
cepting those which are especially new, 
a manufacturer should have a com- 
paratively accurate idea regarding the 
profits which each cloth should carry. 
These profits should be determined 
somewhat by the investment in the 
mill organization, although, of course, 
manufacturing ability has much to do 
with the success of one mill and the 
failure of another, and a good deal 
depends upon the demand. A good 
many manufacturers have a general 
idea regarding the total profits they 
believe they should obtain, but often 
they are not especially particular in 
the methods they adopt in setting 
prices so that their various prices will 
all bear the same proportion of the 
total profit. 

Some figure out in a comparatively 
accurate manner the net cost of their 



goods, adding to this cost an arbitrary 
amount as the profit. This arbitrary 
amount is obtained by dividing 
the total estimated profit by the 
total yardage produced. For a 
mill which makes only one kind 
of cloth, such a method is en- 
tirely satisfactory, but for a mill 
which produces quite a number of 
constructions this method is incorrect, 
and the various cloths are likely to be 
quoted at wrong prices. This allows 
other sellers to obtain business which 
the mill producing the cloth should 
have obtained and makes a low price 
with small profits or forces the market 
on other fabrics. 

Of course, it might be said that com- 
petitors regulate a mill's prices and 
this is true on certain lines to an ex- 
tent, which is greater on grey goods 
than it Is on dyed yarn fabrics, but 
nevertheless many goods are sold on 
prices which are entirely designated 
by the sellers. The profits should be 
based on the relative production 
of the producing unit, viz., the looms. 
If one cloth averages to produce at 
the rat© of 100 yards per week, while 
another produces at the rate of 200 
yards per week. It is incorrect to ex- 
pect that each cloth must return the 
same profit per yard to the manufac- 
turer. We have used the weekly basis 
of production. Inasmuch as most mill 
reports are submitted in such form. 
The production of any cloth is based 
on the speed of the loom, the picks 
per Inch In the cloth, and the actual 
percentage which Is obtained when 
compared with the theoretical one. 
Such results are available only 
after careful Investigation, and 
the keeping of accurate records. 
A loom might actually pro- 
duce when the warp is in the frame 
at the rate of 85 per cent, but due to 
changing or waiting for warps or oth- 
er features, the production rate might 
fall to 80 per cent, or less, over the 
space of a year's time. To base the 
production and profits on a high rate 
would be to receive a smaller profit 
than expected and to name a price 
too low on the cloth. For example, 
suppose a mill cost $1,000,000. 
and contains 1,200 looms. It Is 
desired to obtain a rate of 12 per cent 
net profit. This is $120,000 per year, 



S2 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



or approximately $2,300 per week. 
When this amount is placed on a loom 
or production basis, the net profit 
which must be obtained per loom per 
week is approximately $1.92. A cer- 
tain style of cloth is being made, 
and by careful records, it is 
found that the cloth will be pro- 
duced at the rate of 132 yards 
per week average. With the two 
items we have obtained, namely, $1.92 
profit per loom per week, and 132 
yards average production per week, 
the amount each yard of cloth should 
carry as profit is easily ascertained. 
$1.92 divided by 132 yards equals 1.45 
cents per yard profit. The same meth- 
od can be adopted with the various 
styles which are running, and if a 
new cloth is to be made on which a 
price has to be named, careful com- 
parison should be mar.e with previous 
styles, so that no radically incorrect 
estimates are made regarding the 
amount of cloth which will be pro- 
duced. If the above method was used 
in connection with a correct cloth cost, 
it is certain that it would eliminate 
some of the fabrics which are now 
sold at unreasonably high or low quo- 
tations in not alone cotton cloths, but 
also in other materials, and give a 
better idea to manufacturers as to 
what their profit was likely to be. 

This fabric has been made with a 
certain purpose in view, that is, of 
being mercerized before it has to be 
sold. Some cloths are mercerized af- 
.ter they are bleached, but in the ma- 
jority of cases, it is probable that 
they are mercerized before the bleach- 
ing takes place. The fabric is also 
piece dyed in various colors, these de- 
pending upon the tastes of the buyers 
and the styles of the season. A few 
of the features which aid in the mer- 
cerization process may be of interest. 

A comparatively few years ago, it 
was considered that mercerization did 
not affect the short cotton fibres as 
much as it did the longer ones. This 
was due more to mechanical difficul- 
ties than to actual theory. The lustre 
on cotton fibres when mercerized is 
obtained because the fibres become 
more or less like small glass rods and 
reflect the light, and inasmuch as long 
cotton fibres when used in yarn per- 
mitted a lower standard of twist with 



straighter fibres, it appeared as if the 
longer fibres gave better results than 
the shorter ones. When soft twist fill- 
ing is being used, it is customary to 
comb the cotton so as to produce a 
better yarn, and this allows a lower 
standard of twist, with less twisting of 
the fibres and a more lustrous result 
when the fabric is mercerized. 

THE PROCESS IMPROVED. 
The process has been improved a 
great deal through extensive use, and 
although combed yarn produced from 
long staple cotton still shows the best 
results, the process is being applied 
very extensively to many fabrics made 
of carded yarns. Reduction in prices 
has made this 'possible, inasmuch as 
it permits the obtaining of a higher 
price for the cloth. The price of mer- 
cerizing and dyeing a fabric such as 
that considered will vary somewhat 
with different concerns, but for ordi- 
nary fabrics, the price is about one 
and one-half cents per yard. The cloth 
is much heavier than the ground con- 
struction and the yarns used would 
indicate, because the cords add quite a 
little weight to the cloth. There is 
quite a little take-up on the fine warp 
yarn, due to the large number of picks 
of filling, but on the cords there is com- 
paratively little take-up, the amount 
given being partly the loss which is 
due to the various processes. The 
heavy cords affect the stretch of the 
cloth to a certain extent, and there 
will not be such a large gain in fin- 
ishing as would be noted were the 
cloth made entirely plain and with 
no cords. The method of finding the 
various weights of the yarns used, and 
the total weight of the cloth is as fol- 
lows: 

1,452 ends h- (50/1 X 480) = .0346, weight 

of fine warp without take-up. 
11% take-up In weaving. 
.0346 -f- .89 = .0389, total weight of fine 

warp per yard of woven cloth. 
846 ends -^ (20/2 X 840) = .1007, weight of 

ply warp without take-up. 
2% take-up in weaving. 
.1007 -V- .98 = .1028, total weight of ply 

warp per vard of woven cloth. 
36 picks X 29%" reed width X 36" 

= 2,816 

36" 

yds. of filling per yard of cloth. 
2,816 -H- (30/1 X 840) = .1117, total weight 

of filling per yard of cloth." 
.0389 -f .1028 -I- .1117 = .2534, total weight 

per yard. 
1.0000 -r- .2534 = 3.95 yards per pound 

(grey). 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY S3 



MERCERIZED COKD. 
PATTERN. 
2 2 

50/1 Am. combed warp — 6 4 2 — = 1,452 

10 10 

:;0/2 Am. carded warp 6 = 846 

141 X 2,298 total ends. 

30/1 Am. combed filling, soft twist, 96 picks. 

34 reed; 2y%" reed width; 27" grey width, 26% "-27" finished width. 
74 X 96 ground count grey; 85 X 94 over all count finished. 

YARNS. 

Labor, 

waste, Twist- 
Cotton, etc. ing. 
50/1 Am. combed warp, 1 5-16" staple; 10 hank dou. rov., 21c. 16 %c. = 37Vi2c. 
20/2 Am. carded warp, IVlo" staple; 4 hanlc dou. rov., 13 ^^c. 4V2C. %,c. = Is^i. 
30/1 Am. combed filling, 1%" staple; 7 hank dou. rov., 15c. SV^c. = 23 Wi- 

COST. 

1,452 ends 50/1 Am. combed warp + 11% take-up = .0389 ® 37%c = $ .OHil 

846 ends 20/2 Am. carded warp + 2% take-up = .1028 @ 18%c = .0193 

90 picks 30/1 Am. combed filling, solt twist = .1117 4* 23 Vic = .0263 

Weaving .014 1 

Expenses .0161 

$ .0904 
Selling .001 N 



Net mill cost (grey) $ .0922 

Selling price to converter or mill selling price (grey) .lOou 

Bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, etc .OlSU 

Cost to converter (not including expenses) .120U 

Cost to jobber .137b 

Cost to retailer .1750 

Cost to consumer .2500 



Yards per pound 3.95 (grey). 



NEW SILK ANDGOTTON FABRICS 



mills have produced comparatively 
few such goods, and their finish is 
not so desirable as that of the domes- 
Possibly no class of fabrics pro- tic cloth, 
duced in cotton mills has been of There is no reason why many do- 
more interest to buyers than the silk mestic mills cotSd not have produced 
and cotton materials which have re- such goods quite a long time ago, be- 
cently been selling, and on which cause the machinery necessary was 
mills have orders for as long future available, although not so extensive as 
dating as any other kind of fancy to-day, and is no different than thai 
fabric. That there has been a phe- used in making ordinary fancy cotton 
nomenal growth in the sales of such cloths, but due to inexperience in 
cloth is generally well known in the handling silk yarn and other reasons, 
trade, but few consider how compara- their production was attempted by 
tively recent the growth has been, only a few mills. Probably the big- 
and why such results have occurred. gest reason why few of such cloths 
It might be well to state that the for- were produced was because the de- 
sign development has not been near- mand had not been developed to any 
ly so rapid, when such lines are con- great extent. Until consumers become 
sidered, as has the domestic, and used to any fabric, it is very likely 
therefore quite a good many silk and that the sale will be comparatively 
cotton fabrics are exported to-day, small. At first the quantities made 
although the reason for exportation is were small, and the profits of practical- 
probably not because of lower costs ly all sellers were large, but through 
of production, although this has an in- inexperience in finishing the re- 
fluence on the sale, but rath- suits were in no way comparable t.i 
er due to the fact that foreigP that of the fabric sold at present. 



84 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Many of the cloths now selling at 25 
cents to 29 cents per yard were for- 
merly sold at from 75 cents to $1 per 
yard, and the finish, or color, was not 
nearly so desirable as it is to-day, 
these facts indicating the progress 
which has taken place, and showing 
that consumers are obtaining much 
more value than they formerly did. 

Inasmuch as these silk and cotton 
materials offer possibilities in finish- 
ing and weave effects not noted on 
entire cotton cloths, it would natural- 
ly be expected that they would be- 
come a staple article by the present 
time. Up to about three years ago the 
development of the demand indicated 
that they were fast becoming staples, 
for they were sold at reasonable 
prices, and filled a need which neither 
all silk nor all cotton could. Then a 
greater number of converters became 
acquainted with the fabric construc- 
tion, and in order to beat their com- 
petitors, they began to order from the 
manufacturers' fabrics on which the 
construction was not so high as it 
formerly was. If a buyer desired a 
low construction It was of little im- 
portance to the manufacturer, so long 
as a legitimate profit was secured in 
the cloth making, and gradually the 
constructions which had been found 
satisfactory were cut until little real 
worth was left in the materials. This 
could easily be done, because the cloth 
effect is not changed very much 
through the use of a smaller number 
of picks, the difference being noted 
in the fabric wear. 

We are acquainted with instances 
where the buyer purchased three 
widely varying constructions in a silk 
and cotton cloth with the same num- 
ber of warp threads per inch, but 
with a different number of picks of 
silk filling per inch. Upon these dif- 
ferent fabric constructions was placed 
the same designs, as near as was pos- 
sible, and through such methods buy- 
ers were deceived in the quality of the 
goods which they received. It Is en- 
tirely probable that the cloth prices 
for the various styles differed some- 
what, but undoubtedly the parties 
who purchased the cloths delivered 
last received far less value than those 
who bought the ones first offered. The 



highest count cloth was delivered first, 
and gradually the cheaper cloths were 
substituted until conditions became 
such that there was general 
dissatisfaction, with a resulting 
radical falling off in the de- 
mand. Naturally, the well-made 
fabrics of certain houses suf- 
fered in the decline along with the 
poor materials, and much of the cloth 
was sold at retail at prices which 
must have represented large losses to 
some of the sellers. 

Such combinations of material 
were, however, of too much value to 
consumers to be long neglected, and 
a comparatively new start was made 
which has now become of large vol- 
ume, but it is well to note that the 
sale has been made on satisfactory 
combinations, and that most of the 
newer lines are decidedly well made. 
Of course, the greater weight of silk 
used results in a greater cost, but it 
gives much better wear and a more 
desirable appearance. These cloths 
are used largely for dresses, but the 
other uses are such that the deman<l 
is quite large and an extensive pro 
duction Is possible at the mill. 

One fact which is of importance, 
and which is going to affect other 
lines, is that many of the new ma 
terials are being produced with a 
width of 36 inches. This method al- 
lows the cloth to be produced at about 
the same mill cost as would be noted 
for a narrower fabric, with the excep- 
tion of the additional material neces- 
sary in making the wider width. Most 
of the looms which are capable of pro- 
ducing such goods can weave cloth at 
least 36 inches wide, and the produc- 
tion of any narrower material is a 
mill waste which should not be per- 
mitted. The reason why the narrow- 
er fabrics were produced was partly 
because the demand in the past had 
been for narrow fabrics and partly be- 
cause it allowed various sellers to ob- 
tain the cloth to sell within certain 
set price limits. 

In a general way there are two 
kinds of silk used in making the class 
of fabrics we are considering, namely. 
Canton and Tussah. The silk sizes 
win vary somewhat, depending upon 
the fabric which is to be produced, 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



t6 



but by far the largest quantities are of 
32-38 two-thread Tussah and of 14-16 
two-thread Canton. Most of the silks 
used are two-thread, although 22-26 
Canton is used in place of the 14-16 
two-thread, as it is somewhat finer 
and allows a slightly lower cost of 
production, although the resulting 
cloth is not quite so desirable as when 
the heavier two-thread silk is used. 

Recently, there has been quite a lit- 
tle three-thread silk used both in Can- 
ton and also in Tussah, but the gen- 
eral tendency has been to increase 
the number of picks in the cloth rath- 
er than to change the size of the silk 
used. Few of these silk and cotton 



warp is used In the majority of In 
stances, although quite large quanti- 
ties of cloth have been produced with 
a somewhat finer size of warp. When 
the 60s-l warp is used, the cloth con- 
struction is often about 96 x 100. It 
will be noted that the cloth analyzed 
contains 40s-l warp with a somewhat 
sn-aller number of picks, but that the 
use of the three-thread material more 
than offsets the small number of 
picks, thus making a much better con- 
struction, St) far as service is concern- 
ed. In obtaining our cloth weight we 
have used a yardage of 90,000 for the 
silk, although this is not the correct 
theoretical yardage. This has been 




Fancy Silk and Cotton Fabric. 



cloths contain warp coarser than 40s- 
1, and usually, although not always, 
the cotton yarn is produced from 
combed stock. Inasmuch as the Tus- 
sah silk is rather coarse in size, it is 
used with the coarse cotton yarns, 
probably most of such fabrics contain- 
ing 40s-l or thereabouts, while the 
cloth construction is often about 72 x 
68. Oftentimes this construction has 
to be changed because of a fancy 
ground weave in the cloth, and unless 
more threads or picks be used, the 
firmness in the fabric will not be suf- 
ficient to allow satisfactory wear. 

For the fabrics in which Canton 
sil^ is used it is probable that a 60s-l 



done so as to allow a certain amount 
of protection to the manufacturer, in- 
asmuch as the silk size is likely to 
vary. Tests should be made when silk 
or any other yarn is being purchased, 
in order to determine accurately the 
sizes, so that there will be no mistake 
when the cloth cost is figured. This is 
especially true when the yarn is high 
in price. 

There are a certain amount of silk 
and cotton materials, such as those 
considered, which are woven with a 
plain weave, and a somewhat larger 
quantity made wherein dobby weaves 
are used, but without doubt, the fab- 
rics which contain jacquard figures 



86 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



are made in larger quantities and are 
of much more ixiLerest at present. 
This is more true than it has been in 
the past, for tlie demand for brocades 
has made large figures desirable, .and 
these cannot be satisfactorily produc- 
ed except on jacquard looms. The 
principle of operation is no -different 
than on ordinary plain looms, al- 
though the repeat of the weave is on 
two threads, while when a jacquard 
mechanism is used it may be 400, 600 
or whatever number of threads the 
mechanism is made for. The first 
thing in duplicating a piece of cloth is 
to obtain the number of threads and 
picks per inch by counting with a 
pick glass or by cutting out a piece 
of cloth with a die and counting the 
threads. In this cloth there are 92 
threads and 70 picks per inch when 
finished. 

Through the stretch of the filling 
it is easy enough to obtain approxi- 
mately the width of the cloth in the 
reed, and from this the 

SIZE OF THE REED 

which was used in producing the 
cloth. Using a few lengths of filling 
pulled out from a piece of the cloth 
we obtain the following: 

5%" : Sys" :: 35%" : X. 

This will give the real width as ap- 
proximately 38 inches. Then we have: 

35%" cloth width : 38" reed width :: X : 
92 threads. 

This result shows that there are 
86 threads per inch in the reed, and 
with two threads per -dent a 43-reed 
will be used. It is assumed that the 
buyer has supplied the cloth sketch 
from which the weave design is to bt 
produced. Possibly, this cloth was 
made on a 400-jacquard machine, 
which has eight hooks in a 
row, and for such a machine the cor- 
rect design or point paper 
would be obtained as follows: 

92 (the finished warp count) : 70 (the fin- 
ished filling count) : : S : X. 

This will result in a design pa- 
per being used of eight squares in 
the warp and six in the filling direc- 



tion. If a 400-machine were used for 
this cloth, there would be no cast- 
out, and the small sketch would be 
ruled up into 50 equal r'^visions, each 
division corresponding to one block 
on the design or point paper. This 
cloth sketch is also ruled off horizon- 
tally to correspond with the vertical 
spaces. 

The next step is to transfer the 
cloth sketch to the point paper, keep- 
ing the general features as nearly 
identical as possible. When this has 
been done, the cloth weave is painted 
in on the point paper, introducing dif- 
ferent combinations to produce the 
various effects. Care must be exer- 
cised that no long floats are allowed 
to remain, for often the results are 
spoiled, because attention has not 
been paid to such details. From 
this finished design jacquard cards 
are cut which operate the loom mech- 
anism. Each small square on the de- 
sign is represented by a blank space 
or a punched hole in the card, and 
the 400 needles (50 rows, eight in a 
row) corresiDond to the spaces on the 
card. Each card represents one pick 
of the design, and the number of cards 
corresponds to the total number of 
picks in the design. In the fabric 
considerd there would be approxi- 
mately 440 picks in the design, and 
the same number of cards on the 
loom. The operation of these cards 
against the needles in the jacquard 
head either raises or depresses the 
harnesses which contain the eyes 
through which the warp yarn is 
drawn, and the action of the different 
cards produces the pattern when the 
filling is inserted. The above is a 
general description of the process 
which is noted when a sample piece 
containing a fancy pattern is to be 
produced. 

When an order is received, the orig- 
nal set of cards i5 duplicated as many 
times as there are looms to be oper- 
ated. The lacing of the various cards 
is performed by a lacing machine 
which acts in a similar manner to aii 
ordinary sewing m.achine, binding the 
cards at the ends and in the centre. 
It might be imagined that on a silk 
and cotton fabric such as that con- 
sidered there would be a smaller nuro- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



«7 



ber of looms per weaver than on 
somewhat simpler dobby patterns, but 
such is not the case, for in most in- 
stances the same number of looms are 
operated as when dobby patterns are 
being made. Some have considered 
that the percentage of production 
would not be so high when silk filling 
is used, but through experience it has 
been found that the percentage of 
production is somewhat higher than 
for similar cloths which contain cot- 
ton filling. It is, however, true that 
a weaver will not produce so much 
cloth as "When dobby patterns are be- 
ing made, but this is because of the 
slower loom speed rather than because 
of the more complicated weave placed 
on the cloth. The cost of producing 
a design such as that used on the 
cloth analyzed is not so great as many 
might believe. 

The general method is to charge a 
certain price per pick when outside 
parties accomplish the work, the cost 
to the mill when done at the plant 
being about half the outside prices. 
The prices per pick will vary up to 
7i cents per pick, but this is for a 
high count and complicated ground 
weaves. A design such as that used 
would cost about $7.50, this small 
sum influencing the cloth cost per 
yard very slightly when the orders 
received are of any size. In the major- 
ity of designs for silk and cotton 
cloths, where the filling is of silk, it 
is customary to produce the effect 
largely by floating the filling, for this 
allows the lustrous yarn to form the 
figure, and makes the results more 
desirable. Plain weave forms the 
groundwork of the fabric in the large 
majority of instances, and is neces- 
sary if a firm cloth be produced with 
the comparatively fine sizes of yarns 
used. 

PROFITS AND FINISHING. 

Possibly a few items regarding the 
profits secured by the various sellers 
may be of interest. With the produc- 
tion which the loom is likely to make, 
and the profit per yard which we have 
estimated, the profit per loom per 
week would be $2.90, or approximate- 
ly $150 per loom per year. This 
amount should be responsible for at 
least a 15 pe/ cent profit to the 



manufacturer. It must be remembered 
that the manufacturer has quite a lit- 
tle money invested in his plant and 
machinery, usually up>/ards of $1,000 
per loom, which is of comparatively 
little value if it is not being operated, 
and for this reason he is on a much 
different basis than the succeeding 
sellers. 

The converter obtains a net profit 
of approximately 2% cents per yard, 
and this should return him a profit of 
about 11 per cent, with only a single 
turnover of his goods per year, but 
this profit must be compared with a 
mill profit of 15 per cent, where an 
outlay of from $800 to $1,000 per loom 
is made, with only a converter's out- 
lay on the cloth purchased, which in 
this case is practically 24% cents per 
yard. Tlie jobber is in much the same 
position as the converter, and his prof- 
it is somewhat similar, due to his 
greater turnover. The retailer on this 
cloth, will obtain a gross profit of 
about 50 per cent, and allowing 25 
per cent, which is not far from cor- 
rect on to-day's basis for his various 
expenses, the net profit secured is 
practically 25 per cent, but it must 
be noted that a retailer turns over 
his goods a number of times a year. 
Usually, the number of turnovers is 
more than three, so adopting this as 
a basis, it will be seen that, instead 
of obtaining the 25 per cent men- 
tioned above, he will be receiving 75 
per cent. There has been 

quite a large profit on many of the 
new cotton mill products, because the 
sale has recently increased, thus 
making the cost of distribution lower 
and the profits higher. Such fabrics 
as that considered are first bleached, 
and then usually piece dyed in some 
popular shade. 

THE BLEACHING 
must be done by a chemical which 
will harm neither the silk nor the 
cotton. Some seasons printed patterns 
are used when the fabrics are sold 
in the white state, although recently 
the demand has not been large for 
such styles. The price for finishing 
and dyeing will vary somewhat, but 
probably three cents a yard will give 
a general idea as to the price for 
cloth such a? that considered. The 



A COTTON FABRICS QLOSSARt 



silk is usually quite a little lighter in 
the finished cloth than it is when 
woven, because there is a certain 
amount of gum in the silk yarn, 
which gum is partly removed when 
the cloth is bleached and fin- 
ished and the small amount ol 
starch which is added in the finishing 
operation does not counteract the loss 
of weight in the finishing process. 

These cloths are finished out prac- 
tically to their grey width as they 
come from the loom. Sometimes the 
cloth is cross dyed with the silk one 
color, and with the cotton another 
while at other times the cotton will 
be dyed, and the silk will remain 
white, so as to form a contrast. When 
the sizes of silk used by cotton mills 
are known, the analysis of a silk and 
cotton cloth presents no great amount 
of difficulty, inasmuch as the weights 



are obtained just the same as when 
an all-cotton cloth is being treated. 
The method of obtaining the cloth and 
yarn weights is as follows. (The 
size of the silk used as men- 
tioned previously is 90,000 yards per 
pound, and is not the theoretical 
yardage, although a manufacturer can 
substitute the actual size which he 
finds his silk to be in obtaining his 
correct weights.) 

3,300 ends -^ (40/1 X 840) = .0982, weight 
of warp yarn per yard without take-up. 

6% take-up in weaving. 

.0982 -r- .94 = .1045, total weight of warp 
yarn per yard of woven cloth. 

72 picks per inch X 38" reed width X 36" 

36" 

2.736 yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
2,736 -^ 90,000 (silk yardage) = .0304, 

weight of silk filling per yard of cloth. 
.1045 -f- .0304 = .1349, total weight per 

yard. 
1.0000 -7- .1349 = 7.41 yards per pound 

(grey). 



PATTERN. 
2 2 

40/1 Am. combed warp — 3,236 — = 3,300 total ends. 

16 16 

14/16 Dernier 3 thread Canton silk; 72 picks. 

43 reed; 38" reed width; 36" grey width; 35% -36" finished width. 
91 X 72 grey count; 92 X 70 finished count. 



YARNS. 

Cotton. 
40/1 Am. combed warp; 1%" staple; 8 hank dou. rov., 15c. 

14/16 3 thread Canton silk; 90,000 yds. per lb. Ready on quills 



Labor, 

waste, etc. 

U%c. 



= 26 %c. 
= $3.80 



COST. 

3,300 ends 40/1 Am. combed warp + 6% take-up = .1045 @ 26%c. = $ .0281 

72 picks 14/16 3 thread Canton filling = .0304 @ |3.80 = .1155 

Weaving 0122 

Expenses 0167 

$ .1725 
Selling (grey) 0035 

Mill cost (grey) $ .1760 

Converter's purchasing price from mill (about) 1950 

Finishing and converter's expenses 0525 

Cost to converter 2475 

Cost to jobber 2750 

Cost to retailer 3250 

Cost to consumer 4800 

Yards per pound 7.41 (grey). 



•* ♦ » 



NOVELTY YARN STRIPED CREPE 

That there has been a great im- 
provement in the fancy cotton fabrics 
produced in domestic mills is well 
recognized by any one who is at all 
familiar with selling conditions. This 
Improvement includes not only the 
styling of the fabric, but also the 



quality of the yarns from which the 
cloths are woven. It may be that the 
class of fabrics which have been sell- 
ing for the past few years has had 
much to do with the better appear- 
ance, but without doubt a part at 
least of the improvement is due to 
the natural progress of a rapidly 
growing industry, and a part to the 
increased experience obtained from a 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



89 



freer interchange of manufacturing 
and finisliing knowledge. 

A very good illustration of this 
progress is shown in the development 
of voile cloths. When these were first 
produced extensively in cotton, the 
constructions were not entirely suit- 
able, and the yarns were often irreg- 
ular and detracted much from the 
finished results. Gradually mills be- 
came accustomed to making such fab- 
rics, and were able to determine the 
correct amount of twist and the right 
combinations to use in producing 
a good article, and in order for other 
mills to obtain business they had to 
produce better yarn, if they secured 
many orders on these fabrics, espe- 
cially if the cloth was considered high 
class, and was to be sold at a com- 
paratively high price. 

The use of silk yarn in voile fabrics 
often showed up cotton yarn ir- 
regularities through contrast, and for 
this reason forced the production of 
better yarns. When the demand for 
voiles began to grow less, the inter- 
est of buyers on novelty yarn fabrics 
increased. In many of these materials, 
the irregular appearance permitted the 
use of comparatively poor yarn, but 
the competition which developed and 
style changes have made it neces- 
sary to use much care if the best re- 
sults be produced. Similar conditions 
have been noted on crepes, and al- 
though the finished fabrics are rath- 
er irregular in appearance, the yarns 
must be better than for certain other 
similar weight materials, because the 
construction is low, and irregularities 
appear prominently. Possibly, the ideas 
which are being used most extensive- 
ly at present for fancy cotton fabrics 
are novelty yarns and crepe effects. 
Cloths made by such methods are 
used extensively for dresses, although 
there are other uses, and for this 
reason, a wide distribution is possible. 
We are illustrating a garment which 
is made from one of the newer fab- 
rics, and which contains ideas some- 
what similar to those in the fabric 
analyzed, and shows in a general way 
the results possible. Because light 
ground cloths have sold well, the use 
of novelty yarns has been of advan- 
tage, Inasmuch as their heavy size has 



allowed much contrast to be devel- 
oped, and has made it possible for ef- 
fects to be produced, which at other 
times would be considered undesir- 
able. 

One of the most important features 
in connection with the use of novelty 
yarns, and one which has not been 
mentioned to any great extent is that 
the variety and combinations which 
are possible in fabrics made from 
them are more extensive than any 
other class of cotton cloths formerly 
produced. A short investigation into 
the stock of fabrics carried by any 
large retailer will clearly demonstrate 
the above fact. Consumers desire to 
have a great deal of variety in dress 
materials, even though they do cling to 
general styles when they are being 
used, and the use of novelty yarns 
affords an opportunity seldom experi- 
enced. Probably most every novelty 
yarn fabric is different in some es- 
sential respect from other similar 
cloths, even though the general cloth 
appearance is duplicated. 

The combination of yarn sizes, the 
twist per inch in the yarn, and the 
cloth count, all have a greater result 
on cloth effects than they are likely to 
have when ordinary materials are be- 
ing manufactured. The fact that a 
mill has to use machinery and yarns 
available is also likely to affect the 
result obtained. In addition to the 
wide range of effects possible from 
similar yarns, there are the different 
methods of twisting, such as loop, 
nub, corkscrew, slub and various oth- 
er ideas, both separately and in com- 
bination. In all these ideas, it is pos- 
sible not only to use different sizes 
and twists of yarn, but also to use 
various colors, and in some cases 
various combinations of materials. 
All these facts are responsible for a 
greater variety of styles than have 
ever before been possible, and have 
been the means of 

EDUCATING MILL MEN 

in regard to the developing of fab- 
rics. 

When novelty yarn cloths first be- 
gan to appear, a large majortty of mill 
men would have, and did, state posi- 
tively that they could not be made in 
most domestic mills. It is true that a 



90 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



small proportion of them' cannot be 
so made, but during the past two 
years many mill men who were for- 
merly positive regarding this point 
have found out that they can be suc- 
cessfully produced, and with com- 
paratively no changes in the machin- 
ery of an ordinary mill. The reason 
these men believed such yarns 
could not be made was due to un- 
familiarity with the subject, and be- 
cause many of them were operating 
in a rut through the manufacture of 
a comparatively few styles of cloth, 
and no changes year in and year out. 
Practically the entire range of ef- 
fects are produced througn t' e char- 



ing the novelty yarn more prominent. 
This is true in the fabric analyzed 
where an ordinary four-harness twill 
has been used with the novelty yarn 
on the face of the cloth, in order to 
make it more prominent. In certain 
other similar lines, somewhat similar 
methods are being used to show up 
the novelty yarn effects. 

NOVELTY YARN MAKING. 

The novelty yarn used In the fab- 
ric analyzed represents very well the 
general characteristics of most of 
such materials. It is produced by no 
special machinery, and can be made by 
any mill from ordinary yarns. Two 




One of the Popular Novelty Yarn Cr pes. 



acter of the yarn, and up to the 
present, very few attempts have been 
made to use any fancy v/eaves. Re- 
cently, the combination of novelty 
yarn with other fabrics has allowed 
a greater possibility in this direction, 
and certain of the styles v/hich have 
been developed for next season's use 
contain simple weaves, which aid in 
the result, althoagh in most cases 
the prominent feature is the effect 
produced through the yarn. Naturally, 
the size of the novelty yarn precludes 
any great use of various weaves, for 
they would rot be visible at all, and 
in most instances the weaves which 
are used are for the purpose of mak- 



twisting processes are employed, on« 
being in one direction and the othei 
in the reverse direction. There are 
six strands of yarn employed, al- 
though in some instances fewer are 
used to produce similar effects. If 
special twisters containing two sets 
of rolls and operating at different 
speeds are not available, an ordinary 
spinning frame can be used instead. 
For the yarn considered in the first 
twisting process, the ground threads 
(two ends of 50-1) are placed in one 
set of rolls, while the loop yarn (two 
ends of 30-1) are placed in a second 
set of rolls. 

The speed of the rolls containing 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



91 



Ihe 30-1 is practically twice as fast 
us the rolls delivering 50-1. For this 
leasoii, when the yarn is being twist- 
ed, the extra 30-1 yarn winds around 
the 50-1 ground threads, and is not 
held tightly enough to allow it to be 
satisfactorily used. Quite a little 
Lwist is inserted, inasmuch as a por- 
tion of this twist is taken out in the 
succeeding reverse twisting operation. 
When this yarn has been completed, 
it is taken and placed on another 
similar frame, and is then retwisted 
u iLh two ends of 50-1. 

THE RETWISTING, 

or in other words the untwisting, of 
the first yarn loosens up the extra 
30-1, and produces loops in an ir- 
1 egular fashion, where the extra yarn 
slips away from the ground yarn, and 
these loops are bound down firmly 
by the second twisting process. It is 
sometimes the case that the extra 
\aru in the first twisting process is 
delivered at one certain point on the 
ground yarn, thus creating a nub or 
lunch. This sort of yarn may or may 
not be retwisted, the method depend- 
ing a good deal on the amount of 
twist imparted, and somewhat upon 
the use which is to be made of the 
product. Recently, we have noted 
yarns which were made in a method 
such as we have previously described, 
but which had in addition a nub ef- 
fect used as a binder for the first 
process. Then there is the wide ranje 
of effects which are made tlirough 
the introduction of either v.hite or 
colored cotton stock, which yarns 
have been continuously used in cer- 
tain classes of goods such as cotton 
flannels. 

A different amount of twist in eith- 
er twisting operation will affect the 
results and so will a change of yarn 
sizes or a relative change in the speed 
of the delivery rolls. In the retwist- 
ing process, the binding yarn is de- 
livered about 10 per cent faster than 
the previously twisted yarn, this being 
done so as to produce the best ef- 
fect, although with some yarns, the 
binder is delivered at the same speed 
as the previously twisted product. 
YARN SIZE AND COST. 

We have given in the fabric analy- 
sis certain facts regarding the yarn 



sizes and the cost of making. This 
is a feature which many have not 
considered in a correct manner, and 
needless to say, the results obtained 
are often very inaccurate. A good 
many have believed that the cost of 
making novelty yarns is very high, 
and this is true for certain varieties, 
not only because of their component 
parts, but also because of the difficul- 
ties caused by producing, but for most 
varieties, the cost is comparatively 
low. 

In order to obtain anything like a 
correct cost, when the various yarn 
sizes are used, it is necessary to ob- 
tain the yarn analysis with the per- 
centages of take-ups, or relative yarn 
sizes. To make the problem somewhat 
clearer, we have used a relative single 
yarn size where two ends of any 
yarn are used. With the take-ups in 
twisting, the relative yarn sizes 
are as follows: 25-1 for the 
ground yarn; 7.5-1 for the loop yarn, 
and 22.5-1 for the re-twist yarn. Using 
the ordinary method to obtain the re- 
sulting yarn size when three differ- 
ent sizes of yarns are twisted togeth- 
er, that is to divide the highest yarn 
size by itself, and the coarser sizes 
in succession, and then to add the 
results obtained. When this is com- 
pleted, the highest yarn size is again 
divided by the result obtained, thus 
giving the completed yarn size. 

In the yarn in the fabric under dis- 
cussion, the size is approximately 
4.6-1. Assuming that the cost of the 
■single yarns in the mill is known ac- 
curately, it is a comparatively easy 
problem to obtain the cost for each 
size of yarn used in producing the 
novelty yarn results. Inasmuch as 
the novelty yarn, when completed, 
contains 3,864 yards per pound, this 
number of yards divided by the yards 
per pound in each yarn, and multi- 
plied by the cost, will give the cor- 
rect result. It will thus be seen that 
the various yarns used in making the 
novelty yarn cost 26.84 cents per 
pound. To this amount there must be 
added the various labor, expense and 
other items for the two twisting op- 
erations. In some cases, the labo" 
cost is high, because a good deal of 
experimentation has to be made hec- 
tare satisfactory results are produced. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



There has been a general tendency to 
place too high a cost on the making 
of such yarns, mainly because few 
took the trouble to investigate the 
various items which affect the cost, 
and high prices offered a protection 
against manufacturing losses. It 
must be remembered that the produc- 
tion on the twisters after the correct 
yarn effect is produced is quite 
large, due to the coarse yarn sizes. 
One item of importance when making 
novelty yarns, and one which is often 
neglected is that there should be a 
sufficient amount of strength to make 
the yarn usable. Most of the strain 



the number of threads and picks per 
inch being very low, and the fabric 
will slip easily. In making such a 
construction, the filling yarn usually 
contains much more twist per inch 
than would ordinarily be the case. 
The hard twist in the yarn will make 
the cloth shrink up, when it is fin- 
ished, thus giving the irregular or 
crepe effect. In this cloth, even the 
warp yarn has a somewhat greater 
twist thccH usual, and the cloth 
shrinks in length as well as in width, 
although this is not a customary meth- 
od in domestic mills. The usual 
standard of twist for filling yarn is 




f^^'^^^FEijfietj'^pi^^^i^^^^^s^i^^^^^^ 



m 




The Novelty Crepe Analyzed. 



is noted on the ground yarns, and 
because the twisted yarn is so coarse 
in size, there is a tendency to expect 
it to stand a great deal of rough han- 
dling. This is not always possible, and 
many yarns have been produced in 
which the ground yarn would break 
and allow the novelty effect to dis- 
appear, making bad places in the 
cloth. Good yarn construction per- 
mits a greater production during the 
twisting process, and creates much 
less trouble in the weave room with 
a higher percentage of production and 
a smaller number of seconds. 

In addition to having stripes made 
of novelty yarns, the fabric analyzed 
is woven with a crepe construction, 



about three and three-quarters times 
the square root of the yarn size in 
turns per inch, although the amount 
is reduced to three or less, when mer- 
cerization is to take place, but for 
most hard twist filling, the standard 
is from seven to eight and one-half 
times the square root of the size in 
turns per inch, with probably seven 
and one-half used in the majority of 
instances. 

Of course, there have been in- 
stances where a greater number of 
turns per inch than that indicated 
have been inserted, and In some cases 
fewer turns have been used. What 
this means for a yarn like that used 
in the cloth is shown as followg: The 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



dS 



Square root of 50-1 is 7.07, and with 
a standard of 7^ used, the turns per 
inch would be practically 53. Ordinary 
50-1 yarn, with a standard of 4i, con- 
tains only about 32 turns per inch, so 
that it will be readily recognized that 
the production per spindle is much 
less than it is for ordinary warp, 
with an increase in the various costs 
of producing. Many crepes are pro- 
duced with filling twisted in one di- 
rection only, but the majority of the 
high class articles contain both regu- 
lar and reverse twisted yarn. 

In some fabrics one pick of one 
twist and then another pick of the 
reverse twast is inserted, while in 
others two picks of each are used in 
succession. The pulling of one twist 
against the other when the cloth is 
finished produces a regular crepy ef- 
fect, while if one twist only be used 
the pulling is all in one direction and 
this produces a wavy effect, which 
does not look at all like the fabrics 
produced with two kinds of twist. 

Naturally, to weave two twists of 
yarn a box loom is needed, and when 
only one pick of each twist is used 
a pick and pick loom is necessary. 
To allow^ sufficient time for the shut- 
tles to be changed, the loom speed Is 
somewhat slower than would other- 
wise be the case, possibly about 10 
per cent slower being the rate on 
comparatively narrow goods. 

Fabrics such as we have analyzed 
are likely to sell at very high retail 
prices not only because they are styl- 
ish, but also because the orders re- 
ceived are comparatively small and 
an exclusive price can be obtained. 
The general practice is to obtain the 
best price possible from buyers, and 
this policy results in high prices and 
profits when the demand is good. A 
comparatively small profit per yard 
will allow a good return to the mill, 
inasmuch as the production of the 
loom is comparatively large, due to 
the small number of picks per inch. 
Although many of these grey cloths 
cost comparatively little to produce, 
there are other features which make 
the cost to a converter a good deal 
higher. One of these is the cost of 
finishing and another is the fact that 
there is a shrinkage in the length 
of the cloth delivered Instead of the 



stretch noted in a good many kinds 
of cloth. This shrinkage is not noted 
on many cloths but is evident on the 
one considered. 

Then it is a fact that selling ex- 
penses are high through the cost of 
samples and the proportion which they 
form on the comparatively small 
orders. Often a large risk is 
taken when novelties are purchased, 
for should the style change the losses 
would be quite large. On the fabric 
analyzed it is undoubtedly true that 
a portion of the price is represented 
through duties which are necessary 
because of importation. There is, how- 
ever, no real reason why many domes- 
tic mills could not produce this iden- 
tical fabric so as to sell at retail at 
less than 50 cents per yard instead 
of the 90 cents per yard which is 
now noted, in fact they do sell many 
cloths which cost them far more to 
produce finished at prices which per- 
mit them to be retailed at less than 
50 cents per yard. 

The number of parties that handle 
the goods have a good deal 
to do with the prices which 
are noted, although the atti- 
tude which some sellers • take 
in the distribution has an influence 
on the matter. Certain fancy cotton 
goods when sold to consumers are 
handled by three different people 
while other styles are handled by as 
many as five or six distributors 
with a corresponding increase in price, 
which often is not at all justifiable 
or necessary. We have seen identical 
fabrics selling at 50 cents and also 
at 75 cents per yard in different re- 
tail establishments, and it is often 
possible to see on the same counter 
fabrics selling at different prices, 
the low priced fabrics actually costing 
more to produce and containing more 
style than the high priced articles. 
This is not wholly caused by the ig- 
norance of retailers on the subject 
of value, but is often brought about by 
excessive prices on the part of pre- 
vious sellers and in some cases be- 
cause of wrong estimates as to the 
cost of production. In a general way 
most of the fabrics are either sold 
in the white state or are piece dyed. 
Of course, when colored yarns are 
used in making the novelty yarn, it is 



94 



A COTTON FABRICS G1.0SSARY 



not necessary to bleach or dye the 
cloth and the effects are possibly more 
varied. The method of obtaining the 
yarn weights and yards per pound are 
no different than for an ordinary fab- 
ric. Some times when no details re- 
garding the novelty y^^rn making are 
necessary, the novelty yarn is sized 
just the same as if it were a simple 
yarn and the result used in obtaining 
the weights, it is a 

VERY GOOD PRACTICE 
to obtain the size of the novelty yarn 
by weighing in order to check up 
accurately the figured size, such as 
we have obtained The take-ups on 
the fine yarn? composing tha crepe 
portion of the cloth are comparatively 
small and that of the novelty yarns 
practically negligible, excepting that 
there is a loss in the preceding 
operations. A portion of the take-up 
noted on the yarn is developed when 
the cloth is finished, but we have 
not considered such shrinkage, inas- 



much as it does not affect the cost 
of the cloth in the grey state. When 
the converter has the cloth finished 
he can regulate his expenses per yard 
by the number of yards which he 
receives, so that there is no necessity 
for using such items in obtaining the 
mill cost. The method of obtaining 
the various weights is as follows, 
the novelty yarn being considered as 
a single yarn, although it contains six 
strands of single yarn: 

1.762 ends h- (50/1 X 840) = .0420, weight 
of 50/1 warp without take-up 

6% take-up in weaving. 

.0420 -V- .94 = .0447, total weight of 50/1 
warp per yard of woven cloth. 

343 ends -;- (46/1 X 840) = .0887, weight 
of novelty warp without take-up. 

2 7c take-up, or loss. 

.Ob&7 -J- .'Ji, = .0905. total weight of novelty 

Wiirp per yard of woven cloth. 

48 picks per inch X 50" reed width X 36" 

36" 

2.400 vards of filling per yard of cloth. 
2.400 -h (50/1 X 840) = .0571, weight of 

50/1 filling per yard of cloth. 
.0447 + .0905 + .0571 = .1923. 
1.0000 -=- .1923 = 5.20 yards per pound 

(grey). 



NOVELTY YARN STRIPE CREPE. 

PATTERN. 

2 2 

50/1 Am. combed warp — 16 18 — = 1,762 

24 24 

4.60 novelty warp 7 = 343 



2,105 total ends 
grey width. 



49 X 
GO/1 Am. conibeil filling, hard twist, 48 picks. 
1:4 reed. 50" reed width, 42" finished width, 4' 
Finished count. 50 X 50. 

VAU.NS. 

Cotton. 
oO/l Am. combed warp; 1 5-16" staple, 10 hank dou. rov., 21c. 
30/1 Am. carded warp; l%o" staple, tj hank dou. rov.. 131^0. 

50/1 Am. combed filling, H. T. ; 1%" !^ta.. 12 hank dou. rov., ISMsc. 



Labor, 
waste, etc. 

le^iC. = 37^40. 

6"^c. = 20c. 
24 %c. = 44c. 



2 ends 50/1 ground threads 
2 ends 30/1 loose \ arn 
2 ends 50/1 retwist 



.NOVELTY YARN. 
= 25/1 comparative size. 
= 15/1 comparative size. 
= 25/1 comparative size. 



25/1 -f- 25/1 = 1.0000 
(15/1 + ^o% take-up = 7.5/1) 

25/1 -^ 7.5/1 = 3.3333 
(25/) + 10% take-up = 22.5/1) 

25/1 -^ 22.5/1 = 1.1111 



5.4444 
25/1 — 0.4444 = 4.60 novelty yarn figured size 
Yards per pound in novelty yarn, 3.864. 
3,864 X 37%c. 



( approximately). 



25/1 X 840 
3.864 X 20c. 

7.5/1 X 840 
3,864 X 37%c. 

22.5/1 X 840 



= .0690 



1.2684 



$.2684. total cost of yarns used for making 1 lb. of novelty yarn. 
8c. (2 twisting operations) = 34 %c., total cost of novelty yarn per pound. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



96 



CLOTH COST. 

1,762 ends 50/1 Am. combed warp + 6% take-up = .0447 @ 37i^c. = $ .0168 

343 ends 4.60 novelty + 2% take-up = .OU05 10 34 %c. = .0316 

48 picks 50/1 Am. conabed fi'ling hard twist '. ^ .0571 (q) 44c. = .0252 

Weaving 0283 

Expenses 0123 

$ .1142 
Selling (grey) 0023 

Net mill cost (grey) $ .1166 

Finishing charges, about 4c. per yard 
li-etall price, aoc. per yard. 
Yards per pound, 5.20 (grey). 



FANCY PILE FABRICS 

Probably the one fabric which has 
created the greatest amount of inter- 
est among buyers of cotton goods is 
the fabric which is variously known 
as toweling, eponge, ratine and other 
names which designate the same fab- 
ric. To anyone acquainted with 
manufacturing, the above-mentioned 
names mean a special cloth, although 
retailers and others have not been ac- 
customed to •distinguish between 
tnem. 

An eponge, as the term is general- 
ly understood, is not the same fabric 
as a toweling or terry cloth, and a 
ratine is different from either. One 
of these fabrics is made by a finish- 
ing process, another is macje through 
ine use or novelty yarns, while the 
other is made by a loom mechanism. 
All of these fabrics have been used 
for a wide variety of purposes, such 
as dresses, trimmings, hats, vests and 
other purposes, and inasmuch as they 
have sold largely, and are somewhat 
different in construction than fabrics 
formerly produced, it may be well to 
consider two fabrics which are made 
with ordinary yarns, but which are 
manufactured by a loom mechanism 
rather than through any other proc- 
ess. 

TOWELING OR TERRY CLOTH. 

These fabrics may be called towel- 
ing raurics or terry clotns. Many of 
the ideas which have been developed 
for sale at present have been concoct- 
ed from ordinary toweling construc- 
tions, and inasmuch as they are spe- 
cial fabrics and because they have 



been stylish it has been possible for 
manufacturers and sellers to be par- 
ticularly successful in their making. 

We have at intervals presented a 
number of analyses of fabrics which 
would be included under this gener- 
al heading giving the sizes of yarns 
and the methods of production, to- 
gether with the selling prices and 
probable profit. When many of these 
cloths were first produced they were 
not very satisfactory, but inasmuch 
as any special ideas are developed 
gradually and are not produced when 
tne notion is first in demand, the 
same condition is noted in the pro- 
duction of fabrics such as that con- 
sidered. It might be said that there 
are two definite methods of producing 
terry cloths, one in which there are 
two warps used and in which the 
weave together with the loom mech- 
anism allows a certain amount of ex- 
tra yarn to be forced into the cloth, 
thereby producing a rough appear- 
ance on either or on both sides of the 
cloth. 

These terry cloths are produced by 
different methods on the loom, but 
the general result, so far as the cloth 
is concerned, is practically the same. 
The second method is one in which a 
different mechanism is used, and in 
which wires are inserted to make the 
loops as the cloth is being woven 
Certain styles of fabric which are 
. impossible of production by the first 
or terry motion are easily produce(3 
tnrougn tne secona metnod, although 
of course, there are sometimes very 
good imitations of the second kind ot 
cloths made. The wires which are 
used are Inserted and withdrawn as 
the cloth is being woven, and because 



»6 



A OOTION FABRICS GLOSSARY 



of such facts the loom speed Is low, 
and the cloth production is not so 
high as the number of picks which the 
loom makes would indicate. 

Various dohby and jacquard pat- 
terns are produced by both methods. 
The limitations forced by the first 
method of manufacturing are ones 
which arise from the fact that all of 
the loop threads are placed on one 
or at least only a few beams, there- 
fore allowing only one or two differ- 
ent effects to be produced, while 
through the second method there may 
be a different take-up on the various 
threads forming the loops much the 



the design, because the loop threads 
are down or on the back of the cloth 
both before and after the wire is in- 
serted. 

In the first fabric considered the 
result produced is quite novel, al- 
though it is entirely probable that the 
sale of both of these materials con- 
sidered is rather limited. It will be 
seen that the loops are not placed in 
a regular manner, as is noted on the 
stripe cloth, but that they are placed 
at intervals with quite a little of the 
ground cloth showing. The method 
of placing the loops on the cloth, or 
weave, if it might be called such, is a 



V^.The Novelty Toweling Fabric Ajialyzed. 



same as there is on certain styles of 
carpets. 

We are presenting two styles of 
fabric which are manufactured by the 
second method, namely through the 
use of wires. An examination of the 
weave of one of the cloths will indi- 
cate quite clearly how the use of 
wires is distinguished. Taking the 
loop threads which are marked at the 
top of the weave with black places it 
will be noted that where the wires 
are inserted (the places at the right 
where black marks are made indicat- 
ing such Insertion) it will be seen 
that unless a wire was inserted to 
hold up the loop it would weave no 
differently than in the other places of 



four-harness one, with the loop yarn 
having four different positions anu 
being raised for one wire pick and 
then depressed for the three follow- 
ing similar picks. 

The weave is the one which many 
have been accustomed to call a four- 
harness satin, although, strictly 
speaking, there Is no such weave as 
a four-harness satin. The warp 
threads which form the ground cloth 
all weave plain, as may be 
noted by examining threads number 
one, two, three, six, seven, eight, etc. 
The places where such threads do 
not appear to weave plain on the de- 
sign as laid out are caused by the In- 
sertion of the wires which form the 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



97 



loops and have nothing at all to do 
with the weave of the ground threads. 
It will also be noted that there is 
no break in the plain weave on the 
ground threads from one loop to the 
next loop in the warp direction. 

It may be well to mention the fact 
that many of these novelty toweling 
fabrics are made with a much better 
construction than they were when 
the demand first began to be noted 
for such styles. Many of the cloths 
produced at that time had a compara- 
tively loose construction and were 
hardly suitable for dress materials al- 
though many of them were used for 
such purposes. Gradually as the need 



tails regarding the yarns and their 
making is what would be noted in the 
domestic market and in a good sized. 
well-managed plant. 

The cost of the cloth will depend a 
good deal upon various circumstances. 
This material was undoubtedly im- 
ported, and under such circumstances 
the yarns were probably made in one 
plant and the cloth woven in another, 
and to the costs of the yam, as not- 
ed, there would have to be added a 
certain amount of yarn profit, depend- 
ing upon general market conditions. 
It is, however, likely that the costs 
named represent very closely the 
selling prices which would have been 



{ 



Black and White Striped Novelty Made of Single YarnS. 



became more recognized the construc- 
tion of such fabrics was adapte-d so 
as to be more nearly what they are 
to-day and more satisfactory and 
with a greater amount of serviceabil- 
ity. 

We have given an analysis of this 
previously described cloth with an ap- 
proximate cost of production. One of 
the facts regarding this fabric and 
one which should be responsible for a 
great deal of service in comparison 
with many of such lines is that the 
yarns used in its making are all two- 
ply. It may be possible that instead 
of a 30-reed as we have used a 15- 
reed was used with twice as many 
threads per dent. The various de- 



noted were such yarns purchased in 
foreign countries. There are compar- 
atively few fabrics of this nature pro- 
duced in the domestic market, and, 
due to the difficulties of manufactur- 
ing, the costs of weaving and ex- 
penses per yard are much higher than 
they are on a great many other vari- 
eties of all-cotton cloth. 

This fabric can be made in the 
grey state and then dyed in the piece 
after it is woven. We have not at- 
tempted to give the various items of 
cost after the grey cloth was woven, 
but it undoubtedly was handled by a 
number of various sellers, and a por- 
tion of the price is represented by 
the duties which are assessed. One 



98 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



thing which limits the use of many 
of these fabrics is the fact that they 
are so much heavier than consumers 
have been accustomed to use for sum- 
mer wear, thus limiting the season in 
which they can be satisfactorily worn. 
There have been, however, many 
more of such goods sold than ever be- 
fore, and the development of the idea 
has been responsible for many strik- 
ing novelties, and, without doubt, 
some of these cloths will be sold con- 
tinually as dress goods. 

Possibly, the fabric which Is of 
greatest interest, although it is not 
nearly as complicated in weave, is 
the black and white striped material. 
This fabric is made from dyed and 
bleached yarns, and probably costs 
more to produce than the 
one for which the cost has been giv- 
en. There have been used in this fab- 
ric certain methods which are re- 
sponsible for certain effects, and the 
results are ones not often noted. 
Naturally, the method of dressing the 
warp is responsible for the produc- 
tion of the stripes in the cloth. The 
warp in this fabric is dressed much 
the same as it is in the fabric previ- 
ously described, excepting for the in- 
troduction of color, that is, there are 
three ground threads and then two 
threads of loop yarn drawn in regu- 
larly throughout the whole fabric. 

It may be well to note, however, 
that this cloth is made from single 
instead of two-ply yams, with the ex- 
ception of the loop yarn which is two- 
ply in a large majority of such fab- 
rics. One feature which is of inter- 
est in this cloth is the looseness of 
the twist in the yarn which forms the 
loop. Many fabrics of this character 
have loosely twisted loop yarns, but 
there are very few of them which 
have the same result that is noted 
in the fabric under discussion. 

A careful examination of the black 
yarn will show that it has been mer- 
cerized and then dyed, but that the 
dyestuff or the dyeing process which 
has been used does not penetrate to 
the centre of this two-ply mercerizeo 
yarn. "When +he fabric is examined 
there is a certain peculiar effect not- 
ed from the fact that the yam is not 
thoroughly dyed, making a contrast 



with the black dyed fibres, ensuring 
an appearance of much more luster 
than actually exists. 

This result occurs because the mer- 
cerized yarn bends sharply when it 
forms the loops, opening up the twist 
and showing the white fibres at the 
top of the loop. Possibly, this result 
was not intentional, but neverth.^l-jss, 
the effect which it produces is se.dom 
noted and is worthy of mention. If 
it was intended to produce this le 
suit, a great amount of ingenuity hat- 
been used in developing it. Few would 
consider that the result noted would 
be produced through the dyeing of 
the yarn, but this appears to be the 
case. 



■ :i:i:i:r:i:::i:Ei::::: 



Weavl.ng Diagram. 

We have given for this black and 
white fabric the analysis with the 
weights of the various yarns which 
are used in its production. 

In an anaylsis of a fabric such as 
that described, the item of importance 
is the take-up on the warp yams. It 
will be noted in the fabric for which 
the cost has been given that the take- 
up was 46 per cent, or, in other words, 
it took about two yards of loop yam 
to weave one yard of cloth. On the 
striped fabric the take-up is quite a 
little greater, because of the fact that 
the loop is made continuously, while 
in the first fabric it was not. In this 
cloth the take-up was 69 per cent, 
thus making ten yards of yam neces- 
sary in weaving approximately three 
yards of cloth. It will also be noted 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 99 

that the take-up on the fine warp The weave in the striped fabric on 

used for the ground cloth is some- the loop yam is one up and two down, 

what greater than it would be were although this does not appear to be 

an ordinary fabric produced. the case until the threads are pulled 

This is noted because of the use of out and it is considered that a wire 

the heavy yarn for loops and the had been woven in the cloth and then 

weave which the cloth contains. The withdrawn. These fabrics are very 

yarns which are used in producing interesting, inasmuch as they repre- 

such fabrics are not any different than sent the development of an idea for 

those used in making ordinary fab- dress fabrics which was formerly con- 

rics, for they are regularly made, al- sidered rather undesirable. That 

though the two-ply yarn used in the there should be variations in weave 

loops is usually soft or comparative- and an improvement in construction 

ly soft twisted. Both of these cloths is only natural, and the fabrics which 

sell at retail for $2 per yard, and we present include both ideas, 
quite a little has been sold. 

FANCY PILE FABRICS— BLUE CLOTH. 
PATTERN. 
2 2 

80/2 Am. combed warp — 8 — = 2,244 

a 48 

20/2 Am. carded warp 2 = 1.378 

684 X 3,622 total ends. 

6u/2 Am. combed filling; 52 picks (not including wires). 
30 reed; 4 7" width in reed; 42%" width finished. 
85 X &2 over all count finished. 

TARNS. 
V Labor, 
* waste, Twist- 
Cotton, etc. ing. 
80/2 Am. combed warp; 1 7-16" sta; 16 hank dou. rov., 25c. 28i^c. 5%c. = 59c. 
20/2 Am. carded warp; l%o" sta; 4 hank dou. rov., ISi^c. 4%c. %c. = 18%c. 
60/2 Am. combed filling; 1 5-16" sta; 12 hank dou. rov., 21c. 19V4c. 3%c. = 43%c. 

COST. 

2,244 ends 80/2 Am. combed warp -|- 11% take-up =.0751 @ 59c. = $ .0443 

1.378 ends 20/2 Am. combed warp -f 46% take-up =.3037 @ lS%c. = .0573 

5Z picks 60/2 Am. combed filling =.0970 @ 43%c. = .0425 

Weaving 0597 

Expenses 0324 

$ .2362 
Selling (grey) 0075 

Mill cost (grey) $.2437 

Yards per pound 2.1« {9t»y). 
Cost at retail $2 per yard. 

STRIPED CLOTH. 
PATTERN. 

2 2 

35/1 Am. c%rded white — 3 3 3 3 3 — = 2.151 

24 24 

24/2 Am. c/mbed mercerized black 2 2 2 2 = 688 

24/2 Am. combed white 2 2 = 684 

171X 3,523 

30/1 Am. caraed white; 44 picks. 

2,151 ends -i- (840 X 85/1) = .0732, white single warp weight without take-up. 

12% take-up in weaving. 
.0732 -f- .88 = .0832, total weight of white single warp per yard of cloth. 
1,372 ends -t- (840 X 24/2) = .1861, weight of two-ply warp without take-up. 

69% take-up in weaving. 
.1361 -^ .31 = .4390, total weight of ply warp per yard of cloth. 

44 picks X 45V4" reed width X 36" 

. — ■ = 2,002 yards of filling per yard of cloth. 

36" 
2,002 -t- (840 X 80/1) = .0794, total weight of filling per yard of cloth. 
.0832 + .4390 -|- .0794 — .6018, total weight per yard. 
1. 0000 -H .6016 = 1.66 yards per pound. 



100 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



BUYERS' COST KEY 

Some time ago we presented a 
method whereby the cost of grey 
cloths could be accurately obtained 
by a buyer, although the various 
ideas which were employed were also 
of value to a manufacturer in that 
many of such do not observe any 
great accuracy in the systems which 
they employ, and the results obtaineo 
are sometimes not founded upon the 
basic facts of cloth construction. Foi 
various reasons the method adopted 
was not the one which would be 
most desirable from a manufacturer's 
standpoint, although probably the 
main reason why such systems would 
not be identical is the lack of tech- 
nical knowledge on the part of the 
buyer. Usually a purchaser can ob- 
tain the number of threads and pickb 
per inch in any cloth very easily. 

It is also possible for him to ob- 
tain the weight per yard and the 
width of the cloth. Of course, buy- 
ers often have more information than 
the above regarding the cloths which 
they are handling, but there should 
be no great difficulty for any one of 
them to obtain these details at least. 
As stated when we presented our grey 
cloth cost method, the fundamental 
facts were first, that there 
are 840 yards per pound to No. 

1 yarn, 1,680 yards per pound to No. 

2 yarn, or 40 times 840 yards or 33,- 
600 yards per pound in No. 40 yarn, 
and second, that in a pound as used 
for weighing cotton yarn there are 
16 ounces or 7,000 grains. 

PROBLEM NOT DIFFICULT. 

To anyone who is familiar with 
cloth analysis the problem is not at 
all difficult, inasmuch as the weights 
of the various yarns used can be ob- 
tained, but for a buyer the simplest 
method is that wherein the average 
yarn size is obtained for the cloth as 
it is sold. So far as this portion of 
the method is concerned, it is identi- 
cal with that employed when grey 
cloths are being treated. An illus 
tration may, however, be of service 
in making the various details evident. 
A certain colored fabric contains 86 



threads and 81 picks per inch. It is 
314 inches wide and weighs 7.70 
yards per pound. The number ol 
threads and picks per inch added to- 
gether and then multiplied by the 
cloth width will produce the num- 
ber of yards of yarn used in making 
one yard of cloth without considering 
the amount of take-up. This result 
multiplied by the number of yards 
per pound will furnish the number of 
yards of yarn per pound, and through 
the addition of the take-up the to- 
tal yards per pound can be obtained. 
When any number of yards of cot- 
ton yarn weigh one pound the size 
can be secured by dividing the num- 
ber of yards by the recognized stand 
ard for No. 1 yarn. The details for 
the cloth given are as follows: 

S6 threads + SI picks = 167, total threads 

per Inch. 
1C7 X 3114 cloth width = 5,219 yards of 

yarn per yard of cloth without take-up. 
5,219 X 7.70 yards per lb. = 40,186 yards of 

yarn without take-up. 
Using 10% take-up in weaving, we get 
40,186 ^ .90 = 44,652, total yards of yarn 

per pound. 
44,652 -i- 840 (standard) = 53, average yarn 

size. 

PICKS PER INCH. 

There should be no great difficulty 
in obtaining the number of threads 
and picks per inch. For a fabric 
which is entirely plain weave a com' 
paratively simple count will answer 
the purpose. For stripes, checks, or 
where any other kind of a pattern is 
employed, it is a very good plan to 
count the total number of threads 
or picks in a pattern repeat and the 
space which they occupy in the cloth, 
thereby obtaining the average num- 
ber per inch. The take-up on differ- 
ent fabrics will vary quite widely, 
due to the cloth construction, yarn 
sizes and number of picks per inch, 
but the 10 per cent which we have 
used may be considered a fair aver- 
age. Should more accurate re- 
sults be desired, it is possible 
to pull out a number of threads and 
picks, ascertaining the amount which 
they stretch, and thereby obtaininfe 
more accurately the yards of yarn per 
pound. For yam dyed fabrics, how- 
ever, on an ordinary good construc- 
tion, the large majority of results 
will be satisfactory when a take-up 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



101 



of 10 per cent Is used. Upon this 
average number is based the cost of 
the material which enters into the 
cloth as made. 

This yarn cost for convenience has 
been made to cover all the various 
items which ordinarily affect the cost 
of production, but it is admitted that 
there are many cases which must be 
treated in an individual manner if 
anything like accurate results are to 
be secured. There are a few features 
which tend to make the cost of col- 
ored yam goods lower than for grey 
yarn fabrics, while there are many 
more details which tend to increase 
their cost, so that in the majority of 
instances colored goods are relatively 
more expensive than grey cloths. Up 
to the time the yam is placed on 
beams in the grey state very little 
difference is noted, but additional 
processes which are rather expensive 
increase the cost of dyed yarns, so 
that when they arrive at the loom 
their cost is appreciably higher than 
for grey yarns. 

EXTRA PROCESSES. 

Some of the extra processes which 
increase the cost are ball warping, 
doubling, bleaching, dyeing, sizing, 
separating, beaming, slashing and 
quilling. In many instances the proc- 
esses are even more numerous, es- 
pecially where certain results are to 
be secured. It often happens that a 
process is used which, while adding 
to the previous cost, makes it pos- 
sible for large enough economies to 
be effected in the succeeding opera- 
tion to make its adoption worth 
while. In addition to the labor and 
other expense items there are certain 
losses in yam which sometimes radi- 
cally increase the cost and which 
are not often noted when grey goods 
are made. Some of the facts which 
are well to bear in mind when color- 
ed goods are being considered are 
that, due to excessive handling, th«s 
yarn sizes are usually coarser than 
are noted in many grades of grey 
material. It is seldom that colored 
yams are used much finer than 60s-l, 
and when finer yarns are handled 
they are likely to be ply rather than 
single. It is probable tiiat the large 



proportion of colored cloths are made 
from yarns of 30s-l or less in size. 
It is seldom that a much finer warp 
than filling is used, inasmuch as the 
warp is handled extensively, and the 
coarser the size the less the cost of 
handling is likely to be. This is not 
noted in the making of grey goods, 
for many of the large selling ordi- 
nary fabrics contain a warp which 
is much finer than the filling. In 
any case, there are not the serious 
objections to the use of fine warp 
which are noted when colored goods 
are being made. Filling for colored 
fabrics is handled much more than 
it is for grey goods, and for this rea- 
son a much higher standard of twist 
is employed, so as to give sufficient 
strength, though this results in a 
harsher cloth than the same size of 
grey yarns is likely to produce. 

COLORED FILLING YARN. 

Colored filling yarn is handled in 
much the same manner as warp 
with the exception of the beaming 
and slashing operations, where a 
quilling process is substituted. Com- 
paratively few combed colored yarns 
are used, mainly because most of the 
yarn sizes are so low as to make this 
process unnecessary. In some in- 
stances combing is used when fine 
ply yarns are being made or where a 
special fabric is being produced, and 
it is sometimes necessary when fast 
or dark colors are being used. The 
fibres on a black or dark dyed yarn 
are likely to be very notice- 
able when used alongside a bleached 
stripe, and inasmuch as the combing 
process eliminates a large proportion 
of the short cotton fibres and makes 
a smoother yarn, it is more success- 
ful to use combed yarn in these in- 
stances even if the cost is higher and 
combing unnecessary, so far as prac- 
tical yarn making or handling is con- 
sidered. 

One item of importance, and which 
has much to do with successful man- 
ufacturing is the correct balance be- 
tween the cotton staple used and the 
size of yarn produced. With many 
grey yarns the cost of cotton is a 
large item, and while it also is ol 
much importance in colored work, 



102 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



the additional processes make it of 
less importance, that is, it is often 
possible to use a better cotton and 
save enough through such use to 
malce it worth while, whereas it> 
would be an undesirable policy and 
would increase the cost on grey 
goods. For the above reason, most 
mills making dyed yarn fabrics are 
likely to use a better cotton for the 
same size of yam than grey cloth 
mills, this being especially true when 
numbers higher than 30 or 35 are be- 
ing made, or where quality is of im- 
portance. Many grey cloth mills are 
so arranged that a great variety of 
yarns, both as to size and quality, 
can be produced, and the same is true 
regarding the kind of cloth produced 
from these yarns, but mills making 
dyed yam fabrics use combinations 
of color and other similar features 
to produce their styles, and the yarn 
sizes and cloth constructions do not 
change radically from year to year, 
neither is there any great variety in 
the sizes of yams being produced. 

ECONOMICAL YARN MAKING. 

This offers an opportunity to 
practice economy in yarn making, 
and were such a condition possible 
in some of the fancy grey cloth mills, 
the present cost of production could 
undoubtedly be further reduced. 
Many yarns which are dyed have to 
be given a bleaching process previous 
to the dyeing operation, while oth- 
ers are only partially bleached, and 
there are quite a good many on which 
dark colors are used that are not 
bleached at all. These varying con- 
ditions naturally affect the cost, and 
unless care is exercised incorrect re- 
sults are very liable to be obtained. 

Naturally, the best way is to treat 
each cloth separately, but a 
buyer is not acquainted at all with 
processes and cannot adopt such a 
method. Neither is there any great ne- 
cessity for any such accuracy so far as 
he is concerned, inasmuch as it is 
necessary for him to pay the quoted 
prices, and an estimated cost may 
be considered only as a protection 
against excessive profits. Colored 
goods are not sold by the same meth- 
od as grey goods, and mills 



while competing for business ara not 
running on identical constructions, 
and a certain amount of leeway is 
therefore offered them. 

Possibly, the problem which woulQ 
Oe most difficult for a buyer to solve 
is the condition which develops when 
a portion of a colored fabric is made 
of white or bleached yarns. A cloth 
which is made of certain yarn sizes 
will not cost so much when a large 
pioportion is white as it will when 
most of it is coilored. This is because 
the dyeing operation is a separate 
process from bleaching, and there 
are various labor and expense items 
which add to the cost, and, in addi- 
tion, there are the varying increases 
necessary through the dyestuffs used. 
The various colors cost different 
amounts, depending on the depth ot 
shade, the fastness to light, washing 
or bleaching, and other general char- 
acteristics, but when the other ex- 
penses are added, the variation in 
cost for all the processes is not so 
great as might be expected. 

ORDINARY COLORS. 

Of course, this refers to normal 
yarns and ordinary colors and does 
not have any relation to some of the 
low-grade results often produced, 
neither does it apply to special yarns 
Which have to be handled extensive- 
ly with a resulting high cost. Natu- 
rally it does not refer to stock-dyed 
yarns on which the cost of produc- 
tion is mucli lower, although the re- 
sults produced are many times as 
good or better than when yarns are 
dyed. 

One fact which should be mention- 
ed is that the total cost of dyeing 
and handling yarns does not increase 
in the same manner as does that for 
producing grey yams. It costs just 
about twice as much for the various 
labor and expense items on 32s-l 
grey yarn as it does for 20s-l grey 
yam, but it is not true that the 
costs of bleaching and dyeing are 
twice as much for 32s-l as they are 
for the same kind of 20s-l dyed 
yarn. It does cost more per pound 
to dye, bleach and handle a fine than 
it does a coarse yarn, but the ad- 
vance in price does not bear the 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



108 



same relative proportion to the ad- 
vance on grey yarns. 

The costs of the various processes, 
when converting grey yarns into 
bleached or dyed yarns will vary 
widely, due to manufacturing condi- 
tions, that is, when a small amount 
of any color is handled the items 
which go to make up the cost will 
be high, but where large quantities 
of a comparatively few colors are 
being made quite large reductions 
will be noted. For this reason, therb 
will be a greater variation from any 
normal standard when dyed fabrics 
are being considered than when oth- 
er varieties of cloth are being made, 
and it is less possible to obtain a 
correct cost unless each fabric is 
considered on an entirely different 
basis, and, therefore, impossible of 
accomplishment for a buyer. The 
items which are more or less staple 
do, however, make it possible to ob- 
tain a general idea regarding the 
costs of making. Realizing that there 
are very many cases where the 
methods we have used cannot apply, 
we are presenting a table for yarns 
containing the total cost of the va 
rious processes. This is for carded 
yarns, inasmuch as they are more 
frequently used than combed: 

Total yarn 
Yu-n size. Cost dyed. 

10 22.43 

12 22.92 

14 23.43 

16 23.96 

18 24.49 

20 ...'. 25.02 

22 25.69 

24- ......... 26.30 

26 29.27 

•28 ... . . . . 29.96 

30 30.67 

32 . ; 31.40 

34 32.52 

36 35.07 

38 35.83 

40 36.55 

42 37.32 

44 38.15 

46 41.18 

48 42.02 

50 42.85 

55 44.90 

60 49.08 

SIZE OF YARNS. 

Previously we explained how the 
average size of yarns in any colored 
fabric could be obtained. At the 
same time, it is easy enough to ob- 
tain the yards per pound by an or- 



dinary weighing process. If there 
are 7.00 yards per pound, and the 
average yam size is 44s-l, the result 
will be obtained as follows when thts 
yarns used are all of a dyed charac- 
ter. For 44s- 1 average size the total 
cost from the table is 38.15 cents 
per pound, and with seven yards per 
pound the cost per yard for mate- 
rial would be 5.4.5 cents. Not all col- 
ored yarn fabrics are, however, of 
solid dyed yarn, in fact the majority 
contain a greater or less proportion 
of bleached material, and this com- 
plicates the process to a certain ex- 
tent. For ordinary purposes an ap- 
proximate result can be secured as 
follows: 

In a dyed yarn fabric, when thb 
number of threads and picks per 
inch are being secured it can be as- 
certained how many of these threads 
are dyed and how many of them aro 
bleached. For illustration, in a cloth 
containing 80 threads per inch, 36 oi 
them are dyed, while of the filling 
24 out of the 56 used are dyed. This 
gives 60 dyed threads out of a total 
of 136. Bleached yarn costs approx- 
imately 4 cents per pound less than 
dyed yarn, so with 44s-l there would 
be 60-136 of the total weight at 38.15 
cents per pound and 76-136 at 34.15 
cents per pound, or 16.88 cents for 
dyed yarn and 19.08 cents for bleach- 
ed yam per pound, and with 7.65 
yards per pound the results per yard 
would be 2.21 cents for dyed and 2.49 
cents per yard for bleached yarn. A 
similar process can be observed 
where fancy patterns, stripes or 
checks are employed, and while the 
variation in yarn size between warp 
and filling and the fact that differenl 
depths of color and other features af- 
fect the results, the Inaccuracy will 
be comparatively small, due to the 
other items of cost. 

WEAVING COSTS. 

In regard to the weaving costs ana 
the various other expenses which oc- 
cur after the yam has been prepar- 
ed in a manner suitable for use in 
the weave room it can be said that 
there are many items which are like- 
ly to affect the results. For ordinary 
fabrics the actual loom production In 



104 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



yards per day or yards per week is 
probably the most reliable ratio to 
consider when obtaining the cost of 
production which follows the cost of 
yarn making. There are many fab- 
rics which through special weaves or 
complicated conditions of manufac- 
ture cannot be considered on the ba- 
sis which we are using. Many col- 
ored fabrics are to-day being produc- 
ed on automatic looms with many 
more looms per weaver and with a 
reduction in the cost of production, 
but the use of automatic looms is by 
no means as common as it is on cer 
tain kinds of grey goods, and for this 
reason, cannot be considered when 
the majority of fabrics are being an- 
alyzed. 

Automatic looms do make econo- 
mies possible, but up to the present 
time these savings have been 
secured largely by the man- 
ufacturer, and there has been 
no great tendency to force prices onto 
an automatic loom basis, a condition 
which is slowly but surely developing 
in the grey goods market, and which 
is making it less possible to secure 
any very large dividends when or- 
dinary looms are being used. LfOom 
production will vary according to the 
speed and percentage of pi eduction, 
and will affect the cloth cost accord- 
ingly. A box loom which is produc- 
ing any kind of check patterns will 
operate slower than one making 
stripes or ordinary patterns, but for 
ordinary fabrics of medium width a 
reasonable degree of accuracy can 
be secured. In addition to the la- 
bor cost of weaving and handling, 
there are various other expenses to 
be considered, such as insurance, re- 
pairs, depreciation, power, light, ship- 
ping charges and various other de- 
tails, also the cost of selling the mer- 
chandise. 

We have included all these vari- 
ous items under one classification, 
and while there are certain instances 
where such a classification is objec- 
tionable, there are reasons why the 

SIMPLEST METHOD 
is desirable, and there should be no 
great difficulty in ascertaining the 
correct amount for any fabric which 



is being considered. The various 
amounts for each fabric are designat- 
ed by the picks per inch which the 
cloth contains, and it is a total cost. 



Picks 
per in. 

30. . 

32. . 

34. . 

36. . 

38. . 

40. . 



Total Total 

Costs. Costs. 

Cents Picks Cents 

per yd. per in. per yd. 

. .1.22 66 3.02 

. .1.32 68 3.12 

..1.42 70 3.22 

..1.52 72 3.32 

. .1.62 74 3.42 

..1.72 76 3.52 

..1.82 78 3.62 

..1.92 80 3.72 

..2.02 82 3.82 

..2.12 84 3.92 

..2.22 86 4.02 

..2.32 88 4.12 

..2.42 90 4.22 

..2.52 92 4.32 

..2.62 94 4.42 

..2.72 96 4.52 

..2.82 98 4.62 



.2.92 100 4.72 



Possibly, a number of illustrations 
will make the whole method of ap- 
plication very clear to those who are 
unfamiliar with the subject. A ging- 
ham fabric contains 82 threads in the 
warp and 84 picks in the filling. It 
contains 6.25 yards per pound, is 
32 inches wide and is made from 
carded stock. (It must be remem- 
bered that the various details Tve 
have given are all for carded yam.) 

82 threads + 84 picks = 166, total threads 

per inch. 
166 X 32" wide = 5,312 yards of yarn per 

yard of cloth without take-up. 
10% take-up in weaving. 
5,312 -=- .90 = 5,902, total yards of yarn 

per yard of cloth. 
5,902 X 6.25 yds per pound = 36,888 yards 

of yarn per pound. 
36,888 -7- 840 (standard) = 44/1 average 

yarn size. 
The cloth Is one-half dyed and one-half 

bleached yarn. 
44/1 dyed = 38.15 cents per pound (from 

table). 
44/1 bleached = 34.15 cents per pound. (4 

cents less per pound than dyed). 
19.08 (Vz of 38.15 cents) -h 6.25 = 3.06 

cents, dyed yarn. 
17.08 (% of 34.15 cents) -=- 6.25 = 2.74 

cents, bleached yarn. 
Weaving and all expenses (84 picks in 

table) = 3.92 cents. 
Total cost, 9.72 cents per yard. 

Another illustration of a cheaper 
fabric may be of more service, inas 
much as it is more nearly what the 
majority of fabrics made from dyed 
yarns are likely to be. This has a 
count of 67 threads and 56 picks per 
inch, it is 27 inches wide and con- 
tains 6.40 yards per pound. 



A COTTON FABRICS OLOSSAKi 



-J'.. 



67 threads -f 66 picks -= 123 total threads 

per Inch. 
123 X 27" wide = 3.321 yarda of yarn per 

yard of cloth without take-up. 
lO'/e take-up In weavtnK. 
3,321 -7- .90 = 3,690 yards of yarn per yard 

of cloth. 
3,690 X 6.40 = 23,616 yards of yarn per 

pound. 
23.616 -i- 840 (standard) = 28/1 average 

yarn size. 
One-half bleached and one-half dyed yarn 

in the fabric. 
20/1 dyed = 29.96 cents per pound (from 

table). 
28/1 bleached = 25.96 cents (4 cents less 

per pound for bleached). 
14.98 (Mi of 29.96 cents) -+- 6.40 = 2.34 

cents, dyed yarn. 
12.98 (Vs. of 25.96 cents) -4- 6.40 = 2.03 

cents, bleached yarn. 
Weaving and all other expenses (56 picks 

from table) = 2.52 cents. 
Total cost per yard of cloth = 6.89 cents. 

DOES NOT HOLD FOR ALL. 

One of the conditions whicli must 
be very clearly understood regarding 
this method of obtaining the cost of 
cloth is that it does not apply at all 
to fabrics which are made from 
stock-dyed yarns, neither does it ap- 
ply where yarns are dyed in any 
other manner than the ordinary proc 
esses of yarn dyeing. Neither does 
the method give accurate results 
when automatic or semi-automatic 
looms are being used. Such condi- 
tions of cloth making have to be 
treated on an entirely different basis, 
inasmuch as they are responsible for 
a different cost of production. Many 
styles of ginghams and similar fab- 
rics are now being produced from 
stock-dyed yarns, and on automatic 
looms, and to these cloths this meth- 
od does not apply. In most cases, 
it will be found that results are more 
satisfactory and more accurate for 
the ordinary lines of colored dress 
goods woven on ordinary looms than 
they are for some of the older types 
of fabrics upon which new methods 
have been adopted. 



COTTON CLOTH COST FINDING. 

A Key for Cloth Buyers and Cloth 
Makers. 

The American cotton cloth Indus- 
try has developed rapidly during the 
past few years, but just how fast few 
really realize unless they have been 



in close touch with selling conditidns. 
H'ormtrly, most of the fabrics pro- 
duced were made from coarse yarns, 
and the patterns were made largely 
by the introduction of colors, while 
to-day the styling and weaves are of 
great variety, with yarns of much 
liner sizes and very much better 
quality. Naturally, such a develop- 
ment has been brought about through 
the demand of consumers, but along 
with this increased demand there 
h.ive arisen many problems of sell- 
intr and making which at one time 
we.-e not of great importance. 

Iii the first place many oi the new 
lincK of cloth are handled by conver- 
ters Dr converting jobbers who place 
ordeis for fabrics and who designate 
what the cloth constructions and pat- 
terns are to be, and in this way the 
manufacturer is more a cloth make: 
than he is a cloth or style developer 
In a large number of cases, this cor 
verier asks a mill treasurer to quote 
a price on the fabrics or combination? 
which he desires and which the milt 
has not previously made, and, there- 
fore, a manufacturer must have some 
means of knowing fairly accurately, 
the cost of making any cloth his mill 
is able to produce. This necessity 
has resulted in the keeping of care- 
ful records and from such records 
economical cloth making has partly 
been due. 

The building of large mills, to- 
gether with the great Increase In 
competition, has also been responsi- 
ble for the lowering of costs of pro- 
duction, as has the greater general 
knowledge regarding the fine points 
in fabric making. Under such con- 
''itions as have developed, even the 
older mills, which make fabrics of 
bleached and colored yarns, have 
found that a better knowledge than 
formerly is necessary regarding tht 
costs of cloth making, that is if thev 
continue in the race with others, and 
if the fabrics they produce be the 
ones which show the best marplns of 
profit. 

The cost systems which have been 
developed are, many of them, fairly 
satisfactory In the plant where they 
are used but are of comparatively 



100 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



little value to others, and it can oe 
said that there is about as great va- 
riety in the methods which are em- 
ployed as could well be imagined 
Admitting that these methods of find- 
ing costs are satisfactory to the mills 
using them, it will be seen that they 
give more or less protection to the 
cloth maker in that he can Quote a 
price to a buyer which may or may 
not be exhorbitant. The buyer has 
no protection at all excepting that 
obtained through asking quotations 
from different sellers for the same 
clotb. and through his own judgment 
regarding the price at which the 
cloth will sell. 

Because certain trained cloth mak> 
ers have information of the above na- 
ture they are of value to cloth buy- 
ers, making money for them by sav- 
ing it. Recognizing that a cloth buy 
er is just as important in distribut- 
ing as a manufacturer is in produc- 
Ine. and knowing that absolutely no 
■^oiiahle information is obtainable on 
the subject, we are presenting a few 
general rules which will be of great 
value to buyers, and which will give 
a certain amount of aid to manufac- 
turers. 

FABRIC ANALYSIS. 

It should be readily seen by anyone 
who understands anything about 
cloth that any reliable cost system 
must be based first on certain funda- 
mental facts of cloth construction. In 
this it is no different than any other 
oroblem of construction, for the items 
material, labor, insurance, supplies 
and all the other details must be con- 
Bidered carefully. To many the prob- 
lem appears very complicated, be- 
cause the items for cotton cloth are 
so small per yard. 

A cost estimate is either made 
from a stated construction or from a 
sample submitted, and as making a 
cloth analysis consists in obtaining 
the cloth construction, the problems 
are identical when this has been ac- 
complished. There are two facts 
uDon which cotton cloth construction 
depends, first, that No. 1 yarn con- 
tains 840 yards per pound. No. 2 yam 
contains 1,680 yards per pound, and 



Ko on, or, in other words, that No. 60 
yarn contains 50 times 840 yards, or 
iZ.uuu yards per pound, and second, 
tnat a pouna, as used for yarn, con- 
tains lb ounces or 7,000 grains. 

In giving all of our estimates we 
bave attempted to make the problem 
as simple as possible, not only re- 
garding the yarns and their cost but 
also regarding the cloth and its cost 
or making. We have, therefore, laid 
out the cost on an average number 
Oasis, and while this has its defects. 
It gives results which are fairly ac- 
curate, ana wnich are much more re- 
liable than some mills have been in 
ibe habit of obtaining. The results 
are ones which might be noted in any 
medium-sized, economical plant, ano 
while some operate at a lower cost, 
there are others which have a hlgner 
cost, and, in this connection, the fig 
ares given will be of value. Unde: 
certain conditions, some cloth buyer? 
or cloth makers may desire to under- 
stand the method of analyzing a 
piece of cloth, and we, therefore 
present such a process. 

ANALYZING CLOTH. 

The first step in making a cloth 
analysis is to obtain the number of 
threads and picks per inch, and this 
is accompl shed either by cutting out 
a certain amount of cloth with a die 
and men pulling out the threads anc 
counting them, or else by counting 
the threads with a magnifying glass 
as they stand in the cloth. The 
threads per inch in the cloth multl 
plied by the cloth width will give the 
number ot threads in the warp un- 
less there be a special pattern where 
extra threads are used. This is, of 
course, not considering the selvages, 
for they are usually about a quarter 
(if an inch wide on each edge of the 
cloth, and contain about twice as 
many threads as the ground work of 
the fabric. 

The next step is to obtain the yarn 
sizes in the cloth being considered 
This is done by pulling out thread! 
and then weighing on accurate bal 
ances. The amount of yarn to b- 
weighed will depend somewhat on 
circumstances, but any amount ove^ 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



107 



= 26/1 



100 inches will give satisfactory re- 
sults if the balances be accurate, al- 
ctiough., of course, it is often possible 
CO obtain only a few inches of cloth, 
ind estimates must be made under 
such conditions. To illustrate the 
aieiboa used in finding the size of 
yarn an example may be of service 

• AN EXAMPLE. 
If 124 inches of yarn be pulled out 
and thcu weighed ana the weight is 
1 1-10 grains, what is the yam size? 
The formula is. 

124 inches X 7,000 grains 
1.1 grains X 36 Inches X 840 standard 

The result as obtained will be clear 
enough to anyone having any expe- 
rieLce, but an explanation may be o< 
value. If the I2!4 inches which were 
weighed be divided by tne weight, or 
1 1-10 grains, tlie result will be th-e 
inches per grain, or 112 7-10. As 
the^e are 7,000 grains per pound, thf 
inches per grain times 7,000 
will give inches per pound. If this 
result be aivmed by 36 inches, it will 
give the number of yards per pound 
and wneu any given number of yards 
of cotton yarn weighs a pound, the 
size can easily be obtained by divid- 
ing by 840 yards which is the stand- 
ard for No. 1 yarn. 

Of course, in making any accurate 
analysis there are also other facts 
which should be obtained, such as 
the take-up on the yarn, or yams 



used, both warp and fiUine, and the 
warp pattern or weave, if . the cloth 
is to be duplicated. The take-up can 
be obtained approximately by pulling 
out yarn and measuring the length 
obtained and comparing it with the 
length of the cloth woven from It. 

Aii an illustration, the following 
may make the process clear: A 
thread is 6^ inches long when It is 
woven in the cloth, but stretches to 
7 inches when pulled out. "What is 
the take-up? 



7 inches 
.5 inches 



6% inches = .5 Inches. 
7 inches = 7% take-up. 



With a little experience, the result 
obtained in this manner will be en 
tirely satisfactory. 

THE PATTERN. 
When the fabric has a pattern in 
it, some kind of a plan must be 
made if an accurate analysis be de- 
sired, but this is only necessary in 
certain instances in the plan such as 
we have used in our system of costs. 
Following w^e give a plan which may 
be of service. The first step is to 
obtain the width of the pattern, and 
by dividing the width of the cloth by 
that of the pattern the number of 
repeats of the pattern may be ob- 
tained, and from this result the num- 
ber of ends or threads of the differ- 
ent yarns in the warp. 

Cloth width. 35%". Selvages, V*" total. 
Pattern width, .51 inch. 

35%" — V*" = 35V4" -4- .51 = 69 3-5 repeats. 
Note that the selvages are narrower than It 
usually the case. 




PATTERN BLUE SAMPLE 
12, 

•im American combed -. (12| 

^<*'\ American combed blue 

JO'S .\merlcan carded ,..■ 



32 4 

2 

1 1 



I I I I 21 
I I I l-l 
I 132 1121 



a,u« 



t08 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



To make the process as simple as 
possible, the system as we have 
planned makes it unnecessary to an- 
alyze a piece of cloth so as to be able 
to find the cost of malcing. A few 
items are, however, necessary, and 
they should be readily understood. 
One fact which it is necessary to 
know is the width of ths cloth. An- 
other is the threads ard picks per 
inch. On these two facts, together 
with the take-up and the fundamental 
facts regarding yarn weights and 
sizes, the following system is found- 
ed. In a general way, Ihe yarn take- 
ups in ordinary cloths may be about 
10 per cent, and we have used this 
figure in our explanation. 

The take-up will probably be more 
than the amount given on heavy and 
less on light fabrics, rnd if more ac- 
curacy be desired than that obtained 
through the use of 10 per cent take- 
up the threads and picks can be pull- 
ed out, and the actual take-up of the 
cloth noted and averai^ed, and in this 
manner a better result be obtained. 
It is admitted that yarn sizes are 
much different when finished cloth is 
being considered, but, due to han- 
dling and processing, the yarns are 
generally finer in finished cloth than 
they are in grey cloth. Usually, a 
yarn which is 50-1 in grey cloth will 
become about 55-1 in finished cloth 
or, in other words, it will be about 1' 
per cent finer. This fact should ba 
considered when a finished cloth is 
being analyzed, or when the cost o' 
making is being obtained. 

THE AVERAGE NUMBER. 

To make the method clear, we will 
follow out the process of obtaining 
the average number from an nrdv 
nary fabric. A wide standard print 
cloth contains 64 threads and 64 
Dicks per inch. It is 38J inches wide 
in the grey state and weighs 5.15 
yards per pound. If the threads and 
picks be added together (64 threads 
plus 64 picks equals 128 total 
threads per inch), and then multi 
plied by the cloth width, it will give 



the number of yards of yarn in a 
yard of cloth without the take-ut) on 
the yarn. This gives as a result 4,- 
928 yards of yarn. As we have pre- 
viously stated, there is a 10 per cent 
take-up, and if this be added, the re- 
sult will be 5,476 yards of yarn (to- 
tal) in a yard of cloth. As there are 
5.15 yards per pound in this cloth, if 
the yards of yarn per yard be multi- 
plied by the yards of cloth per pound. 
the result will be the number of 
yards of yam per pound (5,476 
times 5.15 equals 28,201 yards), 
If this number of yards of yarn be 
divided by the standard number of 
840, it will give the average size of 
yarn in the cloth as woven, or 34 
(28,201 divided by 840 equals 34). 
This result forms the basis of es- 
timating the cost of the material 
which enters into each yard of cloth. 
If there be a pattern in the cloth 
which contains cords or extra 
threads, all that it is necessary to 
do is to obtain the number of threads 
in the pattern and the width of 
»hp nattern, and then the total 
number of ends in the warp can be 
obtained as previously explained. 
When there is a check in the filling, 
the same process can be employed, 
and by adding the average number 
of threads and picks per inch to- 
gether the average size can be 
obtained, just the same as if only one 
size of yarn had been used in warp 
and filling. Following are presented 
the figures previously obtained so 
that the process may be clear: 

64 threads -^ «4 nicks = 128. total threads per 

'nr-Vi. 

12S X SSMs", cloth width = 4,928 yards of yarn 
per yard of cloth without ♦ake-ups. 

10''?, take-up in weaving-. 

4,S2.S -^ .9 = 6,476, total yards of yarn per 
I'-^rd of cloth. 

5,476 X 5.15 yards per lb. = 28.201 yards of 
varn per lb. of cloth. 

28.201 H- S40 standard = 34, average yarn size. 

ITEMS OF MRN COST, 

The method we have adopted 
shows in a simple manner how to ob- 
tain the average size of the yarns 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



109 



which compose a fabric, and the 
next probiem is to obtain the costs 
of these yarns. In obtaining the cost 
of yarn the first item which is of im- 
portance is the cost of the material 
or cotton. This cost will vary in 
different years and in different parts 
of the same year, so that no figures 
are absolutely reliable except for a 
comparatively short time after being 
presenteu, but a simple rule will 
serve to make the results very accu- 
rate. In the costs, as we have laid 
them out, the yarn costs are based 
on cotton which costs 14 cents a 
pound for Middling Uplands grade 
at the mill, or on to-day's basis of 
costs. This makes the cost of cotton 
aDout l'6i cents, as quoted in the cot- 
ton exchange. If cotton should de- 
cline 2 cents a pound, this amount 
subtracted from the price of yarn as 
given will be accurate enough for all 
ordinary purposes, and if the price 
of cotton should advance, any extra 
charges over the 131 cents, as quoted 
on the exchange, should be added to 
the price of the yarn as given. The 
finer yarns are, of course, made from 
longer staple cotton, but it has been 
found tnat the advances for the dif- 
ferent lengths of staples are quite reg 
ular, and that if the advances or de- 
creases noted on Middling Uplands 
grade be added to or subtracted from 
the yarn costs as given and made 
from longer staple cotton, the results 
will be entirely satisfactory. The 
price of Middling Uplands can always 
be obtained from any eood textile pa- 
per. 

LOSSES IN PROCESSING. 

When the price of cotton has been 
obtained there are, of course, certain 
losses in processing at the mill which 
make the net cost of cotton in the 
yarn somewhat higher than it was 
when purchased. We have consider- 
ed normal conditions in the amounts 
of waste made and in the extra price 
made necessary through this loss, 
and, of course, the loss on combed 



yarn is much higher than that for 
carded yarn. 

In addition to the price of material 
in the yarn is the cost of the labor 
of spinning it and getting it In a 
condition ready to weave, and also 
the various expenses such as sup- 
plies, insurance, depreciation and the 
other costs necessary in the processes 
of making yarn. Yarns are not all 
made with the same amount of twist, 
and because the twist will vary, the 
production per spindle will vary, and, 
naturally, when the production va- 
ries, the cost of making will vary, 
but for normal yarns the cost of the 
cotton forms such a large proportion 
that a small variation in production 
does not greatly affect the total cost 
of the finished material. 

COMBED YARNS. 

Not only do combed yarns have a 
greater loss in cotton but they also 
have a somewhat larger expense In 
making, and this has been considered 
in calculating the costs. Then it is also 
true that warp yarn made from a 
certain cotton is likely to be of a 
coarser size than filling made from 
the same length of staple. Thus. 
30s-l warp might be made from 1 1-16- 
inch staple, while the same staple 
would be used in filling as fine as 
40S-1. As we have only given one 
cost, which is the average for both 
warp and filling, the change in length 
of staple comes at a higher number 
than it would if warp and filling had 
been considered separately, that la, 
by obtaining an average price the 
cost of, say, 44s-l yarn would be 
rather low for warp and high for fill- 
ing, but is a fair average. 

Admitting that there are certain 
faults in treating the subject as we 
have, but which are due to the fact 
that it is a short system and one 
which can be used by those not ac- 
quainted with a great amount of tech- 
nical detail used in cloth making, we 
give the following table of yarn costs 
for both combed and carded yarna: 



no 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



YARN COSTS FOR COMBED AND 
CARDED YARNS. 

Including All Costs up to the Weave 
Room. 

Carded. Combed. 

(Cents (Cents 
Size. per pound.) per pound.) 

10 14.68 22.14 

Vi 14.92 22.60 

14 16.18 22.69 

16 16.46 22.99 

18 16.74 23.29 

- 20 16.02 23.81 

22 16.34 23.95 

24 16.66 24.31 

26 19.22 24.63 

28 19.56 26.01 

30 19.92 25.40 

82 20.30 25.82 

34 20.67 26.23 

36 ' 23.27 26.60 

38 23.68 27.04 

40 24.05 27.44 

.42 24.47 27.91 

44 24.93 28.42 

46 27.63 31.51 

48 28.12 32.05 

60 28.60 32.56 

65 29.77 33.86 
60 33.08 37.62 

66 34.58 39.23 

70 43.39 

76 45.09 

80 49.49 

85 51.52 

90 66.21 

95 58.44 

lOO 63.11 

METHOD OF USING YARN KEY. 

We have previously explained how 
to obtain the average number in an? 
piece of cloth, and it is a simple 
process, for all that is needed is the 
total average threads and picks per 
inch, and by actually weighing the 
cloth, the average size of the yarn 
can be obtained. Buyers can obtain 
the weight of the cloth and the count 
because it is usually given in the 
contracts made, but when it is not 
available, it can be very easily ob- 
tained. We have found that the av- 
erage size of yarn in the standard 
print cloth is about 34s-l. By refer- 
ring to the table we find that for 
carded yarn the cost of making, in- 
cluding the cotton, is 20.67 cents per 
pound. This cloth weighs 5.15 yards 
per pound, or .194 pounds per yard. 
Tf this cost be multiplied by the ac 
tual weiaht per yayd of the cloth, the 
cost of the material can easily be 
obtaiv-ed, which enters into each yard 
^* the cloth, (20.67 cents per pound 



times .194 equals 4.01 cents, cost of 
material). 

Some buyers may not he able to 
distinguish which fabrics are made of 
carded yarn and which of combed 
yarn. When a buyer makes a con- 
tract this is usually stated, but for 
those who are not in position to ob- 
tain this information, it can be said 
that the cloth appearance in a large 
number of cases will make this fact 
plain. 

When yarns are finer than P-Os-l 
they are almost always made from 
combed stock, while there are also 
all the mercerized fabrics and moat 
of the piece-dyed fabrics which are 
made from combed stock. When a 
piece of grey cloth is obtainaible, or 
when it is being analyzed and If it is 
made of carded stock there is likely 
to be a good many small specks 
which are not often present when 
the combed yarn has been used. 
Cloth made from carded yarn is also 
likely to have a certain amount of 
roughness which is not present in 
combed work. A little experience 
^ill enable one to estimate pretty ao 
r-urately whether a fabric has been 
made from carded or combed yarn 
Tf combed yarn has been used, the 
orices should be used as given under 
the combed heading in the table. 

CLOTH COSTS. 

We have already shown a method 
by which the average size of yarn in 
any piece of cloth might be obtained, 
and have also given a table in which 
there are included the price of ma- 
terial, labor, expenses and other de- 
tails necessary in the making of 
yarn. With the average number and 
the average price, the cost of the 
material in the yard of cloth is eas- 
ily found, but there are other costs 
which are nec°ssary before the total 
cloth cost is obtained. These are the 
costs of weaving and the expenses 
which naturally go with it, together 
with the expenses incurred in selling 
the cloth. 

It must be admitted that there are 
a very great number of costs possible 
for weaving any certain kind of 
cloth. In the first place, there are 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



111 



certain fabrics which are being wov- 

en on ordinary looms, and at the same 
time, being produced in other mills 
on automatic looms, and, naturaUy, 
the cost of production will vary. 
Then it is also true that one mill will 
use a somewhat shorter staple of cot- 
ton in its yarn and then run its 
looms somewhat- slower and with a 
consequent loss in percentage ot pro- 
duction. Other mills will use a bet- 
ter quality of cotton which coats 
more, and, therefore, be able to run 
the loom somewhat faster and obtain 
a greater percentage of production. 

Each mill has certain problems 
which are individual and which must 
be worked out to their own satisfac- 
tion, but the variarion taken all to- 
gether for yarn and cloth is not so 
great as many suppose to be the 
case. There are so many automatic 
looms in operation in the domestic 
market that they should be consider- 
ed when the price is being obtained 
on any ordinary fabric which can be 
produced on them. Under such cir- 
cumstances, practically all kinds of 
plain cloth, sateens, twills, plain 
Thirtings, duck. denims, sheet- 
ings, towels, drills, lawns, cambrics, 
pillow tubing, ginghams, flannels, 
etc., should be considered as woven 
on automatic looms, for they do make 
the price lower. It is often a fact 
that a certain cloth is being made on 
automatic looms and is returning a 
fair dividend at a certain price, while 
it is also true that the same fabric 
is being made on ordinary looms, and 
is returning the manufacturer prac- 
tically no dividends. 

A fact which is of importance in 
any cost is the relation of prices to 
costs. The price of cloth to-day 
shows a high profit when automatic 
looms are used, and a medium one 
where non-automatic looms are used, 
but the price of cotton to-day is high; 
and many manufacturers are using 
cotton in the cloth which they are 
splling which actually costs them 2 
cents a pound less than the present 
price, and which on an ordinary wide 
print cloth would return them about 
two-fifths of a cpnt per yard more 
than if they found it necessary to 



buy their cotton at to-day's price. 
ihis two-fifths of a cent per yard 
will make a difference in profit ob- 
tained of from 7 to 8 per cent and 
explains why proftts do not appear 
any higher in our estimates. In ob- 
iaining any cost of yarn the cotton 
cost must be first checked up and 
then the process is simple. 

We have given one table which 
contains the cost of weaving, includ- 
ing the expenses per loom and the 
selling costs per yard for cloths con- 
taining from 20 to 124 picks. Our 
yarn cost contains everything up to 
the weaving operation, while the 
jloth or weaving cost embraces ev- 
erything which is not included in the 
yarn costs. Recognizing that loom 
speeds will vary and that percent- 
ages of production will varv also, we 
present the following table, which, 
together with the yarn costs, will 
give the cost on all ordinary fabrics. 
We have given the cost which should 
he noted with a moderate loom speed 
with a rather low percentage of pro- 
duction and a comparativelv nmall 
number of looms per operative. Many 
mills are able to do much better than 
the figures given in the table, but for 
average conditions, the table will be 
^ound to be very accurate. 

PLAIN CLOTH COST. 



Including 


All Costs 


i Beginn 


ing WI1 




Weave 1 


Room. 






Costs 




Costs 


Picks. 


per yard. 


Picks. 


per yard. 


20 


$0.0025 


70 


$0.0096 


22 


0.0028 


72 


0.0099 


24 


0.0031 


74 


0.0102 


26 


0.0034 


76 


0.0106 


28 


0.0037 


78 


0.0108 


SO 


0.0040 


80 


0.0110 


32 


0.0042 


82 


00118 


34 


0.0045 


84 


0.0116 


36 


0.0048 


86 


0.0119 


38 


O.0051 


88 


0.0122 


40 


0.00o4 


90 


0.0125 


42 


0.O057 


92 


0.0128 


44 


0.0060 


94 


o.aso 


46 


0.0062 


96 


0.0133 


48 


0.0065 


98 


0.0136 


50 


0.0068 


100 


0.0139 


52 


0.0071 


102 


0.0141 


54 


0.0074 


104 


0.0144 


56 


0.0O76 


106 


0.0147 


58 


0.0079 


108 


0.0160 


fiO 


0.0082 


110 


0.0163 


62 


0.0085 


112 


0.015S 


64 


0.0088 


114 


0.0159 


66 


0.0091 


116 


0.0162 


•58 


0.0093 


118 


0.0K4 






120 


0.0167 






122 


0.0170 






124 


0.0171 



112 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



As we have already explained the 
method of obtaining the yarn size ii 
any piece of cloth and through the 
table of yarn costs we have been 
able to find out how much the cost 
)f material is for each yard "of cloth 
Lhe foregoing table will enable us to 
ascertain all the other costs which 
we have not included in the cost of 
the yarn. As we figured previously, 
the cost of material or yarn in a yard 
of ordinary print cloth, 38i inches 
wide, was 4.01 cent. By referring to 
the table of costs given above, it will 
be noted that for a plain cloth with 
64 picks the cost of weaving and ex- 
penses is $0.0088, or a total cost (4.01 
cents plus .88 cents equals 4.89 cents). 
This cloth is to-day selling for about 
SJ cents, thus giving a profit of .61 
cents a yard. With a normal produc- 
tion per loom this will give a net 
profit of at least $70 per loom per 
year, although many mills, through 
their longer hours and greater 
percentage of production, wouia 
obtain more than this amount. 
Seventy dollars a loom per 
year will give a profit on a fair loom 
valuation of 11 or 12 per cent. Thus 
it will be seen that any manufacturer 
who purchased his cotton the present 
season at 12 cents per pound at the 
mill is obtaining, with prices of cloth 
at the present levels, a profit of at 
least 20 per cent. 

In many cases, the profit obtained 
is more than this amount, for we 
have not given in our estimates any 
low figures for any single item, but 
have confined ourselves to normal 
conditions which should be noted in 
every representative mill. With the 
foregoing explanations, it should be 
an easy matter to obtain the approx- 
imate cost of any cotton fabric which 
is made on an automatic loom. 



FANCY CLOTH COSTS. 

As we have already stated, there is 
quite a variation in loom speeds and 
percentages of production on plain 
cloths, but there is an even wider va- 
riation in the above items on fancy 
cloths. The cloth constructions made 



and various other items are likely to 
affect the results, and even to the 
mill which makes the cloth the re- 
sults obtained are often not ascer- 
tainable. The analysis of a fancy 
cloth or the finding of the average 
number of yarn used is no different 
than for a coarser fabric. It is, how- 
ever, a good policy to find out the 
take-ups and use the ones found when 
making an estimate for the yarn size. 
There are so many varied conditions 
that only normal cloths can be con- 
sidered. Such fabrics as all-over 
lenos or ones on which there is a 
higher weaving expense, or where 
less looms than usual per weaver are 
run, of course cannot be considered 
on any average basis, because the 
weaving cost is so high. 

The weaving of fancy cloth has, 
however, become more systematized 
during the past ten years, and where 
there is a style which does not run 
especially well, it is usually placed 
in a set of looms in such a manner 
that it is operated on a basis not 
much, if any, different than other 
normal fancy fabrics. Jacquard 
looms a few years ago were fewer in 
number to a weaver than they are 
to-day, and in a great many instances, 
for ordinary straight tie-up machines 
the number of looms per weaver is 
as many as it is for ordinary fancy 
cloths. For this reason, fancy dobby 
cloth and ordinary jacquard cloth can 
be considered on the same basis. 

FABRIC WIDTHS. 

It would be well to remember that 
all of our costs as given apply to or- 
dinary fabrics, that is. ones up to 41 
or 42 inches wide in the grey. Fancy 
fabrics are not often made in the do- 
mestic market much over 36 inches 
wide in the grey state, but there are 
many imported fabrics in these lines 
which are up to 46 or 47 inches wide 
in the finished state. 

There are many plain fabrics, how- 
ever, which are made wider than 40 
inches in the domestic market, but 
we have not attempted to present 
costs on such fabrics, although they 
will not vary greatly from those giv- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



lis 



in in our table, inasmuch as the ma- 
lerial forms such a large proportion 
of the total cost. Fancy mills usual- 
ly have quite a variety of looms in 
their organization, and all these 
looms cost different amounts, but it 
is almost impossible to separate the 
various items and place them on a 
different basis, and for this reason, 
ordinary jacquard cloths such as 
shirtings, waistings and silk and cot- 
ton mixtures are sold on practically 
the same basis of cost as ordinary 
dobby fabrics. The difference in 
costs is so slight that for all practical 
purposes they may be considered on 
the same basis. 

MILL PROFITS. 

So far as the profits of a mill 
or the selling price of cloth is con- 
cerned, it can be said that these are 
largely the result of conditions affect- 
ing the sale of goods. Fancy clotn 
mills, or at least many of them, at- 
tempt to obtain a net profit of about 
$2 per loom per week, or about $100 
per loom per year, which gives at 
least a net profit of 10 per cent if the 
mill be arranged for expensive cluths, 
while it gives more than 10 per cent 
profit if an ordinary fancy mill be 
'considered. 

The profit per yard will vary de- 
pending upon the number of picks per 
inch, for it would not be a correct 
policy to expect a 30-pick cloth to 
return as high a profit per yard as 
one containing 100 picks. A clotn 
which was being produced at the rate 
of 200 yards per loom per week and 
which was showing a net profit of 1 
cent per yard would return about $2 
per week, or about $100 per year. A 
plain cloth does not need to carry the 
same amount of profit, because the 
total cost per loom of the mill is lese 
for plain cloth than it is for fancj 
cloth making. Understanding all the 
above conditions and realizing thai 
there are radical cloths which cannot 
be considered under any but an in- 
dividual basis, we present the follow 
ing table which includes all the costs 
of fancy cloth weaving. 



FANCY CLOTH COSTS. 

Including All Costs Beginning Witt- 
the Weave Room. 





Costs 




Costs 


Picks 


per yard. 


Picks. 


per yard. 


20 


$0.0072 


70 


$0.0274 


22 


o.ooso 


72 


0.0282 


24 


0.0088 


74 


0.0290 


26 


0.0096 


76 


0.0298 


28 


0.0104 


78 


O.OSOf 


30 


0.0112 


80 


0.0314 


32 


0.0120 


82 


0.0323 


34 


0.0128 


84 


0.0331 


36 


0.0137 


86 


0.0339 


38 


0.0145 


88 


0.0347 


40 


0.0153 


90 


0.0355 


42 


0.O161 


92 


U.U36^ 


44 


0.0169 


94 


0.0371 


46 


0.0177 


96 


0.C379 


48 


0.0185 


98 


0.0387 


50 


0.0193 


100 


0.0395 


52 


0.0201 


102 


0.0403 


54 


0.0209 


104 


0.0411 


56 


0.0217 


106 


0.0419 


58 


O.0225 


108 


0.0427 


60 


0.0233 


110 


0.0435 


62 


0.0241 


112 


0.0443 


64 


0.0250 


114 


0.0461 


66 


0.02SS 


116 


O.OiM 


68 


0.0266 


118 


0.0467 






120 


0.0476 






122 


0.0483 






124 


0.0491 




METHOD OF FINDING COST 




ILLUSTRATED. 





Possibly an illustration of the meth- 
od as used on a fancy fabric may 
make the process of finding the cost 
more evident. An oidinary fancy 
cloth which is sold in large quanti- 
ties is the one which contains 64 
threads and 72 picks per inch. It is 
34 inches wide in the grey state and 
weighs about 6.30 yards per pound. 
This cloth is made from combed yarn 
and is used extensively in piece mer- 
cerization. As previously explained 
64 threads plus 72 picks equals 136, 
the total threads per inch. Then we 
have 136 times 34 in;;hes cloth width 
equals 4,624 yards of yarn per yard 
of cloth, not including the take-up in 
weaving. As previously noted, 10 per 
cent is a fair average for this take-up, 
4,624 divided by .9 equals 5,138 total 
yards of yarn per yard of cloth. 5,138 
times 6.30 yards per pound equals 
32.369 yards of yarn per pound. To 
find the size, this number of yards 
should be divided by 840, the stand- 
ard for number 1 yarn. Then we have 
32,369 yards divided by 840 standard 
equals 38.1, the average size of yarn 
in the cloth. 



114 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



By referring to the table for yam 

costs we find that the average price 
of combed 38s-l yarn is 27.04 cents 
per pound. As this fabric contains 
6.30 yards per pound the weight per 
yard is 1.0000 divided by 6.30 or .159, 
die weight of the cloth per yard. 
Then we have 27.04 cents times .159 
equals 4.30 cents, the cost of the ma- 
lerial per yard of cloth. Again, re- 
ferring to the table of weaving cost, 
we will find that the total expense 
and labor for a 72-pick fancy cloth 
2.82 cents, so 4.30 cents plus 2,82 
cents equals 7.12 cents, the total cost 
of producing this fancy fabric. To- 
day's quoted price for the above cloth 



production care must be taken to 
make the estimates low enough to 
cover all conditions, that is, a labrit? 
might average 85 per cent production 
after the loom was started, but, due 
to certain circumstances, much time 
'iaht be lost in getting the warps 
into the looms, so that for six 
months' or a year's time the actual 
average percentage of production 
might be nearer 75 per cent, and as 
a loom does not earn profits when 
standing idle, only actual percent- 
ages are of value. This policy has 
been observed in the various costs 
which we have presented in the ta- 
bles. 




Sample of Cloth for Which the Cost Is Given. 



is 8§ cents, so the difference between 
the cost of making and the Belling 
price represents the net mill profit. 
8.625 cents minus 7.12 cents equals 1.- 
505 cents profit per yard. This is 
practically li cents per yard, and 
assuming a normal percentage of 
production for the iabric being con- 
sidered, the profit per loom per week 
would be about $2.25. or per year 
about $117. This should give a net 
profit to a mill of anywhere from 12i 
to 15 per cent. 

Prices are somewhat higher to-day 
than thpy have been for all kinds of 
fancy cloths, but most of these fab- 
rics are now showing very good mar- 
e;ins of profit. In assuming a loom 



COST OF CLOTH CONTAINING 
FAST COLORS. 

Probably the greatest increase in 
any one line of fabrics has been that 
which applies to grey cloths in which 
varus fast to the bleaching process 
are being used, and, inasmuch as a 
htill greater use is imminent, it may 
be well to give a method of obtain- 
ing this cost. For such fabrics the 
average size of yarn can be obtained 
•ist as in the other samples we have 
onsidered. When the threads are 
'eing counted the number of colored 
breads per pattern can also be ob- 
tained, and by measuring the width 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Hi 



of the pattern and finding the repeats 
of the pattern in the cloth the total 
colortd threads in the warp or filling 
(.an be obtained. 

When the total number of colored 
Matitds are known, it is easj' enough 
to find the percentage of the total 
cloih weights, at least approximately, 
which they form. By adding 18 
cents as an average cost for dyeing 
fast colors per pound to the cost of 
the regular yarn and then multiply- 
ing by the two weights (that of the 
grey warp and that of the colored) 
the cost can be determined. An Il- 
lustration will, without doubt, make 
the process clear enough so that it 
can be generally understood. The 
cloth illustrated is made on a fancy 
loom. It is 33 inches wide in the 
grey state, or as it comes from the 
I'Oom, and the stripes are 1 8-lfl inches 
wide. Then 33 inches, the cloth 
width, divided by 1 8-10 inches, the 
width of the stripe, equals 18 colored 
stripes in the cloth width. The fab- 
ric weighs when woven about 6.00 
yards per pound. The following fig- 
ures should make the results readily 
understood: 

Warp count. 95 (over all). 

FilMng count. 80. 

95 + 80 = 175. total cloth count per Inch. 

175 X 33" cloth width = 5.775 yards of yam 

per yard of cloth without take-up. 
18 stripes X 14 colored ends = 252 colored 

ends In fabric. 
252 -r- 5.77b = 4.36% of color In fabric. 
10% take-up In weaving. 
5,775 -^ .9 = 6.417, total yards of yam per 

yard of cloth. 
6,417 X 6.00 yards per lb. = 38,502 yards of 

vf>rn per lb. 
38.502 -?- 840 standard = 46/1, average 

yam size. 
1.0000 H- 6.00 yards per lb. = .167, weight per 

yard. 
.167 X .0436 = .on, weight of colored yarn. 
.167 — .007 = .160, weight of grey yarn. 
51.51c. per lb. X .160 = 5.04c., cost of btpn 

varn 
31.51c. + 18c. = 49.51c., cost or colored yarn 

ppr lb. 
49.510. X .007 = .35c., co^^t of colored yarn. 
Wpaving cost = 3.14c. (from tabled. 
.'i.n4c. + .350. 4- 3.14c. = 8.53c., total cost of 

cloth as Illustrated. 



CREPE RATINE NOVELTY 

We have at various times called 
attention to the fact that there has 
been a great Improvement in the 
stylef? and quality of the various 



fancy fabrics which are being pro- 
duced in domestic mills. These fab- 
rics have been growing in favor very 
fast, and the prices which are being 
obtained for them are much greater 
than was ever thought possible only 
a few years ago; in fact, there ar^ 
many instances wherein cotton fab- 
rics seem to be displacing certain 
kinds of worsted materials. This has 
resulted because of changes ir. living 
conditions, and it is very likely that 
such changes will be even more no- 
ticeable in the future than they have 
up to the present. 

Inasmuch as higher prices have 
been cctainable, this fact has per- 
mitted manufacturers to produce fab- 
rics which they formerly could 
not make, and has resulted in quite 
a little change in manufacturing con- 
ditions. At present, the tendency ap- 
pears to be to order quite a number 
of styles from a mill, but comparative- 
ly small quantities, while previously 
fewer styles were purchased with larg- 
er quantities of each individual 
fabric. Naturally, such buying 
conditions have made the cost of pro- 
duction increase at the mill and have 
created other difficulties for the man- 
ufacturers, but it seems as if such 
conditions must be accepted by the 
manufacturers and surmounted in 
the best way possible. 

We have also called attention to the 
fact that the three styles of cloth 
which seem to be in greatest demand 
are those produced from 

NOVELTY YARNS, 
and which are generally known as ra- 
tings or eponges, and also the fab- 
rics known as crepes and voiles. All 
these fabrics represent methods of 
manufacturing which are unusual, in 
that they are different from ordinary 
manufacturing in certain respects. 
Ratings or eponges from the nature 
of the yarn used are a comparative- 
ly heavy-weight fabric when com- 
pared with most lines of cotton cloths, 
while crepes and voiles are rela- 
tively light fabrics. 

Naturally, one would hardly expect 
these ideas io be used In combina- 
tions, nevertheless, many of the fab- 
rics which are being produced for next 
spring's sale have all of these ideas, or 



116 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



some of them, in combination, or at 
least they contain methods by which 
these effects are produced. Such 
fabrics as those illustrated and de- 
scribed are used for dresses, waists 
and many other similar purposes 
where a light-weight fabric can be 
satisfactorily used and where con- 
sumers desire to use something which 
expresses the latest ideas in fabric 
construction. 

PRODUCES CREPE EFFECT. 

Some time ago, fabrics were pro- 
duced which were generally known 



rather indistinguishable, so that no 
definite pattern can be noted. 

The voile effect is produced through 
the extra twist which is inserted in 
the filling, and in certain instances in 
the warp, although this extra twist is 
not as great as when a real voile 
cloth is being produced. In a good 
many instances the standard of twist 
for such fabrics for the filling was 
about the same as for warp, namely, 
4% times the square root of the yarn 
size in turns per inch. Because the 
yarns used are single instead of two- 
ply, as in ordinary voiles, the effect 



^S, Siiii;i 



Crepe Ratine Novelty. 



as crepe voiles. These cloths were 
neither a crepe nor a voile, but they 
had some of the characteristics of 
both fabrics. The method of produc- 
tion consisted in using a compara- 
tively fine single yarn in most cases, 
but with a slightly greater amount 
of twist than usual and a weave was 
used of an uneven character which 
produced a sort of irregular or crepy 
impression in the fabric. Most of 
these fabrics were made of medium 
or fine yarns and when any weave 
is applied to such a fabric it does 
not show prominently, because of the 
fine character of the yarns. This 
condition helps a great deal in per- 
mitting a crepy effect to be produced, 
t^nd still ftllows the we^ve to be 



produced is not as clear as in most 
voiles, but nevertheless, there is that 
crisp condition noted in voiles together 
with a moderate amount of openness. 
Such fabrics usually have a rather low 
construction in threads and picks per 
inch, although is it usually higher than 
for most ordinary voiles. In a good 
many instances where such fabrics 
are produced no extra twist is in- 
serted in either yarn, the weave alone 
making the crepy effect, although in 
the representative fabrics a certain 
amount of extra twist is used. 
Inasmuch as these 

CREPE VOILES 

have had, and are having quite a large 
sale, the idea is still being used, but 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



117 



because novelty yarn fabrics have 
been especially desirable, many of 
the newer fabrics contain various 
kinds of novelty yarn in stripes and 
checks, thus adding quite a little to 
the attractiveness of the material and 
making them more desirable when 
the style is considered. Possibly 
there are more of such fabrics being 
developed for another season's use 
than any other one idea excepting the 
entire novelty yarn fabric, generally 
known as ratine. With such large 
quantities being produced it is very 
easy to believe that prices will de- 
cline appreciably before another sum- 
mer is over. 

AN ORDINARY PRODUCT. 

One of the interesting features re- 
garding the present large production 
of novelty yarn fabrics is that only 
about two years ago it was generally 
claimed by most mill men and others 
that these novelty yarn fabrics could 
not be produced in domestic mills, 
because the machinery was not suit- 
able. Such an idea has been proven 
to be entirely false, inasmuch as prac- 
tically every mill in the country to- 
day which pretends to make any 
kind of novelty cloth, and many which 
have formerly made nothing but 
plain material, are now producing 
goods containing certain kinds of 
these novelty yarns. It is admitted 
that certain of these novelty yarns 
require special machinery for their 
production, but not many of such 
yarns are being used, and without 
doubt, mill men have learned more 
about yarn combinations and the 
production of novelty results in the 
past year than they learned in the pre- 
ceding decade. Many of these nov- 
elty yarns are produced through the 
twisting of various sizes of single 
yarns. 

In the fabric under discussion the 
novelty yarn is produced throueh the 
twisting of three •'breads of two-ply 
yarns. In the first twistine opera- 
tion two ends of approvirrately 18s-2 
varn ai"e twisted tosrether, these be- 
ing delivered at different sneeds. In 
a second twisting operation, in 
the reverse direction, this frst twist- 
ed varn is again twisted with a 
Blngle end of 60s-2. Because of the 



use of two-ply yarns, the resulting 
novelty material does not contain as 
decided loops as many of the ordi- 
nary novelty yarns, being some- 
what similar to many of the 
ordinary corkscrew yarns, although it 
is not, strictly speaking, such a prod- 
uct. The heavy two-ply yarns are 
made form carded material, while the 
fine two-ply yarn used in the second 
twisting operation is made from 
combed stock. 

The heavy nature of this novelty 
yarn shows quite a contrast to the 
rest of the fabrics, and this is one rea- 
son why the use of novelty yams 
seems so desirable, inasmuch as it 
offers 

OPPORTUNITIES IN CONTRASTING 

effects not formerly possible in any 
great number. This fabric has in ad- 
dition to the stripes of novelty yarn 
a satin stripe of an ordinary charac- 
ter. This is produced through the 
crowding of ends in a few dents, 
these ends weaving in a regular satin 
manner and showing a contrast to 
the ground work of the fabric. Ordi- 
narily, the weave which is used on the 
ground cloth to produce the crepe ef- 
fect is made upon either 12 or 16 
harnesses. Sometimes it is rather dif- 
ficult to produce a weave of this 
nature, in which there are no streaks 
either in the warp or filling. The use 
of stripes in a pattern will often elim- 
inate any trouble of this nature, in- 
asmuch as it breaks up the ground 
weave and does not make the weave 
defects so prominent. 

A fabric of the character described 
cannot be produced in an ordinary 
plain cloth mill, because it is neces- 
sary to use quite a number of har- 
nesses in its production. Naturally, 
looms must be available with these 
harnesses, so that for this reason a 
fancy cloth mill would have to pro- 
duce the material. In addition, the 
wide variety in yarn sizes would not 
be possible in a plain cloth mill un- 
less the yarns were purchased, and to 
get yarns of this character, at 
the present time, is likely to elimi- 
nate the possibility of obtaining the 
very satisfactory profits which can be 
secured from such cloth making. 



118 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Certain of these fabrics are also 
woven with a jacquard weave and 
naturally this makes it necessary for 
them to be produced in a fancy mill 

There are also a few mills in the 
domestic market which produce card- 
ed and combed work, although not 
prepared to make fancy materials. 
The satin stripes in a fabric of this 
character are sometimes placed upon 
a separate beam, although in other in- 
stances the stripe yarn is placed on 
the same beam as the yarn producing 
the ground work of the fabric. 
Whether these threads can be placed 
on the same beam as the ground yarn 
is largely a matter of experience and 
judgment. Usually, this method can 
be adopted if the threads are placed 
corref;tly in the reed. When they can 
be placed upon one beam it ctids in 
reducing the cost of production and 
makes less trouble in the weave 
room. 

The adoption of every possible 
economy when making suc;h fabrics 
is one reason why the profits of some 
mills are higher than others. In 
making fabrics of this character, the 
orders are smaller than when staple 
lines are being produced, therefore 
the styling and sample piece expenses 
are likely to be greater than for ordi- 
nary rabrics. The correct adoption of 
any gocd cloth idea and the use of it 
in various styles usually permits good 
profits to be secured. 

PRICES SHOW VARIATIONS. 
The selling prices on fabrics of this 
character are largely determined by 
the market conditions which exist. 
One style of fabric may sell for ap- 
proximately 9 cents a yard and 
a very similar fabric may sell for 11 
cents a yard, the difference being 
brought about through the higher cost 
of production in one case and the ig- 
norance of the buyer who is willing to 
purchase at the higher price through 
his ability to dispose of it at a sat- 
isfactory profit. In connection with 
this foregoing statement, it may be 
well to state that when any new idea 
is produced, profits arv3 usually ex- 
cessive, not only because the idea is 
desirable and in demand, but also be- 
cause buyers have no idea regarding 
relative values and often pay much 



more than a fabric is worth. Recently 
on certain styles of novelty yarn fab 
rics we have seen exceptional values 
in fabrics at $1 a yard when the 
cloths were first shown, and in com- 
parison other fabrics selling at twice 
as much did not seem anywhere near 
so desirable, neither did they cost as 
much to produce when the selling 
price was considered. The same thing 
is noticed to a greater or less extent 
in all the novelty yarn fabrics being 
produced to-day. 

Everyone, through extended dis- 
cussions of a number of years ago, ob- 
tained the idea that the novelty yarns 
used are very expensive to make and, 
therefore, the fabrics in which they 
are used could not be anything 
but expensive; and for this reason 
a buyer Is often willing to pay an ex- 
cessive price for a fabric, througn the 
fact that he has purchased nothing in 
the past on which a comparison can 
be made and becaucc he knows he can 
sell at a profit he does not consider 
the purchasing price. 

This condition will gradually dis- 
appear, bceause the demand for these 
fabrics is now at its height and much 
greater amounts are being produced 
on what might be called a declining 
market. Under such conditions there 
will be much more opportunity for 
comparison by buyers, and some of 
the fabrics will have to oe soia at 
low prices, for it is not believed the 
consuming public will absorb the great 
Quantity of such fabrics now being 
produced. 

NOVELTY YARN FEATURES. 

The main feature of interest in a 
fabric of this character is to obtain 
correctly the various amounts of ma- 
terials which are used in making the 
novelty yarns. If all the yarns used 
in making this product are purchaspd 
then it is a comparatively simple 
matter to obtain the total cost, but 
where various other features are in- 
volved such as tho production of smgie 
yarns, then twisting these single yarns, 
and in addition two other twisting 
onerations to product; the novelty 
eff'^ct, care must be used or results 
will not be correct. It Is usually a 
good plan to cl eck up the actual 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



119 



weight of the novelty yarn with the 
figured weight, wliich is obtained 
through the sizes of the various yarns 
and tlie take-ups noted in tlieir twist- 
ing. If tliis is done tlie correct weiglits 
used in making the novelty material 
can be obtained and results will be 
fairly accurate. In the yarn used in 
the fabric considered, results are not 
so difficult to obtain as they would be 
in many of the yarns produced, be- 
cause a comparatively large portion of 
the yarn is produced from nothing 
but 18-2 yarns. When more yarn 
sizes are used, as is often the case, 
the correct result is more difficult to 
obtain, although the method used is 
similar to that employed in obtaining 
;,he cost of the yarn considered. 
To the 

COST OF THE MATERIALS 

used in making the yarn must be add- 
ed the costs and expenses of the two 
twisting operations, and in addition, 
there must be a sufficient amount al- 
lowed for the experimentation which 
must be done when making many of 
these yarns. Usually the production 
of many of these yarns is quite large 
in pounds per week, so that the costs 
of twisting a"e not so high as might 
be imagined, even though there are 
two twisting operations employed. The 
mill profit on many of these goods 
is quite high and depends a good deal 
upon the size of the order and nat- 
urally unon the price obtained. The 
production in yards per day or per 
week is quite large, although not 
nearly so large as when ordinary 
plain cloth with the same number of 
picks is being produced. 

The present fabric selling at 8^ 
cents per yard should net many of 
the mills producing such fabrics a 
profit of at least 15 per cent, and it 
is a known fact that many of these 
novelty fabrics have been produring 
returns in excess of 25 per cent. The 
reason mill profits have not 
shown these facts is because the or- 
ders secured have not been suffi- 
cient to operate the entire equipment 
of machinery and partly because fancy 
mills contain many plain looms on 
which there has been no profit and 
in some cases a loss. The above fig- 



ures are merely the rates of protit 
which would be noted were the looms 
employed as fully as is normally pos- 
sible. 

WHITE FABRICS IN FAVOR. 

From the cloth plan as laid out it 
will be noted that this fabric falls intf 
the regular 25-cent retailer and allows 
a profit slightly in excess of the ordi- 
nary amounts to the various sellers. 
The converter should be securing a 
profit somewhat higher than is ordi- 
narily secured on fancy cloths 
and the same condition is 
noted in regard to the job- 
ber and retailer. When such cloths 
are sold direct by the converter to 
the retailer the profits secured are 
naturally much higher than those 
given, although the expenses of selling 
to the converter are somewhat greater 
than when the cloth is sold to the 
jobber. The filling yarn will be some- 
what more expensive than when ordi- 
nary filling is considered, because the 
production is not quite so high, due to 
the extra amount of twist, and as the 
production decreases the cost 
increases. It will be noted that 
50s-l warp costs somewhat more 
than the 50s-l filling to produce, even 
though the standards of twist are ap- 
proximately the same. 

Due to the decreased han- 
dling, it is possible and cus- 
tomary to use a shorter sta- 
ple of cotton for filling than 
for warp, and this is responsible for 
a large part of the difference noted, 
although, naturally, the warp yarn 
carries expenses which the filling does 
not and which are incurred by the 
extra processes necessary in 
producing the warp yarn. A good 
many of these fabrics are sold in the 
white state; in fact, converters gen- 
erally believe that white fabrics are 
increasing in demand and have in- 
creased their lines of such materials 
for the coming season. There are. 
however, many such fabrics which 
are dyed various colors, and in a few 
instances, printed patterns are 
employed. In addition to be- 
ing dyed, many of these fab- 
rics are also mercerized, a process 
which, while increasing the cost. Is re- 



126 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



sponsible for an added attractiveness 
that makes its adoption wortli while. 
We have not given the method of ob- 
taining the novelty yarn size, inasmuch 
as we have previously presented such 
methods on certain of these novelty 
yarns. The cost of the yarn is ob- 
tained as explained in previous ar- 
ticles. Other than these two features 
the method of obtaining the weights 
of the yam and the cloth is no differ- 
ent from ordiLciry fabrics and the 
process is a simple one as follows: 



1,870 ends -i- (50/1 X 840) = .0446, weigh 

of 50/1 warp without take-up. 
6% take-up In weaving. 
.0445 -H .94 = .0473, total weight of 50/) 

per vard of woven cloth. 
80 ends -f- (3.3/1 X 840) = .0288, weight oi 

novelty warp without take-up. 

2% take-up in weaving. 
.0288 ^ .98 = .0294, total weight of noveltj 

varn per yard of woven cloth. 
64"picks X 28%" reed width X 36" 



36" 



= 1.824 



yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1,824 -4- (50/1 X 840) = .0434, total weight 

of 50/1 filling per yard of cloth. 
.0473 -I- .0294 + .0434 = .1201, total weight 

per yard of cloth. 
1.0000 -f- .1201 = 8.33 yards per lb. (grey). 



PATTERN. 
62 28 28 



52 = 1,870 
= 80 



50/1 Am. combed warp 52 2! 

3.3 novelty 

19X 1,950 

50/1 Am. combed filling (warp twist); 64 picks. 
32 reed, 28%" width In reed, 27" grey width, 26" finished width. 

72 X 64 grey count over all, 75 X 63 finished count over all. 



YARNS. 

Cotton. 
50/1 Am. combed, 1 5-16" staple; 10 hank dou. rov., 21c. 

50/1 Am. combed flll'g, IVt" sta. ; 12 hank dou. rov., 19c. 

Novelty (4 ends 18/1, 2 ends 60/1), total cost including twisting 



Ijabor, 
waste, etc. 
16 %c. 
15%c. 



37%c 
34%c 
29%c. 



COST. 

i,870 ends 60/1 Am. combed -f 6% take-up = .0473 @ 37%c. = $ .017S- 

80 ends 3.3 novelty + 2% take-up = .0294 @ 29140. = .0086 

64 picks 50/1 Am. combed, warp twist = .0434 @ 34 %c. = .0150 

Weaving .0108 

Expenses .0132 

$ .0654 
Selling (grey) 0015 

Mill cost (grey) $ .0669 

Mill selling price (approximate) .0825 

Finishing 0150 

Cost to converter (not Including expenses) $ .0975 

Cost to jobber .1300 

Cost to retailer .1700 

Cost to consumer .2500 

Yards per pound 8.33 (grey). 



MERCERIZED DRAPERY 
NOVELTY 

Possibly one of the most interest- 
ing portions of the cotton cloth in- 
dustry, but one which is not very 
often commented upon, mainly be- 
cause the producing units are rather 
small and few when compared with 
those making staples and even fan- 
cies, is that portion which produces 
various drapery, upholstery and sim- 
ilar fabrics. Due to the use of better 
dyes and the production of more de- 
sirable and harmonious effects, these 



materials have been increasing 
in sale and are being used for pur- 
poses where they previously were 
considered unsuitable. In a general 
way, such fabrics are made from 
dyed yarns and are heavy in weight 
when compared with most lines of 
cotton fabrics. The selling prices are 
high because the cloth contains so 
much material per yard and also be- 
cause the quantities sold are rather 
small, thus making distribution 
charges large and the costs of pro- 
duction greater than would otherwise 
be noted. 

That the changes of style in dress 
goods do have a widw influence upon 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



121 



various fabrics is not often recogniz- 
ed by many sellers, but it is clearly 
shown by the style of fabric we have 
analyzed and which is illustrative of 
some of the leading fabrics which 
have been produced for drapery pur- 
poses. It is a well known fact that 
novelty yarn effects have been the 
leading styles in dress goods and 
have been adapted in various methods 
for use with such ground fabrics 
as voiles, crepes, curtain materials, 
light waistings and other widely 
varying constructions, and so it is 
natural to expect the same influence 
to be noted in draperies. Of course 



yarn. It is seldom that there is less 
than twice as many threads per inch 
in the warp than there is in the fill- 
ing, usually a much higher ratio than 
that named, and for draperies the 
warp size is usually twice or more 
than twice as fine as the filling. In 
the cloth analyzed the count is 100 x 
17 and the yarn sizes used are rela- 
tively 30-1 and 3.8-1. The weave is, 
in the majority of instances, plain, 
inasmuch as more firmness is se- 
cured through such use and there is 
not the great necessity for woven fig- 
ures which there is in many styles of 
dress goods, although this statement 




Domestic Mercerized Drapery. 



the possibilities in the use of novelty 
yarns for drapery fabrics are rather 
limited for various reasons, but it is 
usually desirable to produce new ef- 
fects when they can be cleverly exe- 
cuted and when they will aid in the 
distribution of any fabric. 



CLOTH CONSTRUCTION. 
One of the processes which 



is 



used extensively in making ordinary 
drapery fabrics is the poplin con- 
struction. This is a method by which 
the warp contains a comparatively 
large number of threads per inch of 
rather fine yarn and usually of a ply 
nature, while the filling contains a 
small number of picks of coarse ply 



does not indicate that figures are not 
sometimes applied. 

Ply yarns are used in making such 
fabrics for a number of reasons. 
First, they allow coarser yarn num- 
bers to be made so that heavier fab- 
rics result. Second, they permit a 
greater amount of strength and serv- 
ice to be secured together with a 
clearer result, which is desirable in 
draperies. Third, they allow many 
mercerized yarns to be used, thus 
giving the material a luster not ob- 
tainable when single yarns are em- 
ployed. Soft twist is necessary for 
any good mercerized results, either In 
yarn or cloth, and for this reason soft 
twist ply yam Is often used. 



122 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



In a poplin construction the 
large excess of warp has a tend- 
ency to cover up the filling to a 
greater or less extent, and under 
such circumstances the quality of 
the filling yarn is not of such great 
importance as the warp, and, in ad- 
dition, the fabric pattern, if made by 
colors, must be produced by the 
warp yarns. In the cloth considered 
the ribs of the ordinary poplin cloth 
are noticeable, but these ribs are 
made irregular through the variation 
in the size of the filling yarn. The 
warp covers up the filling just about 
as effectively in the heavy portions 
as it does in the finer portions, but, 
nevertheless, the irregular filling 
yarn produces a noticeable irregular 
effect in the cloth and this shows 
that a great deal of ingenuity has 
been used in the planning of the 
cloth construction. Many of the nov- 
elty loop, corkscrew, and nub yarns 
would not have been suitable for the 
style of cloth considered, and the 
fact that the right yarn has been used 
is worthy of mention. The same pop- 
lin constructions which are used for 
draperies are often used for other pur- 
poses; in fact, in many instances, 
fabrics are intended for a number of 
different uses when their production 
is planned. 

NOVELTY YARN MAKING. 

We have at various times described 
the processes by which certain of the 
novelty yarns now being extensively 
used are produced, but inasmuch as 
the yarn used in this cloth differs 
essentially from those previously de- 
scribed a short explanation may be 
of value. Certain classes of cloths, 
such as cotton flannels, regularly 
contain yarns of the character used 
In this fabric, and while the yarn 
sizes may vary somewhat, the method 
of production is practically identical. 
In the first place, the novelty result 
is produced from a number of strands 
of yarn and bunches of loose cotton 
twisted together, the bunches of cot- 
ton being spaced at intervals in the 
completed yarn. The loose cotton 
neressarllv has to ho in a condition 
capable of being handled and the 
fibres must be comparatively parallel 
80 as to give some strength together 



with a uniform size of bunch when 
the yarn is being made. 

There are a number of different re- 
sults which can be produced. First, 
the whoie yam can be made from 
stock-dyed cotton with the bunches 
of one color and the ground threads 
of the same or another color. Sec 
ond, the ground yarns can be spun 
in the grey state and then dyed and 
used with stock-dyed cotton of the 
same or a different color. Third, the 
whole yarn can be made from grey 
yarns and grey cotton, and this result 
afterward dyed, although solid colors 
only are possible by this method. 
Naturally, in the first two processes 
the ground yarns can be of different 
colors, and bleached yarns and cot- 
tons are just as possible as dyed 
ones. We are not considering the 
similar yarns containing bunches of 
cotton which are made by two twist- 
ing processes, the second twisting 
being mainly for the purpose of bina- 
ing in the bunch of cotton more 
firmly. This extra twisting process 
is adopted when such yarn is used 
for warp and is to be handled ex- 
tensively and is not so generally om- 
ployed when it is used tor tilling. 

One of the main considerations in 

PRODUCING NOVELTY YARN 

such as that used is to have the cot- 
ton bunches taper off well, inasmuch 
as this gives a better appearance and 
also aids in producing firmness, in- 
asmuch as the tapering end of the 
cotton fibres twists in better with the 
ground threads. This variety of 
yarns is often produced on an ordi- 
nary spinning frame, in fact, it is 
probable that much the largest share 
of it is produced in this manner. One 
set of rolls is given an intermittent 
motion through the removal of gear 
teeth or in some other manner. Be- 
tween these rolls is placed the roving 
which forms the bunch in the com- 
pleted yarn. Naturally the intermit- 
tent motion of the rolls feeds the cot- 
ton out at regular intervals. Be- 
tween another set of rolls, w-hich op- 
erate regularly, are placed the .two 
ground threads, it being desirable to 
have the cotton bunch fed out be- 
tween these two ends as the twist is 
being inserted, and this method per- 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



1S8 



tnits ine coiion lo be bound In more 
rtimly. 

The continuous delivery of the 
ground threads, togetlier with the in- 
termittent delivery ot the soft cotton 
or roving, creates a ply yarn in which 
bunches of cotton are twisted. The 
twist in any yarn will run to the 
finest portions, and this happens very 
noticeably in yarn of the character 
described, there being quite a little 
twist where the ground yarns only 
appear and very few turns per inch 
at the point where the cotton bunch 
is inserted. For this reason the 

AMOUNT OF TWIST 
which the whole product contains will 
be much different than that which 
the ground yarns would contain were 
they to be twisted separately. The 
size of the cotton bunch, the char- 
acter of the result desired, whether 
there is to be a subsequent twisting 
process, the kind of yarns used and 
naturally the yarn sizes, together 
with certain other features, regulate 
the number of turns per inch which 
are necessary or desirable. 

In the yarn considered there are 
approximately ten turns per inch av- 
erage, and this is what should be 
considered when twist gears are be- 
ing considered, although the regular 
ply portion of the material contains 
a greater number of turns per inch. 
In a good many cases novelty yarns, 
such as that described, can be spun 
direct upon the bobbins which are 
used in the weave room, thereby mak- 
ing no other processes necessary and 
reducing the cost of production quite 
extensively. 

There are certain features which 
are of interest in connection with the 
making of high-class drapery and up- 
holstery fabrics. Mills making these 
materials, 'as previously stated, are 
somewhat limited in the amounts of 
any one style which they can pro- 
duce. This makes frequent changes 
in cloth construction necessary in or- 
der to obtain a good distribution, es- 
pecially where high-class merchan- 
dise is being produced. Not only are 
various yarn sizes required, but the 
colors are usually even more nu- 
merous than the variety of yarns. In- 
asmuch as the orders are rather 



small, the quantities of 'any one yam 
size used are proportionate, and for 
this reason it is probably cheaper to 
purchase yarn than it is to 'make it. 
For such yarn to be produced in a 
wide diversity of sizes a varied or- 
ganization would be required, with 
the probabilities of machinery being 
idle at least a portion of the time. 

The grey yarns which are 'purchas- 
ed are dyed and often mercerized at 
the plants where the cloth is woven, 
and this method of ' manufacturing 
permits quite a little variation in the 
product. Whatever finishing is nec- 
essary is also accomplished at the 
plant where 'the weaving is done, but 
inasmuch as dyed yarns are generally 
used, the finishing of these cloths is 
a much more simple process than 
when grey woven cloths are consid- 
ered. Ihe purchase of yarn makes 
the problem of manufacture much 
more complicated than if yarns 
were manufactured and has much to 
do with the obtaining of satisfactory 
profits. To buy yams which are in 
good demand and on which the price 
and profit are high is to curtail to an 
extent 'at least the possibility of prof- 
its in the manufacture of special fab- 
rics. It is also necessary to produce 
styles which cannot be made success- 
fully in the larger plants, 

Thus it can be depended upon that 
some of the buyers who have pur- 
chased solid color yarn-dyed mercer- 
ized drapery and upholstery fabrics 
will soon procure such materials in 
the grey state and have them finished 
with 'a large reduction in price. This 
applies only to a small number of 
fabrics which are purchased in quan- 
tities and not for the majority of fab- 
rics which are used for drapery pur- 
poses. Purchase of yam, the extra 
cost of shipping, dyeing, mercerizing 
and various other necessary process- 
es, make the cost of the yam when it 
reaches the w^eave room high, ana 
while the loom production is large 
with a correspondingly low cost 'in 
this direction, the total cost is high 
because of the materia' which Is 
used. It will be noted that we have 
in our cost plan given the price of the 
yarn used. This amount will vary 
according to the market and to other 



124 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



selling conditions, but it is ap- 
proximately correct for the cloth con- 
sidered. Selling charges are higher 
than for many other varieties of ma- 
terial, mainly because the quantities 
sold are not especially large. The 
rate of 'profit secured would depend a 
good deal upon the attractiveness of 
the result produced, and is not consid- 
ered upon the production basis which 
is generally used when large quanti- 
ties of any ordinary cloth are made. 

Without doubt, the success of any 
concern making special fabrics is 
more dependent upon a single person 
than when larger quantities of staple 
materials are being produced. In a 
small industry the person who is di- 
recting the items of importance has 
to look after many details which can 
be relegated to other persons in a 
large concern. The styles of the 
cloth are of great importance, as this 
has an influence on the sales and 
profits. Experience is necessary as 
to what methods should be used in 
best obtaining any certain results. 
With grey and most of the staple col- 
ored lines a certain method of pro 
duction can be adopted and continu 
ously followed out, but with special 
fabrics there is more flexibility in thb 
method of production and the adop- 
tion of the best method tends to keep 
down the costs and increase the prof- 
its. 

Then there are numerous other fea- 
tures which have to be considered by 
manufacturers producing special 
cloths, such as the colors to be usea 
in any certain lines, the method by 
which the cloths are to be sold, the 
amount of the various styles to be 
produced, the sale of styles in such 
a manner as to keep all the machin- 
ery in operation. This machinery 
problem is a very serious one, even 
with fancy grey cloth makers, for un- 
less the orders are such that a good 
balanced production is secured be- 
tween the spinning and weaving ma- 
chinery, and unless the various kinds 
of looms are kept steadily employed, 
the possibilities of good profits are 
largely curtailed. Because there are 
more changes in styles and more abil- 
ity necessary in producing them it 
Is customary for the salary ranges of 



employes to be higher when such 
cloths are being produced than for 
other kinds of cloth making. It is 
necessary to obtain good operatives 
and what is more to keep them, if a 
satisfactory result is to be secured. 

One of the fabrics which has never 
been produced in the domestic mar- 
ket until recently, but for which there 
has been and is an increasing de- 
mand, is tapestry material, which is 
used for wall decorations. These ma- 
terials are used to cover up unde- 
sirable portions of wall, and in many 
cases are used because of desirablb 
patterns or colorings. They are pro- 
duced from dyed yarns and the com- 
bination of yarn and weave produces 
the various effects. Without doubt, 
the making of large effects in such 
cloths is one of the most complicated 
forms of textile manufacture. The 
placing of the various colors and fig- 
ures where they will appear best is 
an art, and makes possible results 
which would otherwise be considered 
impractical. Many colors are used 
in the warp, and the same is true re- 
garding the filling. 

Oftentimes the warp has no spe 
cial pattern, and the method of dress- 
ing varies from one side of the clotL 
to the other, each section being de- 
signed especially for the result to be 
produced. Jacquard looms are used 
in producing these cloths, and, due 
to the length of the repeat and tue 
great number of picks in the filling, a 

LARGE NUMBER OF CARDS 

are necessary for the completion of 
the pattern. It sometimes happens 
that the design making and the cards 
employed alone cost $1,000 or more, 
and in such instances the productioi. 
cost is regulated a good deal by the 
amount of the tapestry which can be 
sold. When the sale is small, the de- 
sign cost is large per yard, whereas 
when quite a distribution is made 
this item is of much less importance, 
although it naturally is quite high in 
any such material. 

The illustration we present shows 
one style of tapestry which is pro- 
duced in the domestic market, and it 
is claimed that only one concern does 
any work of this character. That 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



126 



there is any at all produced shows 
that there has been a great deal ol 
progress in the manufacturing ability 
of domestic producers, and, without 
doubt, such cloths will be In larger 
demand with a greater number of 
sellers producing them in the near 
future. 

YARN AND CLOTH WEIGHTS. 

Regarding the yarn and cloth 
weights, it can be said that few of 
such materials as that analyzed are 
sold by the count or weight as art 
many of the fancy dress goods which 
nave a large distribution. This in- 
formation is necessary for the man- 
ufacturer in order to ascertain the 
cost of production, but such informa- 
tion is of small importance to the 
buyer, inasmuch as he is more inter- 
ested in the style of the cloth and 
the prices at which he is able to dis- 
tribute. Sometimes, when a fabric 1& 
to be duplicated it is necessary to ob- 
tain the various details of manufac- 
ture, but in this connection it is well 
to remember that the yarn sizes will 
not be the same as when they wert 
purchased or spun. 



The processes of mercerizatlon, 
dyeing and handling are likely to give 
results somewhat different than when 
the yarns were originally purchased. 
In this fabric, the warp yarns are 
somewhat finer than when purchased, 
but not to as great an extent as is 
noted in many of the white mercer- 
ized fabrics which are piece finished. 
An interesting feature regarding the 
manufacture of this cloth is that, due 
to the heavy character of the filling 
and the large number of threads per 
inch, the contraction in width from 
reed to cloth is not very great, being 
in this fabric not quite one inch for the 
whole fabric. Ordinarily, it is much 
more than this amount. The method 
of obtaining the weights is as fol- 
lows: 

5,000 ends -j- (60/2 X 840) = .1984. weight 

of warp yarn without take-up. 
10% take-up in weavinK. 
.1984 -4- .9 = .2204, total weight of warp 

yarn per yard of woven cloth. 
17 picks X 51" reed width X 36" 

= 867 yards 

36" 

of filling: per yard of woven cloth. 
867 -4- (3.8 novelty X 840) = .2716, total 

weight of filling yarn yer yard of woven 

cloth. 
.2204 + .2716 = .4920, total weight per 

yard. 
1.0000 -r- .4920 = 2.03 yards per pound. 



MERCERIZED DRAPERY NOVEIiTY. 

tO/2 Am. combed, mercerized and dyed. 6,000 ends. 
3.8 novelty yarn; 17 picks per inch. 
49 reed, 61" width in reed, 50" finished width. 
100 X 17 finished count. 

YARNS. 

60/2 Am. combed, mercerized and dyed (cost on loom beams) = 77c. 

3.8 novelty carded, dyed (cost on quills) = 84c. 

CLOTH COST. 

6,000 ends 60/2 Am. combed -|- 10% take-up = .2204 @ 77c. = $ .1697 

17 picks 3.8 carded novelty = .2716 @ 34c. = .0923 

Weaving 0272 

Expenses 0152 

< .3044 
Selling 0122 

Mill cost $.8166 

Yards per pound 2.03. 
Retail price $1.26 per yard. 

*-»-*■ 



MOCK LENO WEAVE CREPE 

At various times we have analyzed 
and described certain of the crepe 
fabrics which are sold in large quan- 
tities; and because these fabrics ap- 
pear attractive and are selling well at 
present, it may be well to present a 



description of a special crepe which 
contains features radically different 
from most of those produced and sold. 
Manufacturers and sellers of novelty 
fabrics recognize that profits are ob- 
tained through the production of at- 
tractive styles and materials which 
are similar to a certain extent to those 
in demand, but in which ideas are 



116 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



developed that are different from 
what the majority of sellers are offer- 
ing. When tabrics of this character 
are developed, it is usually possible 
to obtain a comparatively 

HIGH RATE OF DIVIDENDS, 

which is of value in building up a 
reputation for attractive fabrics that 
produce returns. Of course, the va- 
rious fancy fabrics being produced 
to-day are, many of them, adaptations 
of the so-called ratine efZects, and 
crepe grounds contain such ideas as 
well as other good selling fabrics. 
Next to the wide range of ratine 
styles, crepe fabrics appear to be the 
leaders, these cloths being used for 
dresses, waists, and various other 
uses depending somewhat upon their 
construction and appearance. Certain 
of such styles are being printed to- 
day and are having quite a distribu- 
tion, while many of them contain silj 
stripes on which jacquard figures are 
woven or which in some manner add 
a certain attractiveness to the fin- 
ished result. Crepe fabrics have a 
characteristic softness which is not 
usual in other materials, and do not 
show wrinkles in as prominent a 
manner as some other styles, thereby 
making them have a certain advan- 
tage so far as appearance is con- 
cerned. 

CLOTH CONSTRUCTION. 

Any crepe cloth Is usually of a 
rather low count and would not be 
considered a very firm construction 
when compared with the majority of 
cotton materials. This loose con- 
struction is rather necessary, for un- 
less this method of making were 
adopted there would be no great op- 
portunity for the yarns to contract 
and produce the crepe effect. In the 
majority of instances crepe cloths are 
made with single yarns and few of 
them of anything like a fine nature. 
The ordinary cheap crepe materials 
contain, approximately, yarn which 
averages about 25-1, thoagh the finer 
varieties naturally are made from 
somewhat finer yarns. In the fabrics 
which are usually produced, the warp 
yarn is identical or nearly so with 
ordinary warp of the same size, that 
is, the standard of twist is the stand- 



ard which is noted for ordinary warp, 
namely, about 4.75 times the square 
root of the yarn si/e. The ciepe enect 
is produced through the tilling yarn 
and is caused by the introduction of 
a large amount of extra twist, the 
standard being anywuere from 6.50 
to 9 times the square root of the yarn 
size, whereas in most ordinary filling 
the standard of twist is seldom over 
3.75 times the square root of the yarn 
size. In the fabric considered 

ONE ITEM OF INTEREST 

is found in that the yarns, both warp 
and filling, are of a two-ply character. 
This method makes it possible for a 
clearer cloth to be produced, but for 
the same result, so far as weight is 
concerned, much finer yarns are nec- 
essary. In this cloth there have been 
used 120-2 warp and filling and both 
yarns contain the same amount of 
twist and are identical in every way. 
Usually the single yarns which are 
used in making hard twist ply yarns 
are no different than are ordinarily 
produced, the hard twist being intro- 
duced only when the two-ply result 
is being made. Such a fabric as that 
considered would be made much more 
economically from grey yarns with 
the finishing being accomplished after 
the cloth was woven, than it would if 
it were made from bleached yams. 

BLEACHED YARNS. 

In fact, it would be unsatisfactory 
to handle bleached yarns as fine as 
are used in this cloth. There are a 
number of methods of making hard 
twist two-ply yarns, the best method 
depending somewhat upon conditions 
of operation. For filling it is some- 
times a good plan to produce fine 
numbers on an ordinary spinning 
frame, twisting the material onto 
filling bobbins, thus having them 
ready for the loom with no extra 
processes needed, except the steam- 
ing process which is necessary 
to set the twist and make the yarn 
possible to handle. For warp a dif- 
ferent method must be adopted, as 
the yarn must be spooled, warped 
and sized before it can be woven, and 
inasmuch as the twist inserted is so 
hard, much care must be exercised 
or trouble will ensue. Filling is often 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



127 



handled In much the same manner as 
warp, being spooled, warped, sized 
and quilled on a long ch::in quiller. 
When this is done no steaming is nec- 
essary because the sizing process has 
eliminated the need for it. In 
certain cases otlior methc ds are also 
employed, but it is necessary to keep 
quite a tension on the yarn or else 
a large shrinkage will occur and part 
of the vain effect when the cloth is 
woven will ^e lost. Whc.i spinning 
or twi„..ug har ! twist twc-ply yarn 
there is often a great deal of trouble 
in keeping travelers on frame 
because the harr! twist yarn acts very 
much as a saw and will cut through 



might be when the cloth is finished. 
Another reason why fancy weaves are 
not used on crepe ground cloths is 
because they do not appear at all 
prominent when such a cloth is fin- 
ished and the effect is largely lost, 
making the use of snih a weave a 
wasted effort. In some case fancy 
weaves are used with silk, but for 
an all-cotton fabric it is practically 
never noted. In this connection the 
fabric which we are considering is 
radically different from an ordinary 
crepe, for this cloth contains a weave 
which is not plain. The weave used 
is ordinarily known as a "mock-leno" 
weave and we are illustrating it to 



^iv»:^fr>• 









Mock Leno Weave Crepe. 



travelers in a speedy manner, causing 
many breakages. The breaking of 
one erd is a much more serious mat- 
ter ti I it is with ordinary two-ply, 
-because the hard twist makes the 
yarn very springy and when an end 
breaks t is likely to ciuse the break- 
age of others alongside of it. 

It is seldom that any kind of a 
crepe fabric contains anything but 
plain weave o^ the ground cloth, or 
at least a very simple weave which 
acts much the same as plain weave 
does. The reason for this is found 
in the low construction and in the re- 
sult desired. Plain weave gives the 
most strength fo* the yarn sizes used 
and is more effective than others 



make the situation more evident. By 
taking a piece of the fabric and pull- 
ing it there will be noted a distinct 

SEPARATION OF THREADS. 

the warp dividing into threes. This 
happens because of the weave used. 
Threads 1-2-3 slip in together, as d* 
4-5-6 and so on. It will be noted in 
our analysis we have used a 17 reed 
with three ends per dent throughout. 
The same result Tnight as easily be 
obtained, and in many cases undoubt- 
edly is, with a 34 reed with three 
ends in one dent and the succeed- 
ing dent containing no threads at 
all. This allows the effect produced 
to be more prominent and is- «pme- 



128 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



times used. In an ordinary fabric the 
use of this weave produces an open- 
work fabric which is somewhat simi- 
lar to a leno weave, but in this crepe 
fabric such an effect is not noticeable 
and the great shrinliage from grey to 
finished width covers up largely the 
weave which has been used, although 
it makes a result which is very at- 
tractive and is not possible through 
the use of a plain weave. The floating 
of the warp and filling allows space 
for the hard twisted yarn to contract 
much better than if the weave was 
entirely plain and the crinkled ap- 
pearance makes the cloth look as if 
novelty yarn of a peculiar natare had 
been used. 

PRODUCING CREPE EFFECTS. 

There are three distinct types of 
crepe cloths: First, that class of ma- 
terials which is produced largely 
from grey yarn, usually containing 
hard twist filling alone, but in 
special instances it contains hard 
twist warp to a greater or less ex- 
tent, to which class the fabric 
analyzed belongs. Second, the fab- 
rics that are produced from 
bleached and dyed yarns, which con- 
tain hard twist usually in the filling, 
but in very few cases in the warp. 
Either of these two classes of fabrics 
mentioned may be woven on a box 
loom which produces a regular crepe 
effect, or on a regular loom with one 
twist in the filling producing 
a wavy effect. A third class of 
fabric, which many consider as 
crepe, is that class of materials 
produced through the merceriza- 
tion process. As is usually well 
known, the application of caustic soda 
to cotton yarns or cloth will cause 
them to shrink approximately 25 per 
cent. If this shrinkage is not al- 
lowed and the yarn or cloth is held 
out to approximately its original 
width, the cotton fibres which com- 
pose the material seem to swell out 
and become more nearly round, thus 
reflecting the light and producing a 
lustrous effect. If no tension is em- 
ployed, and the fabric or yarn is im- 
mersed, a large shrinkage will take 
place, but no lustre will be noted. 
This is the method which is adopted 
in producing the crepe fabrics which 



are mercerized. In most cases, these 
crepe styles appear in the form of 
stripes and are obtained through the 
methods by which the result is pro- 
duced. Caustic soda is applied to the 
material in various stripes and the 
cloth shrinks where this solution Is 
applied, while the other portion of 
the cloth will crinkle up, causing a 
wavy appearance and producing 
what many have been inclined to 
designate as a crepe weave, though 
it is not theoretically of this charac- 
ter. There are various combinations 
and styles in the several lines oi 
crepe and often one style is mistaken 
for another by those not experienced 
in production. Not only is this true, 
but it often happens that mills manu- 
facturing crepes will produce fabrics 
by a method which is not the most 
economical, that is, a mill making 
bleached and dyed yarn fabrics will 
produce styles which could be better 
obtained through the grey yarn 
method. 

INTERESTING FEATURES. 

An ordinary crepe fabric seldom 
shrinks more than 25 per cent, that 
is, for a 36-inch grey cloth at least 
a 27-inch finished cloth will be pro- 
duced, while in most lines the shrink- 
age is not quite so great as that 
named. For the fabric analyzed the 
shrinkage in width from grey to fin- 
ished cloth is approximately 40 per 
cent, thus being much greater than 
for an ordinary crepe fabric. In ad- 
dition to the shrinkage in width there 
is a shrinkage in length of from 20 
per cent to 25 per cent. This gives 
a resulting fabric which is not pos- 
sible to obtain when most cloths are 
considered and is only possible 
through the use of hard twist warp 
and filling yarns. This loss is a se- 
rious item in many ways and will be 
mentioned further in regard to the 
cost of production. It might be won- 
dered just what happens to the sel- 
vages under these circumstances, but 
it will be found that the selvage ends 
are not crowded very closely and 
that they shrink perceptibly, though 
not in the large crinkles noted in the 
body of the warp. For this reason, 
the selvages are somewhat longer 
than the main portion of the fabric 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



129 



and contain a more or less wavy 
effect so as to take up the same 
amount in iengtli as the main part ot 
the tabric. The fabric, due to its 
great shrinkage, has to be produced 
on a very wide loom and inasmuch 
as there are very few of such looms 
in use in the domestic market in mills 
which are capable of making novelty 
constructions such as that consid- 
ered, it is very likely that the 

PROFIT PER YARD TO THE MILL 

is quite high, much higher than it 
would be were the cloth being pro- 
duced in large quantities and were it 
not of so radically different a nature 
from most materials. Due to the 
loom width, the picks per minute 
are not as high as for a narrowei 
loom, thus causing a rather low pro 
duction and increasing the cost. S( 
far as the weaving operation is con- 
cerned, there is nothing especially 
intricate in this direction, the effect 
being produced through the charactei 
of the yarns, the simple weave and 
the finishing employed. The cloth in 
the grey appears very similar tc 
many of the low constructed widt 
voile fabrics which were so common 
a year or more ago, though it must 
be said the result, when finished, ia 
not at all like the voiles usee 

PRICES AND COSTS. 

There are many interesting fea- 
tures regarding the cost of produc- 
tion and the selling prices for the 
cloth considered. We have given the 
cost of making the grey cloth in a 
large economical mill which would be 
likely to produce fancy cloths of this 
character. It will be noted that the 
mill cost in the grey is approximately 
2iy2 cents per yard. The selling 
price depends a good deal upon cir- 
cumstances and on the price which 
the fabric can be disposed of to other 
sellers. It Is unlikely that it was 
sold for less than 25 cents per yard 
and possibly a higher price was ob- 
tainpd. Possibly the item of greatest 
importance to the converter is in re- 
gard to the shrinkage of the cloth 
when finished. As previously stated, 
this fabric shrinks in length any- 
where from 20 to 25 per cent in the 
finishing process. Should this cloth 



have cost 25 cents in the grey state, 
this shrinking feature alone would 
add almost 10 cents per yard to the 
grey cost, without considering the 
various hnishiug charges at all, which 
naturally would be high because of 
the special character of the cloth and 
the fact that it is so wide in the grey 
state. Without doubt this cloth actu- 
ally costs the converter 40 cents or 
over, not taking into considera- 
tion at all the various expenses or 
profits which are encountered in sell- 
ing such a high class novelty. Under 
these circumstances the retail price 
of $1.25 a yard does not seem espe- 
cially high when compared with many 
of the all-cotton fabrics on which the 
retail price is at least three times the 
cost of the cloth in a finished state. 
Much the same condition exists on 
the mercerized crepes being sold as 
are noted on the fabric under consid- 
eration, for on these cloths the finish- 
ers demand a 25 per cent working 
loss, though in a number of cases the 
actual loss does not amount to any 
more than 18 or 20 per cent. Wlien 
it is considered that tnere are quite a 
number of crepe fabrics, probably the 
majority, in which there is a greater 
or less stretch in the yardage secured 
from the finisher, a decided loss on 
these fabrics is an item which must be 
carefully watched or else the profits 
which are estimated will be elimi- 
nated. 

GREY AND FINISHED CLOTHS. 

When the grey and finished cloths 
are compared, the first item which is 
noticeable is the shrinkage in width 
namely from 65 to 39 inches. The 
next is in the cloth coui t. In the 
grey state the count on the ground 
fabric is about 52 x 52, while in the 
finished state the count is about 88 x 
68. The increase in the warp count 
is brought about through the shrink- 
age in width, while the increase in 
the filling count is brought about 
through the shrinkage in length. 
Another difference, wh'Ich will be 
noted, is that the material appears 
something like a voile with an open 
work weave when it is in the grey 
state, and when it is finished there 
is neither any weave apparent nor 
any prominent voile effect, the last 



130 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



feature being entirely eliminated 
through the shrinkage of the yarn. 
Another interesting feature which 
of course is not so apparent, but 
which is nevertheless of interest, is 
the weight of the cloth in the grey 
and finished state. Most ordinary 
grey woven fabrics are lighter when 
finished than they are when woven. 
Some of the items in connection with 
this are as follows: A cotton yarn 
m tne bleaching process will lose 
about 6 or 7 per cent in weight. In 
addition to this shrinkage there is a 
loss occasionea by the wasce of size 
applied to the warp to make weaving 
operations more practical. For ordi- 
nary cloth the warp will contain from 
5 to iy2 per cent of size, that is in 
domestic materials, though there ara 
many cases wnere more size is ap- 
plied. Under these conditions most 
fabrics will average to lose in weight 
from 3 to 4 per cent due to the loss 
of the warp in size. Altogether, this 
total loss will amount to approxi- 
mately 10 per cent, there being a 
greater or less loss aue to the hand- 
ling and singeing. 

FOR A DYED FABRIC 

the dyestuff will create an additional 
weight, but in no case in an ordinary 
cloth does it anywhere near approach 
the other losses. A fabric which con- 
tains a dark dyestuff may weigh 
about 2 per cent more, due to the dye- 
ing process, but for light shades the 
additional percentage will decrease 
to almost a negligible quantity. Un- 
der tnese circumstances it can be 
stated that an ordinary grey fabric 
will lose in weight in finishing from 
7 to 10 per cent. This is in opposi- 
tion to the general opinion and the 
statements of many who have never 
investigated the situation and know 
very little regarding the theory of 
manufacturing and finishing. These 
various losses are ordinary ones and 
do not include the losses aue to 
stretching, which in some instances 
have been known to be as high as 
15 per cent, though in most cases 5 
per cent stretcn-is more nearly the 
amount which would be noted. On 
the fabric considered it will reaaiiy 
be noted that there is a much differ- 
ent condition existing, lor wnlle tne 



grey yards per pound are 6.38, the 
finished yards per pound are in the 
vicinity of 5.25, this cloth being much 
heavier when finished than it is when 
grey, even though the yarns actually 
lose approximately 10 per cent in the 
various finishing processes. 

YARNS AND WEIGHTS. 

There is no necessity for the cloth 
weight finished to be obtained except 
as a matter of interest in connection 
with the shrinkages, but the cloth is 
sold in the grey state and it is usually 
sold on the construction and weight. 
For this reason, we are giving the 
method of obtaining the weights 
through the yarn sizes and take-up. 
When such a fabric has to be consid- 




The Weave 

ered in its finished state, it is neces- 
sary to use a great deal of care in 
obtaining the yarn sizes and various 
other items of manufacturing. Un- 
less this is done the correct results 
will not be obtained. In twisting, 
the excess twist will make the yarn 
contract and two ends of 120-2 will 
not produce a yarn which sizes the 
same as 60-1, but it will be coarser 
than the number named. The 10 per 
cent loss must also be considered due 
to the bleaching and other processes, 
so that there is opportunity, for those 
not experienced, to have the yarn 
sizes vary as much as 15 or 20 pei 
cent from what they actually shoula 
be. In giving the details for the man- 
ufacture of the yams we have given 



A OOTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



131 



the cotton staple and other items, 
which would be noted in the normal 
mill. Some manufacturers are able 
to produce the size of yarn considered 
out of shorter cotton than what we 
have used, while it is probable that 
in other cases somewhat longer cot- 
ton is necessary. This depends upon 
the mill equipment and upon other 
manufacturing details. One item 
which must be considered when com- 
paring the cost of making such yarn 
with the selling price is that the 
production of fine yarn is a compara- 
tively small amount per spindle, and 
in order to obtain the same profit per 
spindle as on coarser numbers there 
must be a much greater relative profit 
per pound. Five cents per pound 



profit on 120-1 is nowhere near as 
great a profit as one cent per pound 
upon 30-1 and must be considered 
when profits and selling prices are 
treated in a reasonable manner. The 
weights of the yarn used and the 
weight of the grey cloth is as follows: 

120/2 hard twist contains 46,150 yards per 

pound instead of 50,400. 
3,517 ends -^ 46,150 = .0762, warp weight 

without talte-up (grey cloth). 
6% talie-up in weaving. 
.0762 -V- .94 = .0811, total warp weight per 

woven yard (grey cloth). 
52 picks X 67" reed width X 36" 

= 3,484 yds. 

36" 

of filling per yard of grey cloth. 
3.484 -H- 46,150 = .0755, total filling weight 

per woven yard (grey cloth). 
.0811 + .0755 = .1566, total weight per 

vard. 
1.0000 -^ .1566 =- 6.38 yards per lb. (grey). 



PATTERN. 
2 2 

120/2 Sea Island combed hard twist — 3,357 — = 3,517 total ends. 

40 40 

120/2 Sea Island combed hard twist, 52 picks, grey. 
17 reed; 67" reed width; 65" grey width; 39" finished width. 
62 X 52 grey count; S8 X 68 finished count. 

TARNS. 

Labor, 

waste, TwiBt- 
Cotton. etc. ing. 

120/2 Sea Isl'd combed H. T.; 1%" sta.; 24 hank dou. rov.. 30c. 48c. 22V«!C. = $1.00% 

Warp and filling Identical. 
Yards per pound, 46,150 (due to contraction). 

CLOTH COST. 

3.517 ends 120/2 Sea Island combed H. T. + 6% take-up = .0811 @ fl.00% = $ .0815 

52 picks 120/2 Sea Island combed H. T. filling = .0755 @ JLOOMs = .0759 

WeaMng nil 

Expenses '"^"^ 

$ .2096 
Selling (grey) -Q"^" 

Mill cost (grey) * -2136 

Vqrds per pound G 38 (grey). 
KetaU price $1.25 ptr yard. 

♦-»-♦ 

I there is a great deal of discussion 

TUTTATTD T UMA D H TTWl? heard as to the relative values which 

UNlyUl!j LEjKU MllWri are being purchased. Without any 

question, the radical nature of the 
Practically all the sellers who fabric has made it impossible for 
handle fancy fabrics of any character many buyers to purchase with any de- 
are now offering their merchandise gi-ge of certainty, and while they are 
for another season. In the various usually able to distribute the fabrics 
ranges of fabrics which have been taken at a profit, nevertheless it will 
shown, ratines, or fabrics whic'.i many ^e readily recognized that buyers are 
would classify under this heading, are less 

without doubt being shown in greatest t jkeLY TO OBTAIN GOOD VALUES 

quantities. The quality of the above- ^^^^ . .^ „.„„. 

mentioned fabric? together with the than they have been in o her reasons, 

selling price, will vary from a very This above result is caused through 

low figure tci T very high price, and the fact that these rating fabrics are 



132 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



produced in so many different methods 
and in such widely varying construc- 
tions, maliing it comparatively impos- 
sible for a purchaser to compare ihem 
with other styles or with fabrics 
which have been handled previously. 
Many of these so-called ratine fabrics 
are almost identical with certain of 
the toweling fabrics regularly pro- 
duced and are made on a terry cloth 
loom. 

Another type of fabric is woven on 
a loom that produces somewhat sim- 
ilar results to the terry motion, but 
the loops are produced in a different 
manner by wires which are inserted 
and which hold up the yarn as the 
cloth is being woven. This process is 
very similar to that employed in mak- 
ing many styles of carpets. On both 
the above-mentioned methods jac- 
quard patterns are employed, though 
in the first process the back of the 
cloth is the reverse of the face. Va- 
rious adaptations of these two proc- 
esses liave also been employed. In 
addition to the processes mentioned, 
there is a wide variety of fabrics now 
being offered which are produced from 
novelty yarns. Inasmuch as novelty 
yarns can be produced in an unlimited 
number, it naturally makes it possible 
to have a wide variety of woven fab- 
rics produced from them. Of course, 
the various kinds of loop yarns pro- 
duce results which are more nearly 
identical to those resulting from the 
terry motion, but the entire range of 
fabrics are generally known as ratine. 
In addition to the methods we have 
mentioned as being used in making 
the fabrics under discussion, 

A FABRIC HAS APPEARED, 

which, while having the general char- 
acteristics noted in many ratine fab- 
''ics, is, however, produced by an en- 
tirely different method and one which 
would by many be considerel rather 
impossible. This method, of which 
the fabric we have analyzed is a good 
example, is through the use of the 
ordinary leno motion. The crossing 
yarn is run very loosely and the meth- 
od of construction aids in producing 
the result. In many cases, this fabric 
would be considered more desirable 
than certain of the original cloths, be- 
cause the loops are not so prominent. 



the fabric is more stable and the ef- 
fect is practically as desirable from a 
selling standpoint. Uhtsse various 
lines of ciotiis are used for dresses, 
waists, vestings, hats, trimmings, ties, 
and any number of other articles, 
even being seen in draperies, cover- 
ings and other radically different 
articles. 

As previously stated, a leno weave 
is responsible for a large portion of 
the effect noted in the fabric analyzed. 
This leno weave has a crossing thread 
which crosses back and forth over 
three ground threads, being woven in 
a loose manner, in order to give the 
roughness desirable to the fabric. 
To cause an irregular appearance to 
the loose yarn there are two doups 
used in making the cloth; that is, 
there are two different motions to 
the crossing threads. Both of the mo- 
tions are identical, but the second op- 
erates on a different pick than the 
first. Inasmuch as the crossing 
thread works in combination with 
three ground threads, the body of the 
warp is drawn in the reed three endf 
per dent. The crossing threads dc 
not operate over every three threads, 
but rather over every second three 
threads; that is, the first crossing 
thread operates over threads 1-2-3, 
while crossing thread No. 2 operates 
over threads 7-8-9. The illustration 
of the weave should make this entire- 
ly clear. We are not presenting the 
entire weave, because it repeats on 
twelve-ground threads and picks in- 
stead of the six which we have used. 
The reason why 

THE REPEAT OF THE WEAVE 

is as large as it is, is because there 
is a regular ground weave all over 
the fabric. This weave is a regular 
four-harness twill with no changes 
made because of the leno threads. 
This will be noted in the illustration 
for the warp, which is of a mottled 
character, operating for two picks on 
the face and then reversing for twc 
picks on the back of the fabric. Ona 
of the items of importance is that the 
crossing thread is on the face everj 
time it changes Its position. This 
method holds the yarn in place and 
keeps the threads in their correct 
positions. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



133 



To make the result effective there 
has been used in the cloth cousidered 
a compaiaiively Hue yaru lor the 
grouud of the cloth witL u rather 
coaise yaru for the crossing threads. 
This heavy yarn has a very small 
amount of twist inserted, for this 
gives the fabric a soft appearance 
and, in addition, is of value because 
the leno or ciossiiig yarn has been 
mercerized before the weaving opera- 
tion. To give as good an appearance 
as possible to this yarn, it is made 
from combed stock, though of about 
as short character as can be satisfac- 
torily combed. The ground yarns are 
made from slightly better stock than 



duce such a fabric as that considered 
is to use grey yarns, with a mercer- 
ized leno yarn, and then bleach the 
fabric in the piece after it has been 
woven. The mercerization oi the yarn 
and the price which has been given 
for it are the ones which would be 
noted were it planned to have another 
party accomplish this work, a condi- 
tion whicli is by far the most com- 
mon, inasmuch as grey cloth mills 
very seldom have any finishing ap- 
paratus. It is usually good policy to 
use as coarse a reed as possible in 
making fabrics of this character, be- 
cause this allows much easier cross- 
ings for the leno threads, and the 



«■:■ - 



The Leno Ratine Fabric Described. 



would be used for plain cloth contain- 
ing the same sizes of yarn. This is 
not absolutely necessary, but will 
often be found desirable in such a 
fabric as that ccnsidered, because the 
increase in production more than off- 
sets the extra price which is noted 
for the better cotton. In a fabric of 
this character, the yarns form a com- 
paratively small portion of the total 
cost, oftentimes the percentage of 
labor in the fabric amounting to 
about 75 per cent of the total cost of 
making. It will thus be seen that the 
use of a cotton wherein a small per- 
centage of increase in the weave room 
production can be secured is of large 
advantage. The best method to pro- 



heavy leno yarn is less likely to be 
broken than if a fine reed were used. 
In most fabrics of this character it Is 
possible for a weaver to run only one 
loom. This is necessary, because the 
doups are continually breaking, and 
as the material is comparatively ex- 
pensive it is not a good policy to al- 
low the leno yarn to stop operating 
for even a few picks, as it makes a 
second. 

COSTS AND SELLING PRICES. 

Possibly the most interesting item 
regarding the fabric considered is 
that which concerns the cost of man- 
ufacturing and the price which Is being 
obtained at retail. Allowing reason- 



134 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



able items in our analysis we find 
that for the width of cioth considered 
it should not cost over 2U cents lor a 
mill to produce the material; in tact, 
it is likely that it couid be produced 
for a smaller amount in quite a num- 
ber of instances. These fabrics are 
in good demand to-day, and allowing 
a high mill profit, namely 15 per cent, 
the mill's selling price should not be 
over 22 cents. Under such conditions 
this fabric should be sold by the re- 
tailer at 50 cents per yard and have 
the various sellers obtain a rate of 
profit satisfactory for the radical na- 
ture of the fabric. That this has not 
been done is readily recognized, in- 
asmuch as the cloth is not selling for 
50 cents per yard at retail, but rather 
is being offered for $1.49. It would 
seem as if it were possible for cou 
verters to develop a fabric similar to 
the one analyzed, but in a slightly 
narrower width, so that it could be 
sold at no more than 39 cents per yard 
and allow a very good profit to the 
various sellers. We believe this would 
have occurred if this fabric had been 
produced earlier than it was, but 
there is a tendency among manufac- 
turers to avoid novelty materials of 
this character at the present time, for 
they believe the sale will shortly de- 
cline. This price of $1.49 per yard 
shows that someone has obtained a 
very large profit, and very likely it is 
not the manufacturer. 

THE RETAILER UNDOUBTEDLY 

Is obtaining quite a little extra profit, 
but it does not seem possible that Lj- 
is obtaining anything like the entire 
profit which this .fabric shows. There 
are very many materials being 
sold on which the retail price is 
at least three times the cost of the 
goods in a finished state, but it is sel- 
dom that the retail price is from six 
to seven times the cost of the goods 
in a finished state, as is noted on this 
cloth. The result illustrates very 
clearly what is likely to happen when 
retailers and others do not give 
enough consideration to the fabrics 
being produced in the market and do 
not recognize the actual cloth values 
in any way. Possibly the retailer can 
obtain $1.49 per yard for this mate- 
rial, largely because tne consumer is 



often foolish where styles are being 
considered, but there should be no 
legitimate reason lor such a thing 
occunmg and probably retaiiers, 
even previous seiieis, are being 
as badly deceived regarding value as 
the consumer is. 

It may be that this fabric was im 
ported, yet it was not claimed thai 
such was the case, but if it was im • 
ported, it shows that the purchaser 
has absolutely no idea regarding 
value and that the material couid 
have been produced in the domestic 
market so as to be sold with large 
profit at a much more reasonable price. 
Many times fabric importers do not 
give enough consideration to the lines 
of high-class novelties whi.-h some of 
the domestic 

SELLERS ARE DEVELOPINC 

These buyers will make trips to for- 
eign markets and purchase a certain 
amount of cloth which, with the duty, 
makes their purchases cost quite high 
amounts, whereas if they had useu 
half as much effort in examining the 
various lines in the domestic market 
they could have obtained just as great 
variety and oftentimes the identical 
fabric at a very much lower price. 
It is often the practice to purchase all 
the fabrics from a single seller in the 
domestic market, and while this has 
its advantages, nevertheless it doe» 
certainly curtail the variety which 
is obtainable and oftentimes elimi- 
nates fabrics which would help in en- 
larging the distribution of the pur- 
chaser. There have been more in- 
stances of purchasers being fooled re- 
garding values the present season 
than there ever has been in the past, 
and while there always is a certain 
amount of this taking place, neverthe- 
less the styles being purchased and 
certain other features in the situation 
tend to indirate that consumers wil) 
not continually be as easily deceived 
regarding fabrics as they have beei 
the present summer, and sellers ma! 
not be able to dispose of their mer 
chandlse at the enormous advancet 
whi'^h manv of them exnert to obtain 
WHien such a fabric as the one con 
sldered has to be nroflnced bv a mill 
not acnnalnted with the manufaoturt 
of it, there must be a great deal ol 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



135 



consideration given to tlie analysis of 
tlie fabric before any definite price is 
named for any large Quantity. In the 
first place, unless the labric is dupli- 
cated within a reasonable degree of 
accuracy, the result obtainc i will not 
be identical with the fabric being 
imitated. 

The sizes of the ground yarns, both 
warp and filling, can be obtained in 
a comparatively easy manner, but 
such yarns are somewhat finer in the 
finished cloth than they are when they 
are used in producing the grey ma- 
terial. This, however, is not of great 
Importance in a fabric of the charac- 
ter described, but is of interest in the 
result. The same condition applies 
to the leno yarn and, while the losses 
are likely to be somewhat greater on 
this yarn, due to the soft twibt which 
has been used and to the merceriza- 
tion process, the finer size * i the fin- 
ished cloth does not affect the result 
as much as the take-up on the yarn. 

THE ENORMOUS TAKE-UP. 

Not only does the take-up affect the 
appearance of the cloth, but it also 
has much to do with the cost of the 
material which is used in producing 
it. It will be noted from our analysis 
that there has been a take-up on the 
leno yarn of practically 68 per cent, 
or, in other words, it requires about 
three yards of yarn to weave one yard 
of cloth. Many ordinary leno fabrics 
are woven with a take-up of from 20 
to 30 per cent, and a mere estimate 
of the actual take-up in weaving the 
cloth considered would be likely to 
fall far short of what the take-up 
would actually be, thus giving a much 
smaller weight of yarn to produce the 
cloth and a lower cost than should be 
noted. This fabric illustrates very 
well why it is not a good plan to size 
yarn as it stands in the finished cloth 
without considering at all the take-up 
In weaving. This yarn was 28-2 when 
used, whereas. If such a method of 
sizing the yarn had been adopted in 
assessing duties, the result obtained 
would be applied to 10-2 yarn, rather 
thin 30-2. with a lof'.'er rate of diitv 
than actually should be noted. Of 
course, this would make very little 
difference In a fabric where the 
ground yarn is as fine as it is in this 



cloth, with the leno yarn as coarse as 
that used, but the yarn sizes are not 
always relatively the same as they 
are in the cloth analyzed, and fine 
two-ply yarn is sometimes noted for 
the crossing threads. It is this large 
take-up in crossing yarn which is 
•mainly responsible for the rating or 
towelling effect. 

THIS FABRIC IS NOT STRETCHED 

like many of the materials which are 
being sold to-day, but Instead, it 




illustrating Mottled Appearance or 
Warp. 

shrinks a slight amount in finishing, 
which gives a better effect, yet which 
makes a few more picks in the clotn 
than when it is woven with a corre- 
spondingly fewer nuraber of yards re- 
turned. The shrinkage in width is 
somewhat greater than for most ordi- 
nary cloths, as this is desirable. Inas- 
much as it creates somewhat more 
prominent loops. The shrinkage 
In length affects the cost to the 
purchaser, but not in very large 
amounts and not anywhere near 
so radically as is noted on some 
other fabrics which are being 



136 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



handled in quantities to-day. Mak- 
ing the fabric in tlie manner de- 
scribed is of a certain amount of ad- 
vantage, because the back of the clotn 
is smooth. This does not occur when 
novelty yarns are used, neither does 
it occur in a great many of the ordi- 
nary terry cloths. The crossing back 
and forth and weaving in of the leno 
threads makes a very firm fabric with 
a comparatively small number of 
threads and picks per inch and also 
when quite fine yarns are used for 
the ground cloth. Such a cloth con- 
struction would not be permissible in 
producing this character of fabric as 
ordinarily produced, for the threads 
would slip and the result would not 
be desirable. 

Practically none of the terry 
cloths of this character are made 
from yarns as fine as are used in the 
fabric considered, and if they were 
the heavy yarns would not be bound 



in sufficiently. The fabric described 
is one of the lightest appearing 
ratines which has been produced and 
the whole effect is not only a very 
good imitation of the novelty yarn or 
terry cloth styles, but it is also very 
much like an ordinary crepe, due to 
the light and irregular character of 
the cloth. Ihe method of obtaining 
the weight of the yarns and the cloth 
is as follows: 

2.658 ends -r- (60/1 X 840> = .0527. weight 

of fine warp without take-up. 
6% take-up in weaving. 
.0527 -^ .94 = .0o61. total weight of fine 

warp per yard of woven cloth. 
403 ends -^ (2S/2 X 840) = .0342, weight 

of heavy warp without take-up. 

68% take-up in weaving. 
.0342 -=- .32 = .1068. total weight of heavy 

warp per vard of woven cloth. 
64 picks X 44 reed width X 36" 

= 2,816 yds. 

36" 
of filling per yard of cloth. 
2.816 -^ (65/1 X 840) = .0516, total weight 

of filling per vard of woven cloth 
.0561 -f .1068 -I- .0516 = .2145. total weight. 
1.0000 -;- .2145 = 4.66 yards per lb. (grey). 



60/1 Am. combed W3,rp 
28/2 Am. combed warp mere. 



65/1 Am. combed filling; 64 picks. 

19 reed; 44" width in reed; 37%"-38" finished width. 
79 X 65 finished count. 




3,061 total ends. 



YARNS. 



60/1 Am. combed: 1%" staple; 12 hank dou. rov., 
28/2 Am. combed; 1%" staple; .=>% hank dou. rov., 
65/1 Am. combed; 1 5-16" sta. ; 16 hank dou. rov., 



Cotton. 

22%c. 
15%c. 
21c. 



Labor, 
waste, 

etc. 

19 %c. 
9V2C. 

18c. 



Twist- 
ing and 
mere. 

6%c. 



42%c. 
31>^c. 
39c. 



COST. 

2.658 ends 60/1 Am. combed warp + 6% take-up = .0561 @ 42%c. 

403 ends 28/2 Am. combed warp 4- 68% take-up = .1068 @ 31 1,4c. 

64 picks 65/1 Am. combed filling = .0516 @ 39c. 

\vea>'mg 

Bxpenues 



Selling (grey). 



Min profit (15% upon fair capitalization). 

M!;i selling price 

Finishing 

Convei ter's Expenses 



Total coat to converter 

Seiiing price to retailer ought not to be over. 
Retail price ought to be less than 



$ .0237 
.0338 
.0202 
.0933 
.0223 

$ .1935 
.0035 

$ .1070 
.0220 

$ .2190 
.0175 
.0325 

$ .2690 
.3250 
.5000 



Actual retail price $1.49 per yard. 
VardB per pound (gray) 4.66. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



m 



SPECIAL WEAVE CREFE 

We have previously aiiabzed and 
described certain varieties of crepe 
fabrics, but inasmucli as anoLlier ef- 
fect, wliicli seems more or Iviss desir- 
able, lias been developed, it may be 
of service to manuiacturers to de- 
scribe tlie material in some detail. 
The whole fancy cotton cloth induscry 
is built up on ideas, and the develop- 
ing of new ones or the changing of 
old ones over to a slightly different 
foim is mainly responsible for most 
of the satisfactory profits received, 
and the lack of these same ideas has 
a great deal of influence in bringing 
about losses and ultimate fc^ilures. 

Everyone knows that novelty yarn 
fabrics have been very desirable and 
that large profits have been secured 
in their manufacture and sale, often 
when the cloths contained very little 
wearing value. Many expect that the 
present season will see the height of 
the demand for such cloths, and that 
another year they will be much less 
salable, especially the fabrics of un- 
satisfactory construction. This condi- 
tion is recognized by the best sellers 
and they are avoiding such merchan- 
dise as much as possible, although 
naturally they have to handle a cer- 
tain amount in order to satisfy buy- 
ers and keep their lines as wide in 
variety as possible. These foregoing 
facts are likely to have a great influ- 
ence on the sale of crepe cloths. 

For one thing, crepes have not been 
in demand for so lon^ a time as nov- 
elty yarn cloths, thus making their 
sale an increasing one, while that of 
novelty cloths is a decreasing one. 
Then the extenaed use of novelty yarn 
materials, which are mostly of a very 
heavy character, is very likely to cre- 
ate an aversion to such goorls, making 
lighter fabrics, of which most crepes 
are very good examples, in especially 
good demand. At present the best 

SPll'nP' c'oMk? of -> frt-np-'T f.lnTTj-|pr 

are crenes which have decorations of 
a noveUv va^n rha-acter, thp fabric 
thus ronRtru("ted obtaining whatever 
advantages thpre are in the sale of 
these two cloths. 

Few realize the g^'eat variety of 
construction and adaptations whicJ 



are desirable and probably necessary 
in the distiibution of any such nov- 
elty cloths as voiles, ratines or crepes, 
but it can be said that the lines of 
practically every seller of such coods 
will vary to a certain extent and while 
geneial ideas are often adopted, the 
cloth construction, pattern or cloth 
results finished show a great many 
differences. This is done not only 
because there is a large demand for 
variety, but also because of the set 
prices which are in vogue, and other 
features. Then it is customary to 
produce in cheap materials the same 
ideas which are selling well in the 
more expensive cloths and the lower- 
ing of quality often creates many dif- 
ferent effects, the same thing being 
true regarding fabrics which are made 
in the more expensive grades. 

When any ground fabric is in de- 
mand, manufacturers can change the 
construction and readapt styles almost 
without number. This is where the 
value of an idea like that considered 
is of interest. The cloth is a crepe 
in many respects, still it has a face 
appearance something siijiilar to a 
voile, due to the use of good two-ply 
yarn, and, in addition, has a notice- 
able wave appearance which is radi- 
cally different from that of ordinary 
crepes, either box loom or regular. In 
fart, the result is something like a 
Bedford co^-d of an extremely light 
orepe construction, with the stuffer 
threads omitted. 

As is quite well known, crepe cloths 
are a special material, not only in 
regard to the yarns used in their 
making, but also as to the finishing 
processes. Crepe constructions might 
be said to be generally of a very low 
character with a comparatively few 
threads and picks per inch. This 
method of production is adopted to 
allow for the shrinkage in finishing 
which gives the cloth the result gen- 
erally noted. Of course, certain 
crepes are made with quite a firm 
construction, but it is not the usual 
method, and when such a course is 
used, the shrinkage and appearance is 
Tint that so often noted. Ordinary 
crepes of a w-a^'y character can be 
woven on an ordinary loom with only 
one twist in the filling. Most crepes, 
however, are woven on box looms, at 



138 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



least those which are sold at the 
higher prices. Sometimes a pick and 
pick loom is used where a single pick 
of one twist of filling is inserted and 
then another pick of filling is used 
with twist inserted in the opposite 
direction from that previously used. 
Box loom crepes are also made in 
great quantities where there are two 
picks of each kind of twisted yarn 
inserted, this being caused by the fact 
that most mills are not in positions 
to use a single pick of any filling. A 
comparatively few crepes have been 
made where over two picks of a cer- 
tain kind of twist are used in succes- 



nection with the yarn? used In the 
fabric analyzed. It is necessary for 
the filling yarn to be twisted to a 
much greater extent than is ordinarily 
the case, if there is a satisfactory 
amount of contraction, which contrac- 
tion produces the crepe effect so often 
noted. This shrinkage occurs when 
the fabric is finished and not during 
or immediately after the weaving op- 
eration. In fact, on many styles of 
crepe fabrics the contraction in weav- 
ing is not nearly so great as it is for 
many ordinary fabrics. The standard 
of twist which is inserted in yarn of 
this character will vary quite a little, 




WW' 





Special Wave Crepe. 



sion, but this results in special ef- 
fects which are not usually especially 
desirable. The cloth under discussion 
was produced on a pick and pick loom, 
this being necessary because only a 
single pick of hard twist filling is 
inserted when this filling is used. 
Although in the cloth the introduction 
of these hard twist picks of 60-1 is not 
regular, it is comparatively so, and 
the picks will average to be two of 
150-2 and one of 60-1 hard twist. Un- 
der this condition out of the 90 picks 
per inch, which the cloth contains, 60 
of them will be of the two-ply yarn, 
while 30 of them will be of a hard 
twist character. 

There are a number of features 
which are worthy of mention in con- 



but it will run from 6% to as high as 
9 or even more times the square root 
of the yarn number in turns per inch. 
The usual standard is about TV2 to 8. 
One interesting feature, which is 
not apparent to most mill men until 
they attempt to make hard twist fill- 
ing, is that there is quite a large con- 
traction, the amount varying some- 
what, due to the amount of twist in- 
serted in the spinning operation. 
Thus, to have the drafts satisfactory 
in the spinning and the roving of the 
correct size to obtain any yarn size, 
the roving has to be finer than it 
otherwise would be. In many cases 
there is a contraction of at least 10 
per cent when the yarn is spinning, 
making it necesBary to have Ui© rov- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



189 



Ing correspondingly finer. Hard twist 
yarn also has to be treated in order to 
malce it satistactory to weave. The 
excessive amount of twist makes the 
yarn very springy, and to weave as it 
comes from the spinning frame would 
result in the cloth being full of small 
loops and probably being entirely sec- 
onds. 

To overcome this difficulty, the 
yarn has to be steamed or handled 
in some such manner to set the twist 
and eliminate any springy tendency. 
Yarn is usually steamed on the filling 
bobbins and because most bobbins are 
likely to contain oil which has soaked 
into them or varnish or in some other 
manner to give out undesirable ele- 
ments when under high temperatures, 
it is necessary to use bobbins which 
have been specially treated so that the 
yarn will not be likely to absorb any 
i'oreign matter. With some mills this 
Is not so necessary as in others, but 
satisfactory results practically always 
make it imperative. One of the inter- 
esting features in connection with 
hard twist yarn is regarding the cost 
of production. In many hard twist 
yarns it is possible to use a some- 
what shorter staple than if ordinary 
yarn was to be produced. 

The change in this direction, how- 
ever, is very slight, and in many cases 
not feasible for a manufacturer to 
adopt, but the quality of the results 
has much to do with this problem. 
One reason why shorter cotton can be 
used is because of the irregular re- 
sults noted in crepe fabrics. Of 
course a shorter staple does help 
slightly in reducing the cost of pro- 
duction, but it is of very small im- 
portance when the increased cost is 
considered due to slower production. 
As the turns per inrh in aiv varn in- 
crease the production will decrease, 
for the sneed of the spindle is ap- 
proximately stable. 

As the production decreases the la- 
bor and various other exnense items 
Increase, for the production per snin- 
dle is the it<^m of greitpst imnortance 
in the making of ncru^ate ro^t psti- 
matea. It is seldom that any satis- 
factorv hard twist y^rn c'^s'^s 
less than twice as miT^h as fo'* 
the same size of yarn of similar ordi- 
nary character, that Is, warp yam. 



Each mill has problems in this direc- 
tion which make results somewhat 
different, but it is one of the items of 
importance and should never be over- 
looked in any way. In connection 
with the yarns used in this cloth it 
may be well to state a few facts re- 
garding the fine two-ply yarn which 
has been used. 

A great many have a mistaken idea 
regarding the cost of yarns as the 
sizes increase. This is not true and 
is explained as follows: As an illus- 
tration 30-1 is produced over six times 
as fast as 100-1, although 100-1 is 
only three and one-third times as fine 
a size. This is mainly because the 
turns in any yarn are not regulated 
by the size, but rather by the square 
root of the size. Due to the great 
reduction in production the cost of 
the yarn increases by approximately 
the same ratio as the production de- 
creases. This is true generally when 
all yarns produced on a spinning 
frame are being compared, but when 
yarn sizes become so fine that it is 
necessary to produce them on a mule 
the difference is even more radical. 

The figures we have mentioned ap- 
ply to frame yarns, but for the 150-2 
a much greater reduction in produc- 
tion, with a radical increase in cost 
of production is noted. Of course, 
frame yarns are being successfully 
made up to about 125-1, but above this 
point mules are found necessary. The 
minute a change is made from frame 
to mule for approximately the same 
kind of yarn, there is a decided jump 
in the cost of production. We have 
considered this feature in our fabric 
cost estimates. The same thing is 
more or less true regarding the cost 
of the twisting process because the 
number of turns per inch does not in- 
crease according to the yarn size. 

Crepe cloth construction is usually 
pretty well known, but its adaptation 
in such a manner as that in the cloth 
under discussion is seldom seen. In 
the first place the face of the cloth 
mav be said to he comnosed entirely 
of 1P'>-2 yarn with a count of about 
74 y fin in the finished state. On the 
ha'^k of the cMth and hound in at 
rpirii'ar intpr^'als across the fabric Is 
the hard twist 60-1 filling. This yarn 
floats on the back mych the same aa 



140 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



in an ordinary Bedford cord, but 

naturally does not become face yarn 
at all, as in the cloth mentioned. 
When the fabric is finished this yarn, 
which is loose on the back, contracts 
and forces up the plain woven face 
material, thus creating waves or tucks 
as noted. One item in regard to this 
fabric is that it probably would be a 
much more satisfactory method to 
weave the cloth face down in the 
loom. This makes it necessary for 
the loom to lift much less yarn and 
saves in power and is likely to result 
in a better appearing fabric. 

This item of weaving cloths face 
down is one which is not always con- 
sidered as seriously by manufacturers 
as should be done, for while the power 
saved is often slight, it is true that a 
much better appearing fabric can 
jften be obtained. The shrinkage in 
width in this cloth is much more radi- 
cal than for most crepes, for in the 
majority of instances there is less 
than a 25 per cent shrinkage, while 
this cloth shrinks more than 30 per 
cent. There are certain objections 
which might be offered to a fabric of 
this character, the main one being 
that the loose ends on the back are 
likely to catch on any substance or 
projection which they are brought in 
contact with. In a good many cases 
this is of comparatively little impor- 
tance and does not affect the value 
of the idea. Neither does it make the 
method undesirable in other fabrics. 
Such a cloth as the one consMere-i. but 
made in stripes or checks of an attrac- 
tive pattern would undou^^tedly be rn- 
spopsible for a very satisfactorv profit. 

The fabric considered is an import- 
ed article and in this connection It 
may be well to state a few facts. 
Many domestic mills are organized to 
produce large quantities of staple and 
semi-staple cloths, and fancy mills 
have been patterned after the same 
general idea. This makes it neces- 
sary for a manufacturer to obtain 
large contracts and get out c^oth at 
comparatively low prices, but the 
method is of great disadvantage so 
fa'' as fabric variety is conr-erned. 
With thp great increase in high c'ass 
cotton fabric sale domestic manufac- 
turers are at a disadvantage, for they 
behold their number of styles increas- 



ing rapidly, together with the cost of 
production, and it is creating so much 
detail that the large organizations are 
not especially capable of handling 
them. It is absolutely certain that 
most of the manufacturers in the do- 
mestic market cannot broaden out 
very much more than they have done 
without creating a great deal of 
trouble for themselves. 

The foreign manufacturer operates 
in a much different manner. He pro- 
duces much smaller quantities of the 
various styles, and while this does 
make the cost of manufacturing com- 
paratively high, it offers onportunity 
for the display of individual effort 
whii^h is not nops!b^e in anv ]a"!?e way 
in the domestic market. It might be 
possible to sell 50 or 100 pieces of a 
certain fabric at a nrice which wouM 
return a l^^.rge dividend, but because 
of its high-c'a<?s character a buyer 
might not desl'^e to nu-chase any 
large amount. Such fab^-ics a'^e not 
suitable for most domestic manufac- 
turers and pa^-tlv explains why we 
have had importations of foreign mer- 
chandise. It is not so largely a nues- 
tion of price as it is a question of 
variety and the sine of orders which 
can be handled sitisfactorily by buy- 
ers. With a jobber handling mer- 
chandisre large o"de"s are, of course, 
divided into many rarts, but there is 
a very evident tendency to distribute 
goods diT'ect to the retailer in fancy 
lines, and it is certain that nuch more 
of it will have to br done if domestic 
sellers compete with handlers of for- 
eign merchandise, a large majority of 
whom adopt SMch methods. 

There is comnaratively little inter- 
est in regard to the nnishing of this 
fabric. Of cou^'se it cannot be handled 
by the maiority of finishers mainly 
because it is so wide. It is piece-dyed 
and the stpaming or boiling is respon- 
sible fc the confaf'tion and crepe ef- 
fect. Comna'-ativelv few c^pne fab- 
ric's are produ^pd from bleached and 
dved yarns. The reason for this is 
l^ecpuse the excpsr>'e a^^onnt of 
handling and thp charncte" of thp varn 
not onW make the cost of n'-nduction 
h^e^h. but Hp-^Plon manv di^^'^u^t'es in 
making. When yarn is twistpd with 
a large number of turns ner inch it 
loses a great deal of its strength and 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



141 



this condition makes it Impossible to amount per yard was obtained in 

handle in a bleached and dyed condi- profit. The retail selling price is $2 

tion in most instances. per yard and while this undoubtedly 

There are certain effects which can- allows a very large rate of profit to 

not be produced in any other man- the retailer, nevertheless the amount 

ner than through the use of bleached of duty necessary and the profits of 

yarn, but manufacturers are not in- the manufacturer and other sellers 

clined to produce any quantity of make the selling price of the cloth a 

such cloths, and when it is done it is comparatively reasonable advance on 

rather hard to obtain the relative the cost of production. The rate of 

profits which are really necessary to duty for this fabric is 10 cents per 

make a satisfactory result. This fab- yard and not less than 40 per cent ad 

ric has been considered on a domes- valorem. Probably the amount of 

tic basis of cost production and a mill duty was quite a little in excess of 

should be able to accomplish the work 10 cents per yard. The yards per 

at the figures given if they are in a pound in the grey state are 7.17, thus 

position to manufacture wide cloth making the cloth sell at retail at ap- 

and produce yarn of the sizes and proximately $15 per pound. The 

character used. Naturally thjre are method of obtaining the weights of 

but few mills in a position to do such the yarn and the weight of the cloth 

work and the selling price for the is as follows: 

cloth is probably high for such rea- 2,954 ends ^ (150/2 x 840) = .0469, weight 

sons. Because the cloth is made on of warp without take-up. 

a box loom which operates at a slow- ■<% take-up in weaving-. 

er speed and because the cloth is •*''**^ "^ -^^ = 'l^*''*' t"*^' weight of warp 

,, 'J ii J i- • J PPi" woven vard. 

rather wide the production in yards eo picks x 57%" reed width x 36" 

per week is comparatively small. = 3.450 

For this reason, it is necessary for ^.^^^^ „, fining' a50/2) per yard. 

the manufacturer to obtain a much 3.450 -^ fi50/2 x 840) = .0548, total weight 

larger amount of profit per yard than °^ i50/2 fining per yard. 

for most cloths. In this case he 30 picks x 57%" reed width x 36" ^ ^ ^^^ 

should obtain from 2i/^ to 3 cents per 36" 

ya»-d at least, to allow a reasonable yards of fining f60/i) per yard. 

l^^fif ^,r, ^•hr.^r.ct r.f\, Z^^Z* J 1-725 ^ (60/1 X 840) = .0342, total weight 

profit on the cost of a plant. Inas- of 60/1 fining per yard. 

mii^h as a hirh-class noveltv sells on •05'i4 + .0548 -f- .0342' = .1394. total weight. 

style it is probable that a much larger ^ "(grey^ '^^^* ^ "'^ ""^"^^ "^'^ ''°""'^ 

PATTERN. 
8 8 

150/2 Sea Island combed — 2,834 — = 2,954, total ends. 

20 20 

150/2 Pea Island combed fllllnff ) .a . * i , , 

60/1 Am. combed hard twist filling < '"• **'**' Picks. 
Filling averages In cloth 2 picks of 150/2 and 1 pick of 60/1. 
60 reed. 57%" width In reed. 39%"-40" finished width. 
74 X 92 finished count. 

YARN!?. Labor. Twist- 

Cotton, waste, etc. Ing. 
150/2 Pea Island combed: 1%" staple: 30 hank dou. rov., 32c. 79%c. 16c. = Jl.27% 

60/1 Am. combed; 1%" staple; 14 hank dou. rov., 19c. 29%c. = .48% 

COST. 

2.954 ends 150/2 Pea. Island combed -f- 7% take-up = .0504 (5) Jl.27% = $ .0644 

60 picks 15n/2 Sea Island combed = .0548 @ 1.27% = .0700 

80 picks 60/1 Am. combed hard twist = .0342 @ .48% = .0165 

Weaving 0603 

Expenses 0317 

$ .2429 
Selling (grey) 0065 

Mill cost (grey) $ .2494 

Mill spning price (not less than) 2800 

Finishing, etc 0500 

R^te of duty 4 0%. 

Profits and expenses of various sellers not considered. 

Retail selling price $2 per yard. 

Tarda per pound 7.17 (grey). 



142 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



RICE CLOTH 



(The Best Cotton Fabric for Spring.) 
The question which has been upper- 
most in the minds of buyers of cotton 
goods during the past few weelis has 
been — What cloth can I purchase to 
take care of my distribution and be 
certain that a good profit will be se- 
cured and on which no slump is 
likely? Manufacturers have also been 
just as interested as buyers, for un- 
less some kind of a novelty style is 
in good demand, it is very probable 
that none of the desirable profits 
which are often responsible for satis- 
factory mill operation are received. 
Possibly a short explanation of the 



not at all new. Good sellero state 
positively that the best of the demand 
for present styles in cotton jacquards 
is over, and that a declining demand, 
together with smaller profits, is certain 
for the immediate future. Then, there 
are the heavy novelty yarn fabrics 
which have sold well for a number of 
years. 

In the East, where the greatest por- 
tion of distribution is noted, these 
cloths are dead or nearly so, and any 
one handling any sizable quantity is 
likely to sustain quite large losses. In 
the West such cloths are stih in de- 
mand, but their production is not es- 
pecially desirable to most Tnanufac- 
turers. Of course, certain of the 
newer colored yarn cloths have sold 
and probably will continue to sell 



Rice Cloth. 



conditions which exist "may be desir- 
able in view of the opinions of some 
sellers who are always trailers and 
who never achieve any remarkable 
success in cloth production and dis- 
tribution. 

Jacquard styles have been selling 
well and mills have quite a few orders 
for such goods, but in any case these 
styles do not have any great effect 
on the bulk of the distribution. 
Quite a portion of the jac- 
quard styles being made to-day are 
considered as semi-staples and are 



well, but we are referring more par- 
ticularly to grey woven materials. 
Another thing of interest, though 
known to comparatively few sellers, 
is that Southern mills have 

KILLED THE PRODUCTION 

of heavy grey yarn ratings for most 
Northern manufacturers. 

When the demand for the heavy 
novelty yarn cloths first developed 
none of the Southern makers were 
acquainted with the yarn or cloth 
production, and so for a time prac- 



A COTTON FABRIUS GLOSSAtvi 



US 



tically no ratings were made in this 
section. Gradually, however, a 
greater amount of knowledge was ob- 
tained and more manufacturers were 
able to produce them, so that to-day 
the quotation for a Norther^x fabric 
will be about IO14 to 10^^ cents per 
yard, while the same fabric will be 
sold by Southern makers at 9% to 9% 
cents per yard. 

This has forced quite a large share 
of the heavy grey yarn novelty cloth 
orders to be obtained by Southern 
manufacturers. There are facts of 
Importance in the production of nov- 
elty materials which many Southern 
makers have not yet learned, but one 
of them which must be considered is 
that it is not a very good practice to 
make any quantities of novelty goods 
on a declining market. Another thing 
is that it is advisable not to sell up 
one's entire production when a fabric 
looks as though it might be a large 
profit maker. A waiting game with 
moderate sales to keep looms in op- 
eration will be responsible for much 
larger profits, for looms can then be 
sold when the rate of profit is at the 
highest point. 

Another line of fabrics that has 
been desirable, and which will be in 
demand for spring, is that 

ORDINARILY KNOWN AS CREPE. 
There are certain objections to any 
big use of such cloths, although at 
present they appear as desirable as 
any other line, with the exception of 
rice cloth. For one thing they have 
never had a very long run, as con- 
sumers are apt to tire of them in a 
comparatively short time. For an- 
other thing the production of large 
quantities of crinkle effects, both 
woven and mercerized, has curtailed 
a great deal the possibilities of dis- 
tribution for crepes. 

The uncertainty regarding styles 
has made it possible for a compara- 
tively new line called rice cloths to 
be developed. They are used for the 
same purpose as the other materials 
mentioned, but they contain ideas 
which are making a very large sale 
possible and are returning especially 
attractive dividends. It may not be 
generally known outside of circles 
where style tendencies ure discussed. 



but nevertheless it is a fact that 
lighter fabrics are rapidly gaining 
strength and that another year will 
again see a large demand. This does 
not necessarily mean that there will 
be as large quantities of fine plain 
materials sold as formerly, because 
this will not occur until certain ave- 
nues of distribution which have been 
closed for some time are again avail- 
able. 

In addition to being of a light char- 
acter, these rice cloths contain nov- 
elty yarn effects which are different 
from many of those sold in past years. 
The name probably developed from 
the fact that the small yarn bunches 
scattered over the fabric look some- 
thing like grains of rice. The name 
itself is of value, for to most sellers 
ratine is more or less stale and rice 
cloth at least sounds new. Large 
quantities have already been con- 
tracted for, and more will be pur- 
chased in the near future with very 
large mill profits. For grey cloths the 
prices run from somewhat less than 
10 cents per yard to about 20 cents 
per yard, the latter price being the 
quotation for probably the most de- 
sirable cloth of this character offered. 

THE CLOTH CONSTRUCTION. 

There is nothing regarding rice 
cloths which present any great diffi- 
culties in manufacturing. As yet they 
are not being produced in Southern 
mills to any extent, partly because 
the yams are somewhat finer than a 
good many Southern Tnills produce 
and partly because mills in this sec- 
tion have not been wide enough 
awake to realize the opportunity. In 
practically all cases, plain weave is 
used in the production of these 
cloths, and it is desirable to have them 
of a comparatively wide width, 40- 
inch grey being one of the big selling 
widths. The warp is an ordinary 50-1 
warp, no different than would be 
noted for any medium weight plain 
cloth containing this size and count. 
The threads per inch are compara- 
tively few in number, thus creating 
no great difficulties so far as produc- 
tion is concerned. The filling yarn 
contains the features which produce 
the novelty effect in these rice cloths. 
The more bunches or extra yarn the 



144 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



filling contaiiLs the more the cloth is 
likely to cost and to a certain extent 
the more desirable the material is 
likely to be. Because the filling is of 
a comparatively coarse character, due 
to the twisting process which has been 
used, the picks per inch are compara- 
tively few in number. Naturally, the 
fewer bunches there are in the yarn 
the finer it will be when twisted, and 
when such is the case it is sometimes 
necessary to use a greater number of 
picks per inch. It is necessary to 
have a low warp count because should 
too many threads per inch be used 
they will cover up and largely spoil 
the effect desired. On most of the 
heavy ratines the yarn sizes are rela- 
tively 4-1 or coarser, while in many 
of these rice cloths the relative yarn 
sizes are 7-1 or finer. 

THE YARN MAKING. 

Inasmuch as the warp is ordinary 
yarn, no description is needed for this 
portion of the fabric. The filling 
does, however, need quite a little at- 
tention not only because of the meth- 
od of manufacture, but also because 
of other features. In the first place, 
the filling used in these rice cloths 
is not composed of as large a num- 
ber cf ends as have been used in 
many of the rating clotho which have 
been selling. Filling for rice cloth, 
in most instances, is a twisted yarn 
composed of only two threads and in 
which but a single twisting operation 
has been used, while in many of the 
ratines four threads were used and 
two twisting operations were neces- 
sary to obtain the result. 

There is a great deal of advantage 
in making a two-ply twisted novelty, 
because much less handling is neces- 
sary resulting in a lower cost of pro- 
duction. Often yarn of this character 
is produced on an ordinary spinning 
frame, the yarn, when completed, be- 
ing ready for the loom, with no suc- 
ceeding processes. All that is neces- 
sary for satisfactorily producing such 
yarn is a frame which contains two 
separate sets of rolls and on which 
one set of rolls can be stopped at va- 
rious intervals. This question of 
stopping the operation of the rolls is 
an important one in obtaining satis- 
factory results. If possible, they 



should be stopped irregularly, so that 
the yarn bunches in the finished re- 
sult will appear irregularly in the 
cloth and not be likely to form what 
are called patterns. 

It is sometimes a good policy to 
use a box loom when weaving cloth 
of this character, as it tends to elimi- 
nate some of the foregoing difiicul- 
ties. There is one thing, however, 
regarding the 

PRODUCTION OF NOVELTY YARN 
with only two threads, and this is that 
the result is not bound closely enough 
to make it suitable for use as warp. 
The loose yarn will slip to a greater 
or less extent on the ground yarn, 
but not to a great enough extent to 
make the use impractical, that is, if 
enough twist has been inserted. 
When the correct amount of twist is 
used, the ground yarn will contract 
somewhat in twisting, and in doing 
this when the bunch is being formed 
will run the extra thread down on 
the ground yarn, thus binding the 
bunch much more firmly than would 
otherwise be possible. 

Special twisters have been made to 
perform this operation regularly, but 
with the correct yarn sizes and the 
right amount of twist it is hardly 
necessary for a fabric such as that 
described. The yarn which forms 
the nub or bunch, namely 36.5-1, is 
delivered approximately two and 
one-half times as fast as the ground 
yarn which is 50-1, There is, how- 
ever, quite a large take-up in the 
twisting operation even upon the 
ground yarn, making the resulting 
yarn size much coarser than would 
be expected. With the take-ups 
which are noted, namely 27 per cent 
upon the 50-1 ground and 71 per cent 
upon the 36.5-1 loose yarn, the rela- 
tive yarn sizes will be 36.5-1 for the 
50-1 ground yarn and 10.58C-1 for the 
36.5-1 loose yarn. 

Through the use of the method for 
obtaining a two-ply yarn sii.e when 
yarns of different sizes are twisted 
together, namely, dividing their prod- 
uct by their sum, we obtain a result- 
ing nov^elty yarn size of 8.20-1, or a 
yarn containing 6,888 yards per pound. 
With this as a basis, it ir a compara- 
tively easy matter to obtain the cost 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARt 



Ui 



per pound of the novelty yarn, but it 
is abjsoiuielv (•eriaiu tlial tue maiority 
of mauuiactuieis do not adopt any 
accurate nietliod for obtaining their 
novelty yarn costs, and for tliis rea- 
son they do not itnow the profits tiiey 
are obtaining nor anything like an 
accurate cost for their goods, altliough 
it might be said that when such fab- 
rics are in demand the profit is usually 
high enough to place them on the 
right side of the transaction. 

THE YARN COST. 

It will be noted that we have ob- 
tained the cost of the yarns used in 
making this novelty result, using regu- 
lar 50-1 warp, a method which prob- 
ably the majority of mills would be 
forced to adopt. Under this condi- 
tion the cost to the mill when econ- 
omy is practiced is STV^ cents per 
pound for 50-1 and 25^^ cents per 
pound for 36.5-1. Inasmuch as the 
novelty yarn contains 6,888 y?.rds per 
pound, the use of the yarn costs, to- 
gether with the relative sizes which 
they are when the take-up in twisting 
is considered, will give the cost o* the 
various yarns used in making a 
pound of novelty filling. This gives 
8.43 cents as the cost of the 50-1 and 
18.21 cents as the cost of 36.5-1 in a 
pound of novelty yarn. The total cost 
of material per pound for the novelty 
yarn is therefore 26.64 cents, the re- 
puH be!.ig TTiuch nearer the price of 
36.5-1 than for 50-1, because a much 
larppr po'-tion of the weight is of the 
hea^ipr yarn. 

TiM<5 ro<5t of material is rot the cost 
of thp finishpd yarn, bprause there is 
tho 'abor and pxnenses which are 
not^d in the twisting process, and in 
afidition there is a certain amount of 
expense noted for experimentation 
when cp'-tain of these no^ j1ty yarns 
a'-e produced. In a varn like that 
iiped in the s^mnle this exnerimenta- 
tion rhaT'e should not be very la'^ge 
boran'5P the nnantities of the mate- 
rial pppflpd fo'* anv modP'"ate size of 
order is nu'te iirg-e. and besides there 
is po e'-pat d'ficu'tv. if a manufac- 
tii'-pr kpows his business, in being 
ab'e to dnpli^ate yarn such as is used, 
at lpa«!t so far as nraoticc.1 purposes 
are concerned. The yarn production 
in ronnr's per week will not be nearly 



as large as the actual size when 
twisted would indicate, because the 
turns per inch are very much greater 
than in a normal yarn of the size 
noted. 

THE POSSIBLE PROFITS. 

Due to unfamiliarity with all kinds 
of novelty yarn fabrics, buyers have 
often been willing to pay prices for 
such cloths as to return some extra- 
ordinary profits. We are absolutely 
certain that in a good many cases 
manufacturers have not realized the 
rate of profit which they were ob- 
taining, but this fabric show3 a con- 
lition which exists to-day generally 
upon rice cloths. The reason why 
they do not know the rate of profit 
secured is because they do not inves- 
tigate the cost of production in an 
accurate enough manner, the trouble 
being mainly because of the shrink- 
ages and various other details which 
affect "le cost on the novelty filling. 
This cloth could be produced by an 
economical mill for the price which 
we have figured, namely 12.36 cents 
per yard, but in the estimates which 
we have given regarding profits we 
have allowed a somewhat h'gher cost 
than this, so that there could be no 
question regarding results. 

The selling price to-day for the fab- 
ric which we have analyzed is 20 
cents per yard. This allows a net 
profit to the mill of over 7 cents ner 
yard, for a fabric w^hich cortains only 
S!4 picks per inch. This, it will be rec- 
ognized, is a condition which se^om 
exists for manufacturers who can pro- 
duce a hieh-c^ass fabric in nuantit'es. 
The small number of picks per inch 
makes it possible for ouite a large 
numbpr of vards of cloth to be pro- 
duced per loom per week. Ordinarily 
fancy mills attempt to obtain a net 
profit of about $2 per loom per week, 
or, in other wo'-ds, $100 per loom per 
year, which will return a net profit 
of in the vicipitv of "io ner cent for 
fancy goods. This cloth, instead of 
showing the ordinary $2 per loom per 
week, hows at least !*''S75 per loom 
per wp.^k, or about $937.50 per loom 
per vear. 

Tt must be remembered that this 
cloth 's not produced upon a fancy 
loom, but rather upon a plain loom 



146 



A Cotton fabrics glossary 



which can make grey cloth 40 inches 
wide. Under these conditions tiie 
capitalization per loom \.ill not be as 
high as tor many mills containing 
fancy looms. The obtaining of a protit 
of over $900 per year per loom makes 
it possible for £. rate of profit to be 
secured of approximately 117 per cent. 
If this result was being secured on 
very small quantities of cloth and by 
only one or two sellers no attention 
would be given to the matter, but it 
is being secured on large quantities 
of cloth and by quite a number of sell- 
ers. Not only is this profit being se- 
cured on this fabric which is selling 
for 20 cents per yard, but a similar, 
or approximately similar rate of profit 
is being secured on the various qual- 
ities of rice cloths which are selling 
down to the price of 10 cents per yard. 
We do not claim that this high profit 
is a usual one, because it is not, but 
the situation is w^orth discussing from 
a mill standpoint, and because a large 
sale is going to take place it is de- 
sirable from a buyer's standpoint. It 
will be noted that w^e have given ap- 
proximate selling prices for the con- 
verter and retailer when sold direct. 
Much of this cloth will not be sold in 
this matter and undoubtedly some of 
the best grades will command a price 
of at least $1 per yard at retail. Just 
how long conditions will remain as 
they are and these high profts be se- 
cured is questionable, but most mills 
can produce such fabrics and will not 
long remain passive when they have 
looms idle for the want of orders. 

FINISHED RESULTS. 
These fabrics are practically all 
made from grey yarns and are there- 
fore treated to the processes which 
are customary for grey cloths, that is, 
they are bleached and sold in the 
white state, and in other instances 
are dyed any solid color which hap- 
pens to be desirable from a buyer's 
viewpoint. At present converters are 
getting out lines of rice cloths which 
contain small printed figures or in 
which quite a large portion of the 
ground is evident, and these a^e ex- 
pected to have a very large distribu- 
tion. Due to the fabric construction 
and method of making they are never 
mercerized. There has been no great 



attempt as yet to get fabrics out to 
sell at a price because there has been 
such a demand that mills could otten 
obtain more than their asking prices, 
in certain cases receiving 2 cents at 
least more than their asking price, 
which naturally would contain a 
rather high 

RATE OF PROFIT. 

The yarns composing these fabrics 
have not been manipulated to any 
great extent up to the present, but 
there is a certain amount of oppor- 
tunity for producing effects which 
have not been developed as yet. 
There are certain effects which can- 
not be produced when cloths are made 
from yarns such as are used in the 
fabric described. The fact that the 
material is different from what has 
formerly been sold, and the fact that 
large quantities are being made is 
sufficient to show buyers who have 
not purchased any that they are los- 
ing the chance of making large profits 
when they are available. 

Any cloth which shows a 
very high rate of profit to 
a manufacturer is likely to show 
as large, or a larger, rate of profit to 
a succeeding seller, and imtil com- 
petition develops more than is noted 
at present the profits will be very sat- 
isfactory. After the novelty yarn size 
has been correctly obtained there is 
no great difficulty in obtaining the 
■weights of the yarns and the cost of 
the cloth. 

It is always a good policy to obtain 
the actual novelty yarn size through 
weighing and then to obtain the fig- 
ured j'arn size through the use of 
take-UPS and the yarns used in its 
production. Of course, it is necessary 
to obtain the dptails regarding the 
novelty yarn size in order to obtain a 
correct cost, but the knowing of cloth 
dPtails is not only of interest to man- 
ufacturers and buyers, but oftentimes 
is of great value in obtaining desir- 
able results. The various weights are 
obtained as follows: 

2.SS0 ercis -- (.Sn/I X R40> = .0567, weight 

of 5<^/\ warp without take-up. 
9"% take-vin In wpivlnp. 
.0?67 -^ .91 = .0fi23. total wplsrht of 50/1 

wirp ppr varri of wovPti r'oth. 
45" reed width X 34 picks X 36" 

= 1,530 yds. 

3fi- 

of filllngr per yard of cletb. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



147 



1.530 -H 6,8S8 or (8.20/1 X 840) = .2221. 

total weight of novelty flUing per yard 

of cloth. 
.0623 + .2221 = .2844. total weight per 

yard. 
1.0000 -h .2844 = 3.52 yards per lb. (grey). 



during recent years, and that the re- 
duced prices would make a large sale 
possible, making such materials com- 
paratively staple in fancy goods. 



PATTERN. 
6C/1 Am. combed warp 40 2.300 40 = 2.3sn totpl ends. 
t.2 novelty 1 lling. compoired of 60/1 Am. combed and 86.6/1 Am. carded; 14 ptekl 

26 reed, 45" wiath in leeu. 4u" gi ev wiain. ia" imisuea wiath. 
59 X 34 giey count; 62 X 34 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Labor, 

Cotton, waste, etc. 
5C/1 Am. combed warp; 1 5-16" staple; 10 hank dou. rov., 21c. 16 Vic. 

36.5/1 Am. carded warp; l'^" staple; 7% hank dou. rov.. 15 %c. 8c. 

NOVELTY FILLING. 
I end 50/1 ground yarn, take-up in twisting 27%. 
I end 36.5/1 nub or loose yarn, take-up In twisting 71%. 
Relative yarn sizes in novelty (50/1 = 36.5/1) (36.5/1 = 10.585/1). 
36.5 X 10.585 

= 8.20, novelty size when twisted (or 6,888 yards per lb.) 

36.5 -I- 10.585 

C.SS8 X 37MiC. 



laob. 



37 '/^c. 
23<^c. 



36 V4 X 840 
6.888 X 23%c. 



10.585 X i40 



8.43c. cost of 50/1 In lb. of novelty yarn. 
18.21c. cost of 36 5/1 In lb. of novelty yarn. 



26.64c. total cost of material per lb. of novelty yarn. 
3.50c. cost of twisting, experimentation, etc. 



30.14c. total cost of novelty yarn per lb. 

CLOTH COST. 

2.380 ends 50/1 Am. combed warp + 9% take-up 

34 picks S.20 novelt> filling 

Weaving 

Expenses 



.= .0623 @ 37V4C. = $ .0234 

.= .2221 @ 301.4c. = .066'.' 

.0215 

.0093 



Selling (grey) , 



Mill cost 

Mill selling price to-day (grey). 
Cost of bleaching and finishing. 
Converter's expenses 



Cost to converter (total per yard) 

Converter's selling price to retailer (when handled dlre'cty about 

Retail price (when handled direct) up from 

Plain weave 

Yards per pound 3.52 rgrey). 

Mill profit at least $1S.75 per loom per week, or about $y37.50 per loom per year. 

This gives a rate of proht of approximately 117%. 



$ .1211 
.0025 

$ .1236 
.2000 
.0200 
.0260 

t .'^460 
.3000 
.4600 



TDSSAH BRCCHE 

The line of fabrics which are prob- 
ably of as great Interest to buyers of 
novelty goods as any others, and on 
which quite a little anxiety has been 
created because of the raw silk mar- 
ket is that line of cloths which con- 
tain silk of various kinds. Some time 
ago we gave a description of a silk 
and cotton mixture material stating 
that the prices had declined greatly 



Various conditions have been respon- 
sible for the large use of silk and cot- 
ton cloths, but it is only recently that 
the style and the finish has developed 
to its present state. Jacquard pat- 
terns have been very desirable in all 
kinds of silk and also woolen mate- 
rials and the same condition has been 
more or less true in cotton goods. 

Inasmuch as the combination of cot- 
ton and silk results in effects not 
possible in all cotton fabrics there is 
a very good reason why such com- 
binations should be made at present 



148 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



even if they are not so desirable at 

otVier timps. Drpss materials have 
been producerl with very large pat- 
terns, pnd with figures not ordinarily 
seen the prespnt sppson. and the fab- 
ric we are illustrating shows one of 
the radical combination materials 
which are being used quite exten- 
sively for dresses. In ordinary sea- 
sons this pattern would be much more 
desirable for other purposes than for 
dresses, but nevertheless style is be- 
coming of such great importance to 
consumers that the cloth construc- 
tion and prices even are of less im- 
portance than formerly. 

It was believed some time ago that 
the making of silk and cotton fabrics 
by cotton mills would not affect great- 
ly the production of 

COMBINATION MATERIALS 
in silk mills, but there has been more 
or less trouble because of this pro- 
duction and many styles which were 
formerly made in silk mills cannot 
longer be produced by such manufac- 
turers because the prices are quite a 
little less, partly through the larger 
quantities made, the great economy 
practiced and the lower tinisnlng 

COSTS. 

These mixture materials have built 
up a field of their own to a large ex- 
tent, which is separate from the silk 
and also from the cotton goods trade, 
but the large number of purchases of 
such goods has eliminated a portion 
of the silk sales. At present the de- 
mand for all silk fabrics is better than 
it ever has been in the past, but were 
it not for the silk mixture materials, 
it is entirely probable that the de- 
mand for all silk goods could not 
be supplied. Consumers' tastes have 
improved so fast that the making of 
these goods cannot be considered 
anything but a great advance in man- 
ufacture and distribution. 

There are various items of interert 
in regard to silk and cotton fabrics. 
probably the item of greatest inter- 
est being noted in the method of pro- 
ducing. When cotton mills go into 
the making of silk fabrics extensively 
they have to consider various produc- 
tion features or else results are not 
as satisfactory as they may be. Cot- 



ton mills have been planned to pro- 
duce cotton fabrics and the number ol 
spindles ins<^alled for the making of 
warp and filling has been such that 
thev can take care of the loom pro- 
duction in a satisfactnrv manner. 
Cotton mills have practically no facili- 
ties for 

HANDLING RAW SILK, 
and if they were to install such facili- 
ties it would be quite difficult to train 
the operatives when they are not used 
to such materials. For this reason 
much of the silk which is used in cot- 
ton mills has to be purchased in a 
fnrm roadv for use. This means that 
the fillins: is purchased on nuills to 
use in the weave room shutt^ps, and 
that warps when strines or silk warps 
are to be used are purchased on beams 
readv to be drawn into the harnpss. 

Through the purchase of silk there 
are a certain number of spindles 
wMob have been opprntpd on cotton 
eliminated, together with the machin- 
erv which is necessary for previously 
handling the cotton stock. Unless 
grpat care is used much of this ma- 
chinery which formerlv operated on 
cotton yarn will be idle, and if costs 
are not considprpd accuratPly the 
rpsults obtained from mixture goods 
will not he as satisfac+orv as esti- 
matps would indicate. Under these 
conditions it is a good plan to take 
ordprs for cotton yarn at cost, or at 
a small profit rather than to allow the 
machinery to remain idle, or else it 
is a good plan to organize a new com- 
panv and have nothing onlv weaving 
machinerv or machinery for prepar- 
ing varn for weaving machinery in the 
mill. 

Few domestic manufacturers have 
adopted this latter poMcv. and 
naturallv. have hepn compelled to sell 
yarns or let their machinprv stand 
idle. Keeping all the machinery in 
operation or making the organization 
balance is one of tl^e most important 
features in fancv cloth making and is 
one of the fundamentals wh'ph is 
r^snopsible for success or failure. 
Cprtain mills which have so^d a good 
many si^k and cotton fabrics have 
taken orders for these cloths at a 
good profit and sold up all their spin- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



149 



ning machinery available at cost. In 
some cappR mills handling silk filling 
have installed 

SILK QUILLING FRAMES, 

and have purchased their silk on 
spools, and a vpry few purchase silk 
skeins. There is no great advantage 
in cost in purchasing silk on spools 
rather than on quills, because silk 
throwing mills are not anxious to sell 
silk in this manner, inasmuch as they 
have spooling machinery and are just 
as anxious to keep their machinery 
balanced as cotton mills are. 

The advantage of having silk quill- 
ing irachinery is, however, in the 
smaller percentage of loss from bad 
quills, and in being able to handle the 
silk as desired, often on somewhat 
larger quills than silk mills are used 
to selling it on. This is especially 
true en the heavier sizes of silk such 
as Tussah and similar grades rather 
than on the finer sizes such as are 
used in the lighter silk mixed cloths. 

Many manufacturers who have 
never had any experipnce with silk 
cloths have been prejudiced against 
attempting their manufacture, believ- 
ing that a great deal of trouble will 
arise, and that the costs of produc- 
tion will not be as low as are indi- 
cated from selling prices. For vari- 
ous reasons their ideas are mistaken 
ones. In the first place when all silk 
warps are used and the operatives 
become familiar with silk yarn it is 
possible to start up warps much 
quicker and have much less loss than 
when all cotton Is used. Another 
thing is that the percentage of pro- 
duction is in a Inrge majority of in- 
stances quite a little higher than when 
all cotton goods are being made. 

This is partly because the silk is 

MORE REGULAR THAN COTTON, 
and also stronger and fewer break- 
ages occur to stop the looms. For 
similar styles of goods it is practi- 
cally always possible to operate as 
many looms when silk is used as 
when cotton is used, and this makes 
the cost of weaving, together with ex- 
penses, at least no more than when 
the same number of pick cloths of 
cotton are being produced. There are 



certain features regarding the pur- 
chasing of silk which have to be con- 
sidered very carefully. Cotton mill 
managers are familiar with cotton, 
but they are not so familiar with the 
technical features of cotton, and are 
many of them almost ignorant regard- 
ing silk. 

Due to the afTinity of silk for water 
it used to be a custom with some silk 
sellers to weight up the silk with this 
material before it was sold for cotton 
mill use. In this manner, many man- 
ufacturers were forced to pay a large 
amount per pound and receive a much 
larger percentage of water than they 
naturally should. There are some 
sellers who never adopted this policy, 
but when low quotations were form- 
erly named, it was very likely that 
such methods had been adopted. This 
is one reason why manufacturers 
should do business with silk houses 
who have reputations of the highest 
class. 

It is also true that there is a great 
variation in the j'ardage received in 
various sizes of silk. Silk manufac- 
turers are many of them accustomed 
to making tests, or having them made 
at a conditioning house, which will 
determine accurately the number of 
yards which their silk purchases will 
average, but this is not noted in cot- 
ton establishments, partly because 
they have no facilities, and partly 
because their purchases of silk are 
often likely to be in small quan- 
tities when compared with the pur- 
chases of silk mills. For the above 
reason it is always a good plan for a 
cotton cloth maker to size his silk as 
accurately as possible with an ordi- 
nary yarn reel, and then when esti- 
mating his cloth weight to allow a 
lower yardage for the silk than it ac- 
tually contains as a protection against 
silk variation. 

This has been done in the fabric 
which has been analyzed, a lower 
yardage being given than the silk ac- 
tually sizes. This yardage has been 
used in the cloth estimates as 55,000 
per pound. It is also possible to quill 
silk of as heavy size as that men- 
tioned on ordinary cotton quills, and 
in this manner a much larger percent- 



150 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



age of production is obtained than 
when small silk quills are used. It 
often makes it possible for more 
looms per weaver to be operated, and 
it is claimed that in some mills more 
looms are operated than on the same 
kind of all cotton goods. 

An interesting feature in this con- 
nection is noted from the development 
during recent years in the making of 
these cloths. Possibly about ten years 
ago the greatest number of looms per 
weaver on silk filling cloths such as 
that analyzed, was four. Gradually 
this number was increased to five, and 
soon afterward weavers vers given 



of many fancy dobby patterns. In 
a single cloth such as that consia- 
ered, there are only two positions 
which the warp or filling can have, 
that is, it can be either on the face 
or back, but it must be either one or 
the other, and not both. This fabric 
is of interest because it is necessary 
to have two warps made up of iden- 
tical yarn. 

This is because of the weave used, 
for of the three threads which form 
the ground weave of the fabric, one 
of them has a much greater take-up 
than the other two, which are drawn 
in together and operate as one. 




Tussah Broche 



six looms with very little loss in pro- 
duction. Without doubt, six looms 
could have been operated much earlier 
than they were, but it was not at- 
tempted because of unfamiliarity with 
silk. 

To anyone not familiar with manu- 
facturing the most 

INTERESTING FEATURE 
of a fancy cloth, such as that consid- 
ered is the weave, and for this reason 
it may be well to give a short descrip- 
tion regarding this item. In the first 
place it may be well to state that the 
actual making of meny of these so- 
called fancy jacquard weaves, in 
which silk filling is used, is a much 
more simple process, than the making 



This will be noted from the analysis 
which we have given. Due to the 
weave there will be three threads 
drawn in each dent of the reed 
throughout the entire cloth, instead 
of the two threads so often noted. The 
first nroppss in making: a pattprn. siioh 
as that illustrated, is to make a cloth 
sketch exactly as it will appear when 
the fabric is woven. 

Often this cloth sketch is made by 
the styler in the employ of the buyer, 
while at other times the sketches are 
produced by parties who do nothing 
else, and sometimes the sketches are 
frofluced at tbe mill from ideas given 
by buyers or obtained from other ma- 
terials. It is not always possible in a 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



int 



cloth sketch, which has been 
painted, to introd jce some of 
tlie features which n^ay be 
desirable in the cloth pattern, but 
usually the idea can be worked out 
so as to be satisfactory. When this 
cloth sketch has been completed, it 
is ruled up into divisions to correspond 
with the fabric construction. This 
is explained as follows: A 400- jac- 
quard head contains 50 rows of hooks, 
with eight hooks in a row, making a 
total of 400 hooks. These hooks are 
connected to harness cords and are 
placed in a board on the loom which 
contains small holes in regular order 
in the number decided when the loom 
is installed. 

If a cloth is desired in which only 
360 hooks of the 400 are to be used, 
then there will be of the 50 rows of 
hooks in the total machine, only 45 in 
use. The five remaining rows of 
hooks, which are not in use, will not 
have any threads drawn in them 
and will remain idle. In this case 
given above the design or cloth sketch 
will be ruled up into 45 equal parts. 
When this has been done the correct 
design paper to use will be ascer- 
tained. For a 400-machine with 
eight hooks in a row there must be 
a design or point paper with eight 
squares in it in one direction used. 
The squares in the other direction, or 
filling, will correspond to the cloth 
count when finished, and for the cloth 
in question the paper would be 8 by 
5, which is the nearest size. 

When the size of the design paper 
or point paper, as it is often called, 
is ascertained the cloth sketch is 
transferred to the larger paper, plac- 
ing upon this paper only the outlines 
of the various figures so as to appear 
in the best maaner possible. When 
the outlines have been drawn the 
weave is painted in. This is a 

TEDIOUS PROCEEDING 

in a good many cases, but it is not 
especially difficult for many styles of 
fabrics. It may be well to mention, 
however, that it is the small details 
which are carefully worked out in the 
making of designs which produce de- 
sirable results. We have often seen 



designs, which would have otherwise 
been attractive, entirely spoiled be- 
cause enough care had not been used 
in transferring the patterns or in 
painting the weave. 

When the weave has been entirely 
painted in, the design is given to the 
card cutter, who cuts the weave on 
the cards as indicated, a single pick 
across the design being represented 
by a single card. When a hole is 
punched in the card it allows the 
needle at the top of the jacquard 
frame to remain in place, and will 
cause the thread in such hook to be 
lifted, W'hereas if no hole is cut the 
needle will be pushed back, and the 
hook will remain down with the filling 
or shuttle passing above the warp 
thread. When the cards are all cut, 
one for each pick in the design, they 
are taken and laced together, some- 
times by hand, but more often by ma- 
chine, a machine which acts in a sim- 
ilar manner to an ordinary sewing 
machine. When this process has been 
completed the cards are placed on the 
loom and are in a condition to weave 
the rloth. The pntirp nrncess is very 
simple, but the multiplicity of details 
often confuses those who are not 
familiar with manufacturing proc- 
esses. 

Most of the patterns in silk and cot- 
ton goods are made with the silk fig- 
ure on the 

FACE OF THE CLOTH. 
When silk filling is used this means 
that filling float patterns are em- 
ployed extensively, and when silk 
warp is used that warp effects pre- 
dominate. Of course in certain in- 
stances, both warp and filling combi- 
nations are used in order to produce 
certain effects, but the above state- 
ment refers to the majority of styles. 
One of the conditions which is causing 
a great deal of diflficulty in the making 
of bilk and cotton fabrics is that the 
price of silk has advanced radically 
during recent months. When cotton 
manufacturers developed styles for 
next spring's use they were able to 
obtain silk at much lower quotations 
than they are at present, and buyers 
expected to obtain cloth at the quo- 
tations which were made on the orig- 



m 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



inal orders, but this has not 
been possible, and advances have 
been necessary, so much so that many 
lines have been eliminated or made 
much less desirable from a buyer's 
standpoint. 

The finishing of silk and cotton 
goods is one of the items which has 
been responsible for the enormously 
Increased sale. The styles which were 
produced a few years ago would hard- 
ly be taken as the same construction 
with the finish which is applied to- 
day. When combination materials are 
bleached it must be done by a process 
which will not harm either fibre, and 
it is impossible to use the ordinary 
lime bleach which is generally used in 
all cotton establishments. Another 
item of interest is in regard to the 
silk yarn which has been used. All 
kinds of silk contain a greater or 
less proportion of gum when in their 
raw state, and the boiling and bleach- 
ing processes used in finishing elim- 
inate quite a large portion of this 
gum. 

SILK FINISHERS 

are likely to replace a portion of this 
gum when they finish silk cloths, but 
on most of the combination materials 
this is not done, and is responsible for 
the greater yardage of silk per pound 
when the cloth is sold than when the 
cloth is woven; in other words, fin- 
ishers of cotton goods are not accus- 
tomed to add weighting in a similar 
manner to that employed by silk fin- 
ishers or dyers. Possibly one of the 
reasons why the silk and cotton fab- 
rics have been desirable to buyers 
has been because of the variety which 
could be obtained in the finishing of 
the cloth. Due to the character of the 
material used, namely, cotton and silk, 
it is possible to dye the cloth any solid 
color and in addition it is possible to 
dye the cotton a certain color and 
allow the silk yarn in the material to 
remain white. 



Some finishers are more successful 
in obtaining clear whites than others, 
but nevertheless results can be ob- 
tained which are commercially satis- 
factory. In addition to the above, it 
is possible to dye the cotton yarn in 
the fabric one color and to dye the 
silk yarn in the fabric another dis- 
tinctly different color. This has been 
done in the fabric which has been 
analyzed, and makes it possible to 
show up the figure much more effec- 
tively. The various finishing methods 
make it possible for a converter or 
buyer to offer a greater variety of re- 
sults even though the grey cloths 
were all identical. Consumers de- 
mand more variety than ever before 
and combination materials have been 
partly responsible for supplying this 
GREATER VARIETY. 
In obtaining the correct weights in 
a fabric of this character, it is nec- 
essary to obtain accurately the take- 
ups on the various warps. Only ex- 
perience can determine what size of 
silk is correct to use for any silk yarn, 
although the use of a somewhat 
coarser size than the yarn actually 
is will give a certain amount of pro- 
tection. When the finished yarn sizes 
are obtained accurately, and their 
probable grey sizes estimated, it is 
easy enough to obtain the weights of 
the yarns used and the weight of the 
woven fabric. The process is as fol- 
lows : 

2,152 ends H- (30/1 X 840) = .0854, weight 

of 30/1 gro\ind wiirp without take-up. 
3% take-up in weaving. 
.0854 -r- .ItT = .0881, total weight per woven 

yard of 30/1 giound warp. 
1.116 ends h- (30/1 X 840) = .0443. weight 

of 30/1 top waip without take-up. 
8% take up In we; vii;g. 
.0443 H- .92 = .0482. total weight per 

woven yard of 30/1 top warp. 
74 picks X 26 1/2" reed widtli X 36" 



?G" 



1,961 



yards of filling per woven v.nrd. 
1.961 -f- So. 000 yards per lb. (silk) = .0357, 

total weight ol siik per woven yard. 
.0881 + .0482 -f .0357 =- .1720, total weight 

per woven yard. 
1.0000 -t- .1720 <« 6.82 yds. per lb. (grey). 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



163 



PATTERN. 
3C/1 Air, carded watp 2 2,152 Beam 1. 

2 2 

S'/l Am. caifled \va<p — 1 — = 1,116 Beam 2. 

lO 10 

l.()7(i X S.26S total ends. 

3:;/38 2-thiPad Tus--ah i-lik. 74 picks. 

il jeeU. 2b'/i:" wJiitl) in reed, 25V4--6" grey width, 25'/4" finished wiJlh 
123 X 73 flnished count. 

YARN. 

Labor, 
Cotton. waste, etc. 
?0/l Am cnided warp; I'/io" staple: C hank dou. rov., 14c. 6Vic. = $ .20% 

32/3S 2-tlii eail Tussali Hiik, on quills ready for loom = 2.35 

COST. 

2 152 end.- SO/1 Am. carded warp + 3% take up = .OSSl @ { .30% = $ .0269 

1 liG ends "n/l Aui. carded warp + i,% take-up = .0^82 @ .30% = .0147 

74 pltks 32/SR 2-thread Tussah silk = .0357 © 2.35 = .0839 

Weaving 013i 

Kxpenses 0182 

$ .1571 
Selling (grey) 0032 

% .1603 

Mil' selling price to-day fabout) 1775 

Cost ot liyeitig. finishing, etc 0300 

t-Ltiverter s expenses 0225 

P/'.<e 10 iol'l er 2750 

P. ice to i etfiilei 325C 

t^, tf.e to con^unipr , 4600 

lards per pcuna 5 £2 (ffrey). 

■♦ « » 



WOVEN SEERSUCKER STRIPE 

One line of fabrics which has not 
been in very large demand for a num- 
ber of years past, but which recently 
has been selling in large quantities, 
is that line ordinarily known as seer- 
suckers. It must not be supposed 
that these cloths do not have a more 
or less regular distribution, but as is 
the case with other materials, there 
are certain times when the demand is 
much larger than usual. Most of 
such fabrics are desirable for many 
uses such as dresses, waists, rompers, 
children's garments and various other 
purposes. Generally they are firm 
fabrics and will return quite a 
large amount of value, inasmuch as 
they are woven with comparatively 
coarse yarns and are of heavy weight. 

ONE OF THE GREAT ADVANTAGES 
of these fabrics is that they do not 
have to be ironed similar to most 
other materials after they have been 
washed. The nature of the cloth per- 
mits this process to be dispensed with, 
and therefore makes the material 
suitable for many uses where washing 
can be accomplished but where there 
is little opportunity for any ironing 



process. There are two distinct class- 
es of woven seersucker materials. 
First, that class which is made from 
carded yarns, and, in the ma- 
jority of instances, contains more or 
less colored yarn, and second, that 
class of fabrics which is woven from 
grey yarns and may be produc- 
ed from either carded or combed 
stock and sold in the white state or 
may be piece dyed. 

Of course, it is possible to produce 
the first class of fabrics mentioned 
from combed stock, but, due to com- 
petition in price and various other 
features, it is seldom done. Without 
question, the second class of fabrics 
returns much more value than the 
first class, but it has often happened 
that the style of this class of materials 
has been somewhat lacking, due to the 
absence of color. To-day this is not 
so necessary, inasmuch as colors fast 
to bleaching can be used, although up 
to the present few of such fabrics 
liave been made. The 

NOTICEABLE FEATURE 
of these seersucker fabrics Is the 
crinkled appearance of a portion of 
the cloth. This crinkled portion is, 
in all the fabrics we have mentioned, 
a woven one, will not pull out and 



154 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



might be said to be permanent. The 
degree of crinkle will vary in difter- 
ent fabrics, depending upon tlie cloth 
construction and certain features in 
making. The effect is produced in the 
following manner: In ordinary tabric 
weaving the beam upon which the 
warp yarn is placed is held quite 
tightly, either through weights or in 
some other manner. This beam is let 
off either mechanically or through 
friction, so that as the reed forces the 
picks into the cloth, enough yarn is 
pulled off to allow for the weaving of 
the fabric. 

This above condition is noted upon 
one of the beams used in making a 
seersucker fabric, and is the portion 
of the warp in which there is no 
crinkle. For the crinkle portion, an 
extra beam is necessary, and there is 
very little weight used upon such 
beam, so that as the reed forces the 
picks into the cloth it also pulls down 



without the use of extra yarn, but they 
are not likely to be so satisfactory as 
wiiere extra yarn is used. Not only 
does the e.xtra yarn cause more friction 
with a greater yarn let-off, but it also 
makes that portion of the fabric 
where the crinkle is produced more 
prominent, due to 

ITS HEAVIER CHARACTER. 

In our analysis we have given two 
different layouts for the warp pat- 
terns, the first one being that which 
relates to the different colors and 
their arrangement in the cloth. The 
second is the method of placing the 
yarn on the beam. The ground beam 
contains both white and colored yarn, 
for the take-ups on these ground 
yarns are identical. The second beam 
contains the crinkle iarn, upon which 
there is a much greater take-up. With 
these two layouts there should be no 
great dificulty in determining just 




Woven Seersucker Stripe. 



a certain amount of yarn, which extra 
yarn creates the crinkle in the fabric. 
There are other reasons why the 
crinkle is formed, one of them being 
the fact that extra yarn is used in 
the stripe where the crinkle is made. 
This extra yarn causes greater fric- 
tion and makes the effect more prom- 
inent. 
Crinkle effects can be produced 



the method which is used in making 
the cloth pattern. 

In addition to the layouts as given, 
we are presenting the fabric weave 
as it appears in the cloth. It will be 
noted that certain threads weave dif- 
ferently than others. In some in- 
stances a basket weave Is used, in 
others a plain weave, while in still 
other instances the threads weave as 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



155 



plain, with the exception that instead 
oJ: a single thread there are two along- 
side wnith worit iueuucal. Under- 
neath tne design we nave given the 
reeding plan, which indicates the 
number ol threads to be drawn 
in each dent in the reed, it wui be 
noted that where the threads weave 
otherwise than the ordinary plain 
weave they are drawn tonr tiireads in 
a dent. The obtaining of desirable 
results in many varieties of cioin is 
partly due to the correct placing of 
the threads in the reed. It often hap- 
pens that through 

A CORRECT METHOD 
satin stripes can be woven from the 
same beam as ground threads of a 
plain character and at other times in- 
correct reeding will cause a great 
deal of trouble in cloth making. 

Sometimes, the percentage of pro- 
duction will be unreasonably low, just 
because enough attention has not 
been given to this feature of cloth 
planning. In drawing in a fabric of 
the character analyzed, it is possible 
to use two methods, the first where a 
single thread is arawu in every heddle, 
even though some of them work the 
same as those alongside. The second 
method is where two threads are 
drawn in the same heddle whenever 
they operate in the same manner. 
This latter method is the one gener- 
ally employed, although in a certain 
few instances it nas oeen rouna more 
desirable to use the first method. 
One reason why the second method is 
better is because it decreases the 
number of heddles necessary and al- 
lows more space for the threads or 
harnesses to operate as the cloth is 
being woven. When this method is 
taken it is, however, possible for 
single threads to weave in the heddles 
wnere mere snouia be two threads 
bein^ used. 

Without doubt the sale of woven 
crinkle effects would have been much 
larger than it has been; in fact, it is 
believed that the sale would have 
been very much larger than it ever 
has in the past, were it not for the 
fact that many somewhat similar ef- 
fects have been produced during the 
last two years by other methods than 
weaving. Inasmuch as many consider 



this second class of fabrics on the 
same basis as the ones previously 
mentioned, it may be well to give a 
short description regarding them and 
their nietliods of making. These lat- 
ter materials are not pioduced by the 
weaving piocess, that is, 

THE CRINKLE EFFECT 

is not produced in such manner. 
Most manuiacturers and practically 
all converters and finishers are fa- 
miliar with the fact that the mer- 
cerization process will cause quite a 
large cloth shrinkage if it is used an.l 
the fabric not held out tightly. 

It is upon this contraction that the 
printed crinkle effects are obtained. 
Upon certain portions of the fabric, 
by methods somewhat similar to the 
ordinary ones used in making printed 
patterns, is placed a solution of caus- 
tic soda. This solution causes the 
fabric to shrink radically where it is 
applied, and when this shrinkage 
occurs it causes the remainder of the 
fabric to crinkle up and makes the 
effects which are not used so exten- 
sively. On this style of fabric vari- 
ous printed patterns can be placed in 
different colors, and the large sale 
has been possible because the fab- 
rics are desirable, not only because 
of style but also because of a com- 
paratively low price. 

Finishers who handle fabrics of 
this character demand a 23 per cent 
working loss, which is about the ex- 
treme amount of snnnkage that 
mercerization is likely to cause, but 
it has been found that on ruost lines 
of these cloths the loss to a converter 
because of shrinkage will be about 
18 per cent, though in some few in- 
stances it has run as high as 20 per 
cent. This loss in shrinkage is a se- 
rious matter to the converter and 
must be accurately known if a correct 
cloth price be obtained. When a fab- 
ric loses in length anywhere from a 
fifth to a sixth it na^'urally makes the 
value of the material just that 
amount greater than it previously 
was, for it increases the number of 
picks per inch the relative amount 
named. 

The fabric analvzed, and which. a<? 
sta'^^d nr'>Tion«!lv, is a woven eff^r-t fc 
produced in large quantities regularly. 



156 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



The retail price is 15 cents per yard, 
thus allowing the regular distribution 
prices to be noted, it is seldom that 
retailers can purchase such a fabric 
at less than 10 V^ cents per yard, and 
it is almost impossible for jobbers to 
force retailers to pay over 11 cents 
per yard for this sort of fabric. The 
commission house price on the cloth 
is about 91/i cents per yard. Retail 
prices show a much smaller advance 
over the cost of production on fabrics 
of this character than they do on most 
other lines of fancy fabrics. This is 
because the materials are produced in 
large quantities, making it possible 
for satisfactory returns to be obtained 
because of large quantities sok rather 
than high profit through the sale of 
small amounts. 

One of the great advantages in a 
mill producing a fabric of the char- 
acter described is that a great va- 
riety of results can be obtained, even 
though the cloth construction does 
not vary widely. In all these cloths 
the construction is identical, so far 
as the count in the ground cloth is 
concerned, although there is a small 
variation in warp count, cue to the 
different arrangement of crinkle 
stripes. The effects are obtained 
through the color arrangements and 
the different spacings and arrange- 
ments of crinkle stripes and not 
through the variation in yarn size 
which is necessary in other styles of 
fancy fabrics made from grey yarns. 

One of the features which has been 
of decided advantage in the produc- 
tion of printed crinkle effects is that 
there has been a great variety of re- 
sults possible, due to printed patterns 
and different arrangements of stripes. 
While different effects are possible in 
greater or less amount on many styles 
of plain fabrics it is not often that the 
variety possible is as g^^pat as is noted 
on the printed crinkle materials. 
Sellers all desire to 

PURCHASE LARGE AMOUNTS 
of 1 ground fabric, for in this manner 
they can obtain very low prices, but 
nnless the ground o^oth can be fin- 
ished in manv attractive wavs which 
ire in demand at the time, it is not 
Always a good policy to make large 
pnrchaseB. 



In the majority of instances the 
yarns used in the making of woven 
crinkle effects, where colors are used, 
are in the vicinity of 30-1 warp and 
40-1 to 45-1 filling. Of course, there 
are some finer lines than that men- 
tioned produced, but their sale is 
comparatively small when tlie total 
distribution is considered. One ol3 
the great objections to all fabrics 
which are made from bleached and 
dyed yarns is that their appearance 
is not so regular as cloths which have 
been produced from grey yarns and 
then are afterward finished or dyed. 
The picks in fabrics woven from 
bleached and dyed yarns are not 
worked into their positions so smooth- 
ly as those which are finished after 
being woven, and often the reed 
marks show in such a prominent way 
that much of the desirable fabric ef- 
fect is lost. 

It is true that some styles of grey 
yarn fabrics show reed marks after 
they have been finished, but the num- 
ber is so small in comparison to fab- 
rics made of bleached yarn, that it is 
not worth while considering them. It 
is believed that manufacturers could 
have done much more with crinkle 
effects produced from grey yarns and 
with a certain amount of fast color 
used in their construction than they 
have done. Profits are often quite 
large through ti^^e adoption of methods 
not in general use and makers should 
allow no opportunities to slip past 
without making the most of them. 
Possibly one of the greatest advan- 
tages in making these 

CLOTHS FROM GREY YARNS 

Is that which is noted in most other 
styles of fabrics, and is that fine grey 
yarns can be handled much more sat- 
isfactorily and at a much smaller 
relative cost than bleached yarns of 
the same character. In the majority 
of instances it is not possible for col- 
ored yarn mills to handle yarns much 
finer than 50-1, while this is a com- 
parativelv low count for many grey 
cloth maVers. 

Thp d'fficuUl^s in weaving are not 
especially prominent, but It Is not 
possible for a weaver to operate as 
many looms on constructions such as 
that analyzed, as it la on similar 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



167 



classes of ginghams, or shirting 
stripes. Tlie uueveu tension on the 
top beam, and the tact that the 
thieads are reeded quite closely in 
the dent where the crinkle is pro- 
duced is likely to cause a certain 
amount of trouble, though not of an 
especially serious nature. Whenever 
a fabric is produced which has a more 
or less staple sale, and where it is 
axpected to operate looms continu- 
ously in the production, it is a paying 



distributed unless this method is 
taken. 

It is possible to sell a certain 
amount of cloth of a staple nature 
without advertising, but this amount 
will be neitlier regular nor will it be 
large enough to supply the looms with 
orders. Sometimes the amounts ex 
pended for advertising purposes ap- 
pear large, but when they are dis- 
tributed over the whole cloth produc- 
tion they are often of a negligible 



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mOitiJmzi . Dm ■ auaaiiakU. auu «a„u«aL^DBiiULjaitui_awu. iiUfiLt.GB.LLDktiiiLBLBD 

GlkUaL.BftBaGUIiLBGBCaaGBaaLjBBDUkBUaBBDOBkDGMBGl>La ^t>._HlbBG. LkLB M 
BGHGB .aiiGU*uBL.aGBGaBGakaGGK*GGkBGGBtaGGIiaGuaGaLaLBGa GGBLhGBG 
GaGaGBG^aBGa. BGBGkaGkBGGBaGGIlBGGBaGGkaGGKIiGflGBGiiGMGL aBGftGBGB 
BGBDMLGGBkilGaGMGiGaaGGaB GBbGGBBGG > GGbBGGaGkGBG-' GGCkB GAGBD 
GBG 'GllMflGGGHGaGBa..GG.aGLBaGGiiBGGBaGGaa G.BG ^ GaGkOkMi- GGG' GBGM 

BGaaaGBaGGBGBGaG<taBBGGa«uuaaGG<taaGaaGaaaGGaaAaaaMGafcGGBGBGBD 



proposition to advertise the fabrics 
and create a demand for them. It is 
certain that to-day there are very 
few lines which can be successfully 



quantity. In certain instances it has 
been positively proven that lower 
quality goods can be sjld successfully 
when they are sufhciently advertised. 



30/1 Am. carded warp brown 
30/1 Am. carded warp white 

80/1 Am. carded warp. Beam 1. 
JO/1 Am. carded warp. Beam 2. 



PATTERN — COLORS 
I I2| |2| I 
I I— 1121— I I 2 
I I 2 I 12 1 



1 






2) 12 


1 


1 
1 


2 




—(121— 
2 1 12 


1 


|i! 






1 1 


1 2 


1— 




6 






12 






1 1 


1 6 



40 X 

PATTERN— BEAMS. 



2,444 total ends. 



2 












2 






28 


8 


20 




— 


6 




2 
12 








6 



1,484 Beam 1. 



= 960 Beam 2. 



40 X 

40/1 Am. carded filling, white; 00 picks. 
29 reed, 30 5-fi" width in reed. 28" finished width. 
87 X 60 finished count. 

YARNS. 

80/1 Am. carded white, IMn" staple; 6 hank dou. rov., 
30/1 Am. carded colored. IVi,," staple; 6 hank dou. rov.. 
40/1 Am. carded white, 1%" staple; 8^4 hank dou. rov.. 



Cotton. 
13%c. 
13%c. 
14 Vie 



T^abor, 
waste, etc. 
lie. 
lOMsC. 
13?4c. 



980 ends 30/1 Am. cardpd brown 
504 ends 30/1 Am. carde-:! white 
960 ends 30/1 Am. carded white 
60 picks 40/1 .\m. raided white 

We iving 

Expenses 



COST. 
+ 6% take-up. 
4- *)% tako-up. 
+ 29% take-up. 



, = .0414 (d) 30 He. 

.= .11213 (O) 24'^c. 

.= .0537 ® 24S4C. 

. =-- .0551 @ 28 '4c. 



24%c. 
30Vic. 

28«4c. 



9 .0126 
.0053 
0133 
.0156 
.0105 
.0138 



Finishing, etc. 
Selling 



$ .0711 
.0040 



$ .0751 
.0037 



Commission price 
Jobber's price . . . 

_ Retnll price 

Yards per pound, 6.83. 



t .078.' 
.0925 
.1050 
.160* 



158 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



It is not an especially good policy to 
advertise goods and sell them because 
they are cheaper, and contain less 
\a.ue than others, but the instance 
shows how much influence advertis- 
ing has in the distribution of fabrics 
such as that considered. There is no 
great difficulty in obtaining the 
w-eights of the various yarns used to- 
gether with the weight of the cloth. 
The methods employed are exactly 
the same as for any ordinary fabric, 
the main item of Importance being 
to obtain accurately the take-ups on 
the warp yarns. In the fabric ana- 
lyzed the take-up on the crinkle por- 
tion was 29 per cent, or 23 per cent 
more than the ground cloth. The re- 
sults are obtained as follows: 

980 ends -f- (30/1 X 840) = .0389. weight 

of brown w;irp without take-up. 
6% take-up in weaving- 
.0389 ^ .94 = .0414. total weight of brown 

warp per woven vard. 
504 ends -^ (SO/1 X 840) = .0200. weight 

of white ground warp without take-up. 
6 95- talce-up in we.nving. 
.0200 -r .94 --= .0213, total weight of white 

ground warp per woven vard. 
960 ends h- (30/1 X 840) = .0381. weight of 

crinkle warp without take-up. 
299^ take-up In weaving. 
.0381 -¥- .71 = .0537, total weight of crinkle 

white warp. 
60 picks X 30 5-6" width in reed X 36" 

= 1,850 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1.850 -f- (40/1 X 840) = .0551, total weight 

of filling per yard of ciotii. 
.0414 + .0213 + .0537 -f .0551 = .1715. 

total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -T- .1715 =-• 5.83 yards per pound. 



■♦ *» 



IMITATION JACQDARD BED- 
FORD CORD. 

The most Interesting question at 
present among domestic manufactur- 
ers is in connection with the importa- 
tion of cotton cloth under the new 
tariff law. Possibly the facts in re- 
gard to this matter on one particular 
cloth may be of interest, and will show 
to a large extent just why fabrics are 
imported and what must be done if 
domestic sellers are to forestall any 
greater amount of importation 
than has been noted in the past. It 
may as well be recognized by domes- 
tic sellers now as in the future, that 



fancy fabrics have come to stay and 
that machinery and methods may as 
well be adapted to the proauction of 
such fabrics when a large profit is 
obtainable as when there is a greater 
amount of competition and fewer op- 
portunities for large returns. As fab- 
rics become more intricate, either be- 
cause of their composition or weave, 
it requires a greater amount of labor 
to satisiactorily produce them, and for 
this reason domestic manufacturers 
have, to a certain extent, avoided their 
production. 

It has always been the pol- 
icy to have weavers operate as 
many looms as possible, and to-day, 
if many more fancy fabrics be 
attempted, there would be a great 
deal of trouble with operatives and 
fewer looms per weaver would have 
to be run. Naturally, this would cre- 
ate a greater weaving price per yard, 
but the main difficulty would arise 
from the fact that enough weavers 
would not be available to operate the 
looms. There are what might be con- 
sidered 

RADICAL DIFFERENCES 
between the domestic and foreign 
method of producing many cloths. 
This arises from the machinery which 
is used to a large extent, although 
there are other conditions which have 
an influence. In the first place, the 
foreign manufacturer has a large per- 
centage of mule spindles in his equip- 
ment, the percentage being about 80, 
while the domestic manufacturer has 
about 80 per cent of ring spindles with 
only 20 per cent mule spindles. Be- 
cause of the above condition, it is 
possible to make soft twist yarns and 
use a comparatively short staple of 
cotton for any certain size, while in 
the domestic market, in order to get 
a satisfactory production, a longer 
staple and a higher standard of twist 
must be used. The standard for warp 
yarn composed of American cotton Is 
from 3.75 to 4 times the square root 
of the yarn size in English plants, 
w^hile in Am.erican plants the stand- 
ard is likely to be from 4.50 to 4.75 
times the square root of the size. 

The use of a short sta- 
ple, together with a lower 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



169 



standard of twist, does produce 
a soft yarn which answers satislac- 
torily In foreign mills, where a com- 
paratively few looms per weaver are 
operated, but in domestic mills such 
yarn would not be at all desirable, in 
fact, could not be used in many in- 
stances. The various methods of mak- 
ing yarn result in fabrics of a some- 
what different character, for the for- 
eign cloth has a soft effect and a 
somewhat fuzzy nature, while the do- 
mestic cloth is more often smooth and 
clean, although of a much stronger 
character for the same size of yarn. 
For certain purposes, the hard fabric 
is desirable, but for most uses the 



amount of detail, but when handled In 
a correct manner will also insure more 
extensive profit. One of the men con- 
sidered of the highest standing in the 
domestic market stated during the 
past week that one of the things 
which must be done in the immedi- 
ate future in domestic mills 
is to install a greater num- 
ber of jacquard looms. He 
gave as his reason the fact that fancy 
fabrics have come to stay, and that 
even though as large figures as those 
used at present are not in demand, 
nevertheless jacquard looms pro- 
duce better effects of a small charac- 
ter than dobbies. He also stated that 




Imported Jacquard Novelty. 



softer material will take a better fin- 
ish and have a much greater demand. 
Finish and style are of great impor- 
tance to-day In the sale of any cloth, 
and on a mercerized fabric, such as 
that analyzed, is of importance in pro- 
ducing attractive results. 

FOREIGN ADVANTAGE. 

The foreign manufacturer has a 
much larger proportionate supply of 
Jacquard looms than the domestic 
maker, and this fact permits him to 
produce a greater number of fancy 
materials. Of course, a larger num- 
ber of Jacquard looms In any plant 
will be responsible for a greater 



there are any number of domestic 
mills which have dobby looms contain- 
ing as high as twenty-five har- 
nesses which never considered 
placing patterns upon such looms 
when they used over 16 har- 
nesses, but rather adapted them to 
their jacquard machines. He said 
that although the loom speed was 
slower the percentage of pro- 
duction was often higher on 
jacquards and that the actual 
yardage obtained compared very 
favorably with that obtained 
from a dobby loom at a higher speed. 
A smaller percentage of seconds Is 



160 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



obtained when similar patterns are 
made on dobby and jacquard looms 
and it is often possible to weave yarn 
satisfactorily on a jacquard which 
could not be handled at all upon a 
dobby. The fact that foreign yarns 
are not so strong as domestic partly 
explains why foreign mills contain a 
greater number of jacquard looms. 

MORE CO-OPERATION NEEDED. 

The fabric to be considered is call- 
ed a jacquard Bedford cord, but it Is 
not a Bedford cord at all, for the cords 
are merely produced through the 
introduction of heavy yarns, though 
they do appear somewhat similar to 
certain of the so-called Russian cords 
which have been sold extensively. 
They are, however, not Russian cords, 
Inasmuch as they are not produced 
by a leno motion. A fabric which is 
very similar to that analyzed, with 
the exception of the weave, has been 
sold quite extensively in the domestic 
market, the price being at retail 2.5 
cents per yard as compared with 75 
cents per yard for the jacquard woven 
imported article. The question arises 
whether this cloth could not or should 
not have been made in the domestic 
mills rather than to have been im- 
ported and made in foreign plants. It 
is a fact that converters are much in 
advance of domestic manufacturers lu 
regard to style. Many of them would 
like to obtain a much greater range 
of styles than they do at present and 
would like to have many ideas worked 
out which domestic mills absolutely 
refuse to attempt. The method which 
has been used by domestic makers, 
namely that of quantity production, 
has warded off a large amount of prog- 
ress in the making of fancy styles 
which might have been noted were a 
little more co-operation shown. It 
probably would be said that the quan- 
tity of the cloth considered which 
could be sold would be comparatively 
small. Even if this were true a large 
enough quantity could be sold to make 
a sufficient sized order for some do- 
mestic manufacturer. The 

FOREIGN MAKER 
will sell to any buyer eight 
pieces or 320 yards of any style and 



be entirely satisfied if no future orders 
are received. The domestic manufac- 
turer will produce in most instances no 
fewer than 500 pieces or 30,000 yards 
of any fancy style, though in certain 
instances the amount can be reduced 
to approximately 250 to 3t)0 pieces. 
There is absolutely no reason why 
the domestic manufacturer should 
not make orders of much smaller size 
than are now produced. If he believes 
that 250 or 500 pieces are necessary, 
why should this number of pieces not 
be produced with the same ground 
construction and possibly ten different 
designs applied to the cloth? A fabric 
such as that analyzed could be used 
as a ground work and different figures 
applied to it so as to make a range of 
styles which could compete with the 
small orders that foreign makers will 
produce. The only extra expense 
would be the cost of the design and 
the other details necessary in con- 
nection with It. For this cloth an 
extra design could be produced for a 
total cost of less than $10, and if onlj 
1,000 yards of a pattern were produced 
this would only add one cent per yard 
to the cloth, a price which we feel 
certain many converters would be 
willing to pay if they could get the 
work done. Naturally, a greater de- 
signing force would have to be em- 
ployed, but this is of small moment 
when the obtaining of a sufficient 
number of orders to run the plant in 
full is considered. Why should a 
fabric be imported when it can be 
produced and sold in a finished state 
at approximately 30 cents per yard 
with the foreign seller obtaining 42- 
% cents per yard? Domestic makers 

MUST WAKE UP 
if they expect to hold the business 
which they have had in the past. A 
difference of 12V2 cents per yard in 
favor of domestic makers, and still 
have foreign sellers obtain the busi- 
ness, shows that there is something 
radically wrong either with the meth- 
ods used for selling, in the style 
used in the fabric, or else the cloth 
appears 12i/^ cents better than a 
domestic fabric of a similar character. 
There may be some difference be- 
tween a domestic production and a 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



161 



/oreign production such as that con- 
sidered, but it is not 12i^ cents per 
yard in any case. There is no reason 
why Jacquard styles should not have 
been applied to the plain corded fab- 
rics which have been sold for some 
time in the domestic market, and it is 
believed that the reticence of domestic 
manufacturers has been mainly re- 
sponsible for the cloth importation. 
Of course, it may be that most of the 
jacquard looms in the domestic mar- 
ket have been busy at a good profit 
and that this has allowed foreign 
fabrics to be sold, but from obser- 
vation in other years, this condition 
has little influence, because jacquard 
looms have been idle and fabrics 
"Which they could produce have been 
imported at the same time. Style is 
of much more importance than for- 
merly, it being largely w^eave or fin- 
ish, and these two features must be 
watched carefully by domestic pro- 
ducers. 

A very poorly constructed fab- 
ric which contains an attractive 
pattern or is finished well will some- 
times sell in competition with a better 
made cloth upon which a poor design 
or an unattractive finish is used. 
There has been altogether too much 
emphasis placed upon ordinary fabrics 
in the domestic market and not 
enough importance attached to the 
making of attractive patterns. The 
domestic manufacturer thinks only of 
quantity production, and this influ- 
ences him in the making of designs as 
well as in the actual cloth production, 
so that many of the unimportant de- 
tails are slighted and the result pro- 
duced when the cloth is woven is not 
nearly as desirable as it otherwise 
would be. Many domestic fabrics 
have been rendered undesirable be- 
cause enough care has not been used 
in making the design, whereas if 
quantity of production had not been so 
important the cloth would undoubt- 
edly have been sold in quite sizable 
quantities. 

There are a number of features in 
regard to the fabric under discussion 
which are worthy of inent'on. 
In the first place the ground cloth 
has been so constructed that it Is 



quite firm and will give desirable serv- 
ice. The ground weave is not plain, 
but it is a three-harness twill, with the 
warp weaving on the face for two 
picks and on the back for one pick. 
Through this construction a larger 
number of picks per inch are possible 
and this causes the filling to cover up 
almost entirely the cords in the cloth 
and making a much better effect than 
would otherw'ise be possible. The fill- 
ing passes over the cords two picks 
out of every three and the ground 
weave in the cloth makes it possible 
to bind down the filling as it comes 
over the cord and creates a clean 
effect which is not possible when a 
plain ground weave is used. 
It will be noted that the 
jacquard figure is cut off Just 
before the cord is reached and this 
creates a better effect and in no way 
detracts from the general appearance 
of the fabric. We do not consider 
that the pattern which is used on 
this cloth is especially attractive for 
dress goods, but nevertheless the idea 
is ingenious and could be used with 
somewhat better results if other styles 
of figures were employed. The high 
ground construction and the weave 
which is used would also make It 
possible for other effects, both warp 
and filling, to be introduced, and inas- 
much as the ground fabric is selling 
quite well In the domestic market It 
would seem desirable for domestic 
manufacturers to attempt styles of 
somewhat similar character. Most 

FOREIGN FABRICS 
are of a wide nature, especially the 
crepes and ratings which have been 
selling recently, but these fabrics are 
of narrow construction, naihe- 
ly 28 inches in the finish- 
ed state and could be pro- 
duced by almost any mill in which 
jacquards are available in the do- 
mestic market. It might be mentioned 
that the cords are six-ply yarn in- 
stead of being coarser ply which are 
often used in domestic fabrics of a 
somewhat similar character. The use 
of a heavy ply yarn in this instance 
probably creates a smoother effect 
and a more regular width of cord, 
and for this reason is desirable; In 



1«2 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



fact, the whole fabric shows that in- 
telligence has been used in its pro- 
duction. Most domestic sellers know 
that cords of this character have been 
desirable, but few of them have at- 
tempted to make a cloth of as good 
quality as that considered. The better 
constructed a fabric of this character 
is the finer will be its appearance and 
the effect more like that of a Russian 
cord. There is not one buyer in a 
hundred who would know or care 
whether this cord was made by a leno 
motion or in some other manner, be- 
cause it looks Ju3t about as well as 
it would if it were made by the leno 
attacntnent. It is also probable that a 
cord produced in a manner similar to 
that in the cloth analyzed is more 
satisfactory than a Russian cord, in- 
asmuch as it is not so hard and com- 
bines better with the whole cloth ap- 
pearance. The making of designs for 
fabrics of this character is a 

VERY SIMPLE PROCESS, 

and can be accomplished in a com- 
paratively short time. In some cases 
it Is necessary to paint in the ground 
weave entirely if a design paper is not 
available which has the weave upon It, 
and in a fabric like the sample the 
use of cords makes it almost always 
necessary. If there be a much higher 
tie-up in the machine than is used in 
the cloth It is a good plan to watch 
the places where the jacquard hooks 
are to be cast out, and usually it is a 
good plan to cast them out where the 
cloth count is the lowest. In regard 
to the manufacturer's profit, it is a 
good thing to base this upon the num- 
ber of picks which the cloth contains 
or the actual yardage which is produc- 
ed. To compare a cloth of 114 picks 
per inch with one which contains 72 
picks per inch is not justifiable, In- 
asmuch as a greater amount of profit 
should be obtained for the cloth con- 
taining the larger amount of picks per 
inch. 

In order to obtain a satisfactory 
gain it would probably be necessary 
for a manufacturer to obtain at least 
3 cents per yard profit, as this amount 



would allow somewhat less than $3 
per loom per week to be received, and 
would return a profit of only about 12 
per cent upon the capital necessary 
to produce such material. The price 
for finishing a fabric of this character 
is not especially high in the domestic 
market, and for many such styles the 
price would be from l^^ to 1% cents 
per yard. The 

EXPENSES OF A CONVERTER 

in selling are higher than for the 
more staple materials, but in any 
case, they do not add enough to the 
cost of the materials to make the 
sale of it prohibitive when compared 
to the imported material. Without 
doubt a domestic fabric of approxi- 
mately the same character as that 
considered could be sold at retail in 
the domestic market for about 45 
cents per yard, although we have 
mentioned 50 cents as the retail sell- 
ing price in the fabric analysis. Al- 
lowing a very good rate of profit to 
the different sellers, the domestic 
price of 30 cents or less compares 
favorably with the price in England 
of about 27% cents. It may be well 
to note that the yarns are finer in the 
cloth in a finished state than they are 
when spun. The warp yarn sizes 
about 44-1, whereas probably 40-1 was 
used originally. The same condition 
is noted in regard to the other yarns, 
and the filling which probably was 
35-1 when spun sizes somewhat over 
37-1 in the finished material. We have 
used Egyptian cotton in our estimate 
of yarn costs for the filling, inasmuch 
as this cotton gives somewhat better 
results, although domestic makers 
have avoided its use recently in their 
fabrics which are to be piece mercer- 
ized. 

Such fabri s as those analyzed 
should not be imported, but rather 
made in the domestic market, and un- 
less care be exercised there will be 
a great deal more of such cloth im- 
ported than there has been In the 
past. It is up to manufacturers to 
see that this does not occur. The 
method of obtaining cloth and yam 
weights Is as follows: 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



168 



1,980 ends -+- (40/1 X 840) = .0589. weight 

of 40/1 warp without take-UD. 
9% take-up In weaving. 
.058i» H- .91 = .0647, total weight of 40/1 

warp per woven yard. 
294 ends ■+- (26/6 X 840) = .0808, weight 

of 2C/6 warp without take-up. 
2% take-up In weaving. 
.0808 -i- .98 = .0824, total weight of 26/6 

warp per woven yard. 
80 ends -=- (40/2 X 840) = .0048. weight 

of 40/2 warp without take-up. 



40/1 Am. combed colored. 
26/6 Am. carded 



40/2 Am combed 



6% take-iip In weaving. 

.0048 -^- .94 = .0051, total weight of 40/1 

warp per woven yard. 
114 picks X 3114" X 36" 

= 3,562.5 yards of 

36" 

filling per yard of cloth. 
3.562.5 -H (35/1 X 840) = .1212. total 

weight of 3D/1 per woven yard. 
.0647 -f .0824 -f .0051 -f .1212 = .2734. 

total weight per yard. 
1.0000 ^ .2734 = 3.66 yards per pound. 



PATTERN. 



1,980 B 1 
294 B 2 



35/1 Eg. combed filling; 114 picks. 
42 reed. 3H4" width In reed, 28" finished. 
s4 X 114 all over count. 



98 X 



2,354 total ends. 



TARNS. 



40/1 Am. combed; X%" staple; 8 hank dou. rov., 

26/6 Am. carded; l%o" staple; 5^ hank dou. rov., 

40/2 Am. combed; IVi" staple; 8 hank dou. rov., 

35/1 Eg. combed; 1%" staple; 8 hank dou. rov., 

COST. 

1,980 ends 40/1 Am. combed warp -|- 9% take-up. 

294 ends 26/6 Am. carded warp -|- 2% take-up. 

80 ends 40/2 Am. combed warp + 6% take-up. 

114 picks 35/1 Eg. combed filling 

Weaving , 

Expenses 



Cotton. 
I6V2C. 
15c. 
161.4c. 
22c. 



Labor, waste, 

dyeing, etc. 

3414 c. 

9%c. 

1414 c. 

ll%c. 



.0047 @ 50%c. 

.0824 @ 24 %c. 

.0051 (g) 30%c. 

.1212 © 33%c. 



Jacquard cards 
Selling (grey).. 



50%c. 
24 %c. 
30%c. 
33 %c. 



$ .0329 
.0204 
.0016 
.0406 
.0306 
.0293 

$ .1554 
.0031 

$ .1585 
.0032 



Mill cost $.1617 

Mill selling price (about) 1925 

Bleaching, mercerizing, etc .0175 

Converter's expenses .0250 



Converter's cost % .2350 

Converter's selling price (about) .3000 

■When sold direct, retail price should not be over .5000 

Yards per pound 3.66. 
Details regarding imported cloth: 

Selling price in England (about) 27.5c. per yard 

Rate of duty 30%. 

Selling price of Importer In United States 42.5c. per yard 

Selling price of retailer 76c. per yard 



AN IDEA OF VALUE 

Probably the one feature in cotton 
cloth making and selling which is 
largely responsible for satisfactory 
profits is tiie use of ideas which are 
stylish and new, that is, ones which 
are somewhat different from those 
the majority of makers are producing. 
Such results may be obtained through 
a change in cloth construction or the 
application of a different finish. The 
process does not necessarily mean 
that the cost of making or finishing 



will be higher; in fact, it has quite 
often happened that more desirable 
effects are obtained at a lower cost, 
though, because of domestic producing 
methods, a change to a higher count 
is often more necessary than a 
change to a lower count, with the re- 
sult of increasing cost. The fact that 
prices are watched so carefully is very 
detrimental to the best result being 
obtained, and many times the con- 
struction which appears well Is cut 
down to such an extent that the origi- 
nal effect is well-nigh lost. 

It would be far better if sellers of 



164 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



exclusive fabrics would use the cloth 
construction which they find will pro- 
duce the best result regardless of its 
cost, within reasonable limits, and let 
others adopt the practices which are 
so generally noted. A better profit 
would ultimately be secured, and in 
addition a reputation for quality 
would be built i p, a process which is 
especially difficult to-day. How many 
are taere, even among cloth makers, 
who realize the small difference in 
cost which there is between a good 
article and a poor one of the same 
character? Usually it is a question 
of a little better stock, a little better 
yarn, a few more threads or picks per 
inch or an arrangement of fabric pat- 
tern in a more artistic manner, all of 
which changes are immaterial in 
many cloths when the prices to con- 
sumers are considered. 



can be adopted with success by do- 
mestic producers. 

One of the most certain features in 
the market at present is that crepes 
and crepe effects will be the best, or 
at least one of the best, sellers for the 
coming spring and summer. Many of 
such effects have been made and sold, 
not only in plain shades and in printed 
patterns, but a^so decorated with vari- 
ous kinds of stripes and checks. The 
light character of the majority of 
crepe cloths is of advantage in many 
ways, allowing soft, clinging garments 
to be produced, and making strong 
contrasts possible in the fabric con- 
struction. To produce the desirable 
■materials, comparatively fine yarns 
are necessary, and in order to allow 
sufficient shrinkage, which produces 
the crepe effect, a rather low cloth 
count is employed. Fine yarns and a 




A Novelty Fabric of Unusual Interest Showing Jacquard Weave on Crepe 

Cloth. 



It is undoubtedly true that a good 
many foreign manufacturers have a 
certain amount of advantage over do- 
mestic producers, ina ^tnuch as they 
are not bound to such an extent to the 
set price limit, and in addition their 
methods of production admit of a 

GREATER VARIATION 
in production. Under these conditions 
it may be well to consider a fabric 
which contains a number of ideas that 



small number of threads of picks per 
inch make woven figures undesirable, 
and very few are employed on crepes 
except on stripes or on portions of the 
cloth which are unlike the ground. 

Jacquard figures have been selling 
♦extensively, hut no one. so far as we 
know in the domestic market has pro- 
duced a desirable crepe cloth which 
has jacquard figures woven upon it. 
That this can be done successfully is 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



165 



shown by the fabric analyzed, but a 
great deal of ingenuity is necessary in 
order to make sucli effects practical. 
In the first place the woven fabric 
would appear to many as being a dou- 
ble cloth, but this is not the case. The 
weave which has been employed in 
the ground fabric should be evident 
from an examination of the illustration 
that we present, which is one repeat 
of the ground weave, so far as the 
number of picks in the weave is con- 
cerned. The cloth is woven on a box 
loom and contains two picks of hard 
twist face yarn and two picks of mer- 
cerized yarn, which in the ground fab- 
ric show only on the back of the 
cloth. On the 

HARD TWIST PICKS 

the weave is entirely plain, except 
where the figure is being produced, 
while on the mercerized yarn an eight- 
harness warp satin weave is employed. 

There is this point to be noted, how- 
ever, and it is that the warp depres- 
sion, when the mercerized picks are 
inserted, occurs on the same threads 
as it does on the hard twist pick, and 
allows the heavy mercerized yarn to 
slip in behind the hard twist face yarn 
and be noticeable only on the back of 
the cloth. This can be seen easily 
from an examination of the ground 
weave. Only through this method 
would it be possible for the face of 
the cloth to appear so free from mer- 
cerized yarn. A good many manufac- 
turers would not use a correct weave 
on the back yarn, and satisfactory re- 
sults would not be obtained. Com- 
paratively few domestic cotton cloth 
makers have any equipment of jac- 
quard box looms, and some of those 
who do would not use such looms on 
jacquard box loom work, but it would 
be of advantage if they kept in more 
careful touch with styles, and brought 
out as desirable effects as the one 
considered. 

That this fabric can be sold at 621/2 
cents per yard by an importer and at 
$1.50 per yard by a retailer, when it 
can be made and sold at a very much 
lower price by the domestic manufac- 
turer, shows clearly that the domes- 
tic manufacturer lacks very much to 
being the unqualified success which 
he should be in the making of novelty 



materials. A large item in the suc- 
cess of any producer of any material 
is to get out new ideas in advance of 
one's competitor. Wearing value is 
of greater importance in staple line, 
but it is largely style which is re- 
sponsible for satisfactory profits on 
fancies. In certain kinds of silk fab- 
rics what are called blister effects are 
now selling especially well, though at 
comparatively high prices, and while 
there has been none of these effects 
produced entirely from cotton yarns, 
nevertheless the cloth analyzed shows 
an effect of this character. 

The hard twist of the face yarn 
causes the cloth to shrink quite a 
little when it is finished, though not 
to so great an extent as if the heavy 
back yarn were not present. Where 
the 

MERCERIZED YARN 
creates the figures on the face of the 
cloth this shrinkage causes c slight 
curvature, and raises the figure some- 
what. With a double cloth construc- 
tion similar to that considered, 
we believe that blister effects 
could be produced which would be 
very attractive and entirely different 
from the fabrics now being offered, 
and because of the present style ought 
to be sold extensively. Of course, the 
cost of production would be high, but 
nearly always profits warrant the pro- 
cedure if care is used in making the 
weave correctly. The trouble has 
been that the quantity of production 
demanded by a domestic maker has 
affected design work as well as fab- 
rics, and the fine points which cause 
a fabric to be desirable or otherwise 
are often overlooked. 

To make the blisters or figures ap- 
pear more prominent on the clcth con- 
sidered, the hard twist filling is al- 
lowed to float on the back of the cloth, 
and this fact allows the hard twist 
yarn to shrink up to a greater extent, 
inasmuch as it is not held so tightly 
by being bound into the fabric. A 
great deal of ingenuity has been used 
in making the design in addition to 
the points mentioned, for both the 
heavy and light yarns are combined 
in such a manner that there are no 
streaks in the fabric when the weave 
changes occur. A portion of the 
weave inside of the figure is somewhat 



166 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



similar to an ordinary basket weave, 
but it tias been manipulated in sucti a 
manner tliat the lieavy and liglit yarns 
do not appear radically different wtien 
inserted by the box motion. The fact 
that the mercerized yarn absorbs a 
somewhat greater amount of color 
than the hard twist yarn, the 
method of producing the figure and 
effects are well worth the attention 
on the part of the manufacturers. 
Taken all together, we believe that 
there are very few plants where 
a fabric of this character would be so 
satisfactorily worked out. 

There are certain features in the 
making of 

HIGH-CLASS FABRICS 

which must be considered carefully if 
the correct profit for each cloth is to 
be secured. Take the cloth under 
consideration as an example. There 
are 124 picks per inch in the cloth, in 
a finished state, and while a manu- 
facturer would realize it, nevertheless 
there are many others who would not 
consider the fact that this cloth would 
be produced at a very slow rate of 
speed. This is partly because the 
loom operates at a much slower speed 
than many dobby looms, and also be- 
cause of the larger number of picks 
per inch. When the yards produced 
are small, the weaving price per yard 
will increase, and the expenses per 
vard will also advance a relative 
amount. This, of course, should be 
noted when the cost of the goods is 
being secured, but the same items 
should be considered in ascertaining 
the amount of profit per yard which 
would be satisfactory. 

It is not correct to expect to ob- 
tain the same amount of profit per 
yard for a fabric such as that analyzed 
with 124 picks per inch as it Is for a 
fabric similar to the ordinary jacquard 
shirtings which may contain some- 
where in the vicinity of 80 picks. The 
profit per yard should be dependent to 
a large extent upon the yards which 
the loom produces, though there are 
other features which would have an 
influence. In this cloth we have con- 
sidered that the jacquard cards are 
included in the item mentioned as ex- 
penses. The number of cards which 
are employed, the amount of cloth 



which they weave and other features 
have an influence on the cost of this 
item, but for a similar fabric produced 
in a domestic plant the cost of the 
jacquard cards would add an amount 
of approximately one-half a cent per 
yard. This occurs because there are 
quite a number of cards necessary to 
produce the design, a fact which is 
not noticed in most domestic cotton 
fabrics. 

In order to secure a satisfactorj 
profit upon the capital required to 
produce these goods, and to make il 
worth while to develop ideas which 
are new, the profit per yard necessary 
would be from three and one-half to 
four cents a yard. A good many 

DOMESTIC MANUFACTURERS 

figure to make about $2 a loom 
per week on their dobbies and 
some of their jacquard work when 
the demand is not especially pressing, 
and a greater amount should be se- 
cured from the production of cloths 
such as described. 

The yarns used in the making of 
this fabric do not warrant any large 
amount of description, but they are of 
some interest. The warp yarn, if pro- 
duced in a domestic plant, would be 
made of about one and one-quarter 
inch staple, and it would be all of the 
same character, both selvages and the 
main portion of the warp. Many for- 
eign fabrics and some domestic, espe- 
cially where dyed and bleached yarns 
are used, have a certain kind of yarn 
for their selvages, no variation being 
made when the construction of the 
cloth is changed. Foreign manufac- 
turers undoubtedly would use a short- 
er staple of cotton than that men- 
tioned, but we have considered in our 
analysis the fabric as it would be pro- 
duced in a domestic plant. The hard 
twist filling is somewhat similar to the 
yarn employed in ordinary crepes, the 
standard of twist varying from six and 
one-half to eight and one-half -times 
the square root of the yam number. 
It is often necessary to use a little 
finer size of roving for a certain 
plze of yarn than would be the case 
If hard twist were not being pro- 
duced. 

In many cases we have seen yams 
shrink approximately 10 per cent In 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



167 



the spinning process, when extra twist 
was applied. In order to satisfactorily 
use this hard twist yarn in the weav- 
ing operation it must be steamed or 
heated in a like manner in order tc 
set the twist and eliminate the kink- 
ing. The mercerized yarn is similai 
to any yarn of this character. We 
have considered that the stock used 
was Egyptian, inasmuch as this pro 
duces somewhat better results. Two- 
ply yarn has been used because the 
fabric is not piece-mercerized, but 
rather the yarn is mercerized before 
being woven, and in most instances 
it is not practical to mercerize soft 
twist single yarn, although it has 
been done to an extent. The 
mercerized two-ply yarn undoubtedly 
will cause the fabric figures to fray 
less than if a mercerized single yarn 
was used. 

THE CLOTH CONSTRUCTION 
and results produced are of greatest 
interest to cloth makers and those 
who develop constructions, but to a 
distributor who does not understand 
these figures it probably is true that 
the selling prices are of greater inter- 
est. To one who does not consider 
the matter carefully the price in the 
foreign market and the price in the 
domestic market would seem to pre- 
clude any possibility of the cloth being 
sold by an importer. Note that this 
cloth could be made and sold by a firm 
which sells direct to the retailer, at 
about 34 cents per yard, while the 
price in the foreign market would be 
from 35 to 37 cents per yard. Under 
domestic scheaules for selling, the 
cloth could be sold so as to retail at 
about 50 cents per yard, while if it is 
imported it cannot be sold at less than 
$1 per yard, or in this vicinity. This 
same condition is noted on a great 
Jiany cloths which are imported and 
sold to-day, and when their costs of 
production are compared there is a 
decided advantage in favor of domes- 
tic producers. 

The fact that fabrics are sold shows 
that other features often have a great- 
er Influence than the cost of produc- 
tion. Perhaps, the reason why this 
cloth can be sold is because there are 
new Ideas involved which domestic 
producers have not yet adopted. It 



probably is not true that the quantity 
sold is so small that it would be of 
little interest to domestic producers, 
in other words, the fabric style has 
made the sale possible, or else the 
buyer has not been fully enough ac- 
quainted with what domestic pro- 
ducers can supply. Very many of the 
fabrics which have been imported are 
imports J because they show desirable 
features rather than because they can 
be sold at a lower cost than will be 
observed in a domestic plant. The 
only way domestic sellers can prohibit 
the importation of a good many cloths 
is to get busy and produce attractive 
ideas just as quickly as foreign sellers. 
In addition, there is one point which 



8 ■ - ■ ■ a 


■■■■■-■■ ■ H^B 


■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ;■ ■ ■' ■■ 

■■ ■ ■ wi^'-mm m m 


■ ■ ■ ■ H ■ ■ ■ ■■ 


■ m ^^m m 

: ■ tf ■ ■: 

S".Wii"-W.S 



Weave Plan. 

should be mentioned, and this is that 
domestic sellers do not acquaint buy- 
ers with the styles which they can 
produce in a general manner. 

Foreign selling conditions make 
this problem somewhat easier than 
it is in the domestic market, be- 
sides the production of fancy fabrics 
is an older business, and the styles 
which various mills can produce are 
better known, but there should be 
some method by which buyers will 
become more familiar with the styles 
which domestic mills can produce. 
Domestic buyers depend to a great 



168 A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 

extent upon the cloth broker as to mestic fabrics, and often identical 

where a cloth can be obtained, but this fabrics are being sold, both imported 

method has its failings, though it muoL ^nd domestic, whereas if a domestic 

be said it is not due to inability upon seller had been closer to buyers, and 

the part of the cloth broker, buc ratuei they had been more familiar with his 

a lack of knowledge on the part of the styles, the importation of the cloth 

buyer, inasmuch as foreign fabrics are ^'o^ld not have been possible. The 

often purchased when they could be method of obtaining the yarn weights 

obtained at a lower price from a do- ^^^ the weight of the cloth is as fol- 

mestic seller. lows: 

As long as there is a difference in 3, 102 ends -i- (50/1 x 840) = .0760 weight 

selling price in favor of domestic man- 10% Yak^-up'i'n "wiavrnT" 

ufacturers, and this appears to be the .0700 -h .9 = .0844, total weight of warp per 

general condition upon many of the 62'p?ci«x'3r2-3 " reed width x 36" 

fabrics which we have investigated, it = i,963 

would seem as if domestic sellers „,.,i„ „<• «ni^B^'lo^ „„-^ 

,, , . j!i! . . yards of filling per yard. 

would make a greater effort to pro- i.&63 -4- (840 x 45/1) = .0519, weight of 
duce the exclusive styles which for- , ^If'^ *";'^L.*^li'"^<. /o^ -.^no • ^. , 

,, . T 4. -u 4. l,Sb?. H (^S40 X l!6/2) = .1798 weight of 

eign sellers manage to distribute. mercerized fining. 

There undoubtedly has been a great -0844 + .0519 4- .it98 = .siei, total weight 

amount of progress in the style of do- i.J'o'bo ^^^'"'^hei = 3.16 yards per pound. 

PATTERN. 
2 2 

50/1 Am. combed warp — 3,128 — == 3,192 total ends. 

IG 16 

45/1 Am. combed filling, hard twist 2 ^ i oj t * i i i, 

26/2 Eg. combed filling, mercerized 2 S picKS. 

50 reed, 31 2-3" width in reed, 27%" finished width. 
115 X 124 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Labor. 
Cotton. waste, etc. 

BO/1 Am combed warp; IH" staple; 10 hank dou. rov., 19Vic. 16c. = 35%c. 

45/1 Am. combed, H. T. ; IVs" staple; 10 hanli dou. rov., 17c. 21c: = 38c. 

26/2 Eg. combed; 1%" staple; 5V& hank dou. rov., 22c. 19y2C. = 41%c. 

COST. 

3,192 ends 50/1 Am. combed warp + 10% take-up = .0844 @ 35V4c. = % .0300 

62 picks 45/1 Am. combed filling, hard twist = .0519 (g) 3Sc. = .0197 

62 picks 26/2 Eg. combed filling, mercerized = .17as @ 4iy2C. = .0746 

Weaving .0376 

Expenses .0360 

t .1979 
Selling (grey) !o040 

Total mill cost (grey) $.2019 

Mill selling price (about) $ .2400 

Bleaching, finishing, etc .0250 

Converters expenses .0225 

Converters total cost % .2875 

Converters selling price (about) .3400 

Retailers selling price .5000 

Yaras per pound 3.16 (grey). 

FIGURES FOR IMPORTED FABRIC. 

English selling price (about) $ .3750 

Rate of duty 30% 

Importers selling price .6250 

Importing expenses 8% 

Retai' price $1.00 

«~*-* 

QTTJTDCTi TTCCITT? ^^ rapidly during the past few years, 

ijlIllrJjU lllJoUri and relates largely to the production 

of novelty fabrics which sell for com- 
A situation which has not been of paratively high prices. In this connec- 
especially great importance in the tion, it may be well to take up a few 
past, but which must be faced in the of the features which distinguish do- 
future, is the one which has develop- mestic manufacturing from that of 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



led 



foreign countries, to a certain extent. 
In the first place, foreign maliers 
usually accomplish only one part in 
the production of a finislied material, 
that is, a certain manufacturer will 
have a spinning plant and pioduce yarn 
for the market, another will purchase 
this yarn and weave it into various 
styles of cloth, while still another will 
finish the fabric in whatever manner 
seems most desirable at the time. 
Thus the industry, or a large portion 
of it is subdivided. Tliis method is 
more suitable when a great variety 
of- cloths are to be produced, inas- 
much as it allows a greater flexibility 
in the organization and permits a 
manufacturer to go into business in a 
comparatively small way. 

With the domestic industry, condi- 
tions are largely different, inasmuch 
as many plants are entirely complete, 
making the yarn, weaving the cloth 
and finishing it. This does not apply 
to many of the grey cloth mills whose 
material is finished in a different 
plant, due to the many finishes which 
are necessary, and also because of 
the great variety of fabrics produced. 
Because of the 

METHOD OP MANUFACTURING, 

it is not so possible for a plant to be 
started in a small way, and is of de- 
cided disadvantage where novelty 
cloths are to be produced. The do- 
mestic manufacturer has used every 
effort to build up the business for 
quantity production, and while this is 
of great advantage in keeping down 
costs, it does not allow style to be- 
come of as great importance as it oth- 
erwise would. Thus, in the foreign 
market it is possible for a buyer to 
obtain as small a quantity as eight 
pieces or 320 yards of any ordinary 
fancy fabric, while it usually is not 
possible in the domestic market for a 
purchaser to secure any fewer than 
300 pieces or 18,000 yards. Possibly 
in the majority of cases the smallest 
amount of fancy cloth which a domes- 
tic manufacturer will sell is 500 pieces 
or about 30,000 yards. This state- 
ment, of course, refers to the ordi- 
nary fancy fabric known as grey 
olotli. 



That there is a large field develop- 
ing in which novelty cloths are in de- 
mand is recognized by those who han- 
dle fancy cloths, but the industry 
is so organized that there is small op- 
portunity of attempting such produc- 
tion. A buyer may be able to dis- 
tribute from 10 to 50 pieces of fancy 
cloth at almost any price which might 
be named, whereas it would be abso- 
lutely impossible for him to dispose of 
from 300 to 500 pieces, the normal 
quantity demanded by a domestic pro- 
ducer. This is one of the important 
features which must be considered in 
regard to fabric importations, 
ior quantity enters into the consider- 
ation as well as price. Then, there is 
the question of style. A good many 
purchasers desire to handle fabrics 
which they are absolutely certain oth- 
ers are not offering, and often are will- 
ing to pay a higher price to obtain 
small quantities of novelty cloth. 
Whether such cloth is better than that 
which others are offering at a relative 
price is not considered at all, but 
rather the fact that they can place 
large emphasis upon the exclusive- 
ness of the cloths they have for sale. 

One of the great reasons why this 
kind of manufacturing has not de- 
veloped in the domestic market is 
through a lack of ability in cloth mak- 
ing and styling. In order to success- 
fully, produce high- class fabrics a 
great deal of ability and ingenuity are 
required, and not only this but a pro- 
ducer must be familiar to a greater or 
less extent with the various kinds of 
textile fibres and their combinations. 
Foreign manufacturers of this charac- 
ter use cotton, wool and silk freely in 
their productions, and in order to get 
the best results experience is neces- 
sary. The domestic industry has 
grown so fast that there absolutely 
is not a sufficient number of expert 
men to operate all of the present 
plants in a fairly economical manner. 
For any man who is capable of going 
into a sir.all business, such as the 
making of high-class, exclusive fab- 
rics, there is a much larger opportu- 
nity in running some of the mills 
which are not especially successful 
to-day, and the recompense is un- 
doubtedly greater than could be made 



170 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



from the operation of a small plant 
with little capital. This is 

NOT ALWAYS THE CASE, 
inasmuch as v^ertain small plants on 
novelty fabrics do make very large 
profits, but it is generally true. It is 
also a fact that anyone who makes 
novelty cloths in the domestic market 
tvill have to get off from the beaten 
track, and this causes fear and trem- 
bling among those who are not pos- 
sessed of a large amount of ability 
'n overcoming diflScult situations. 
There is one thing certain, and this 
is that it will never be a practical 
thing to produce certain of the high- 
class fabrics in the domestic mills as 
they are now organized, inasmuch as 
the detail is so great that it would up- 
set the processes and cause large in- 



iiii -• ■ ill 



11! ■ 



world for the building of small plants 
in which expensive cloths are to be 
made. We believe that this will be 
the next step in the development of 
the domestic industry, and the ones 
who successfully work out the prob- 
lem will undoubtedly obtain large re- 
wards in comparison with the cap;lai 
necessary for operation. The large 
plant is equipped to make staples, al- 
though there are many fancy fabrics 
which come in this classification, but 
for the new expensive materials which 
sell, especially because of style, there 
must be a new development with 
small units as a basis. 

The fabric which we are to con- 
sider, and which is illustrated by the 
garment here presented, is one of 
the cloths that can be produced in a 




Striped Tissue. 



creases in cost on other fabrics which 
are not justified. To make such a 
business successful it must be run in 
a small way, and one man must be 
in much more intimate touch with ev- 
erything in the operation of the plant 
than can ever happen in most of the 
domestic concerns. 

Judging from the industry 
as now operated, it would 
seem ps if the making of many of the 
exclusive fabrics was prohibited, and 
although this is true to an extent, 
there is every opportunity in the 



small way, but which shows quite a 

HIGH RANGE OF PROFIT 

to the maker. It is not always ex- 
pensive fabrics that contain compli- 
cated weaves, although a good many 
of them do at present. The fabric 
considered is only a plain weave 
cloth, and it is the combination of fi- 
bres and colors which makes it at- 
tractive. A short time ago, voiles 
were in good demand, enormous 
quantities having been produced, and 
although these materials were desirable 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



171 



the quantity produced was such that a 
change in demand occurred. This 
change, however, did not elim- 
inate certain of the fabrics or 
ideas which are used in the production 
of voiles, and it is likely that many 
somewhat similar fabrics will be con- 
tinually in use; in fact, prominent 
sellers predicted that voiles would be 
absolutely worthless the present year. 
Nevertheless certain mills have had 
quite a quantity of orders on these 
very cloths and undoubtedly will an- 
other season. This will occur be- 
cause the fabric seems more desirable 
than other materials for certain uses, 
and some people will not consider that 
the fabric is not especially stylish, but 
rather that it is attractive. A certain 
amount of voile cloths are being made 
in a low quality and sold at a re- 
duced price, but they represent in no 
way the fabrics which will have a 
continual demand. There are 

CERTAIN FEATURES 

in the cloth analyzed which are worth 
mentioning. The first is that the 
warp is exactly similar to that in an 
ordinary colored yarn voile cloth. 
The count is rather low, just the 
same as for a voile, and the yarns 
are made in a manner somewhat alike. 
Naturally, the use of bleached and 
dyed yarns causes a greater amount 
of labor and a higher expense than 
if a grey yarn voile were being pro- 
duced, but this is a manufacturing 
feature, and there is no great diffi- 
culty in the method of producing. Or- 
dinary voiles are of rather light 
weight, but in most instances they 
are not firm, and in certain cloths firm- 
ness is rather desirable. If any 
greater number of picks than are 
used in an ordinary voile cloth be in- 
troduced, the firmness will be in- 
creased, but the desirable open- 
work effect will be largely lost. To 
make a light-weight effect and still 
have a firm fabric there has been used 
for filling a silk yarn. This silk yarn 
makes a light fabric, but does not de- 
tract at all from the voile effect. An 
ordinary silk yarn when reeled is full 
of gum, the amount varying some- 
what, due to different conditions. Silk 
under this condition is not very lus- 



trous, although it is smooth and 
much finer than most cotton yarns. 
The luster appears when the yarn is 
boiled out and the gum either par- 
tially or wholly removed. 
In order to make the crisp 

VOILE EFFECT 

and have no luster, this fabric 
has been woven with silk which has 
not been degummed. This is not a gen- 
eral practice, but it shows how vari- 
ous fibres and ideas must be combin- 
ed in order to produce certain effects 
which seem desirable at any time. 
There is some advantage in using 
a fine silk which is not lustrous for 
filling yarns, as it allows warp stripes 
to be more prominent. In the fabric 
under discussion the colored stripes 
appear almost as if they had been 
printed, a process in which the fibres 
are entirely covered with color on the 
face. If ordinary white filling had 
been used, the colored stripe would 
have been practically half white, 
thereby creating a somewhat differ- 
ent effect, and if the filling had been 
entirely colored, one stripe would 
have been of a solid color, while the 
white stripe would have been practi- 
cally half colored. The practice of 
using a silk which is not degummed 
is sometimes adopted in making very 
light fabrics in which luster is unde- 
sirable. 

Sometimes a silk warp Is used with 
cotton filling and at other times a 
cotton warp is used with a silk fill- 
ing. The fact that the silk contains 
gum gives the fabric a rather crisp 
feel, and the material is usually print- 
ed with all-over patterns of 
various kinds. Such printed pat- 
terns do not often appear well on 
heavier fabrics, and the reason why 
silk is used is to make a very light 
material with better results. We have 
explained at various times the fea- 
tures of interest in the pro- 
duction of voile cloths; that 
Is, that the yarn contains a 
standard of twist much higher than 
that of ordinary yarn, a standard 
which often varies from SVz to 10 
times the square root of the yarn 
number. This extra twist causes the 
yarn to contract quite a little and 



172 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



makes the yardage per pound lower 
than it otherwise would be. It also 
makes the yarn much weaker than 
it normally is, and due to the large 
amount of twist, a steaming or siz- 
ing process must be adopted to elim- 
inate the kinking up of the yarn. 
Yarns which are used in voiles must 
be made of good cotton and spun well 
to give the best results. This may 
be observed through the fact that 
certain makers have had large or- 
ders for voile cloths during recent 
years, while others have never been 
able to obtain as large orders or as 
satisfactory prices. Often yarns 
which are used in voiles are gassed, 
a process by which projecting fibres 
are removed, making the yarn like 
small rods. Sometimes voile cloths 
are piece mercerized, this process giv- 
ing a certain amount of luster which 
makes the material more desirable, al- 
though it does not produce a luster to 
compare with that in a yarn which 
contains what is called soft twist. 

Many of the fabrics which are 
made in cotton mills and which con- 
tain silk are under the new tariff 
classified in the "silk schedule," and 
obtain comparatively high rates of 
protection, allowing a great many of 
them to be made satisfactorily in 
domestic mills. Take the fabric un- 
der discussion. Without doubt upon 
the lowest cost in a foreign mill the 
domestic maker would obtain far more 
protection than his entire cost of 
manufacturing, excluding the material. 
This occurs through the proportion of 
silk used in the fabric making. Most 
of the silk and cotton fabrics produced 
in cotton mills are thus 

HIGHLY PROTECTED, 

and few of such fabrics can be im- 
ported unless the foreign maker plans 
the material to be in chief value of 
cotton, which allows only a compara- 
tively small amount of silk to be 
used. Fabrics of a novelty character 
can often be sold direct to large re- 
tailers, or in any case, more direct 
than those which are made in larger 
quantities, and the advance in price 
sopaetimes does not appear so great 



as it does on other lines of fabrics. 
Take ordinary silk cloths such as are 
produced in large quantities. It of- 
ten happens that a cloth which costs 
about 60 cents to manufacture is re- 
tailed at 31-25 regularly or even less. 
This is only about 100 per cent ad- 
vance on the cost of making. Pos- 
sibly the majority of fancy cotton 
cloths show an advance of 
anywhere from 250 to 300 per cent; 
and many of them as much as 500 
per cent advance on the cost of mak- 
ing. There are very few of the 
high-class silk fabrics which show as 
great advances as fancy cotton fab- 
rics do when the price to consumers 
and the cost of manufacturing is con- 
sidered. 

The doirestic manufacturer of fancy 
fabrics produces them in a very effi- 
cient manner; in fact, it is doubted 
whether foreign makers can approach 
the costs of some of the domestic 
makers on a good many materials, 
but where the difference occurs Is in 
the 

COST OF DISTRIBUTION. 

For a good many mills competition 
has forced prices to about as low a 
level as can occur and allow a suffi- 
cient margin of profit, and any fur- 
ther steps will force manufacturers 
to protect themselves and go into dis- 
tributing their cloth themselves. This 
may not mean selling to the consumer 
direct, for such a method is not gen- 
erally possible, but it does mean that 
manufacturers will adopt some meth- 
od by which their fabrics will be- 
come known to consumers and where- 
by they will have something to say 
regarding the prices at which their 
materials are sold. If prices are not 
lowered their going into distribution 
will allow them to obtain certain of 
the large profits which are now ob- 
tained by others. The development 
of fancy cloth making in small quan- 
tities has yet to occur in the domestic 
market, but when it does occur the 
methods of distribution will be watch- 
ed carefully and without doubt larger 
manufacturers will profit by them. 
The method of obtaining the yarn 
weights is as follow^; 



I 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



173 



1,652 ends -h (100/2 X 840) = .0370. weight warp per yard of woven cloth. 

of white warp without take-up. SO picks X 49V<i" width In reed X 36 ^ ^ ^^^ 

4% take-up in weaving. gg/, 

.0370 -i- .96 = .0385, total weight of white yards of filling per yard of cloth. 

warp per yard of woven cloth. 3 geo -^ 225,000 yards (silk) = .0176. total 

1,470 ends -h (100/2 X 840) = .0350, weight weight of filling per yard of woven cloth. 

of colored warp without take-up. .0385 -f- .0365 -f .0176 = .0926. total weight 

4% take-up in weaving. per yard. 

.0350 H- .96 = .0365, total weight of colored 1.0000 -4- .0926 = 10.80 yards per lb. 

PATTERN. 
100/2 Sea Island combed white I 48 I I I 14 I I I 48 I = 1,552 

100/2 Sea Island combed colored 1 I I 14 | I 14 1 I I = 1.470 

104 X 3.022 

18/20 silk filling; 80 picks per inch. 
60 reed, 49%" width in reed. 47" finished width. 
64 X 80 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Labor, waste, 
twisting. 
Cotton, dyeing, etc. 
100/2 S. I. combed white; 1%" staple; 20 hank dou. rov., 28i4c. 59c. = 87%c. 

100/2 P. i. combed colorfrt; 1%" staple; 20 hank dou. rov., 28i4c. 65c. = 93J4e. 

18/20 silk filling; 225,000 yards per lb. (ready for use) = $4.16 

COST. 

1.552 ends 100/2 Sea Island white + 4% take-up = .0385 @ 87i4c. = $ .0336 

1.470 ends 100/2 Sea Island colored -f- 4% take-up ^ .03C5 @ 93V4c. = .0341 

80 picks 18/20 silk filling = .0176 @ $4.10 = .0722 

Weaving .0483 

Expenses .0252 

$ .2134 
Finishing -0075 

i .2209 
Selling .0111 

Mill cost $.2320 

Plain weave. 

Yards per pound 10.80. 

Retail price $1 per yard. 



ARTIFICIAL SILK NOVELTY 
DRESS GOODS 

There is a greater amount of in- 
terest in fancy cloth making at pres- 
ent in regar(i to the possibilities in 
use of artificial silk than there is 
in about any other feature which 
makes cloth salable. The method of 
making and characteristics of artifi- 
cial silk have been described in these 
columns quite extensively in the past, 
and there is little to be said as far as 
the cloth maker is concerned, inas- 
much as he is interested in aciapting 
this material to his fabrics rather than 
in the original production of the fibre. 
There are certain features which 
make artificial silk desirable in fabrics 
and there are other features which, 
from a manufacturing standpoint, 
make it rather undesirable. 

Possibly the fact that it loses strength 



very extensively when moistened 
has been mentioned as prominently 
as any other characteristic, but the 
method which has been used by fab- 
ric makers in adapting this material 
to their cloths causes this item to be 
of comparatively small importance, 
in fact, so far as the ultimate consum- 
er is concerned, the fibre might just 
about as well be artificial silk as the 
real article. Then there are disad- 
vantages in the use of this material 
by a manufacturer. The fibre is quite 
slippery and rather stiff, in some in- 
stances being undesirable from such 
cause. 

Then, it also is not made in as fine 
sizes as silk or if made, it is not a 
practical thing from the standpoint 
of most manufacturers. Because the 
yarn is of quite heavy size it is im- 
possible to use it in certain fine fab- 
rics, that is, the heavy yarn will not 
weave satisfactorily in a fine reed. 
The passing of the reed back and 



174 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



forth causes the yarn to wear and it 
loses strength, thus causing break- 
ages. This 

FRAYING PROCESS 
also causes fibres to be worn so that 
they project from the main strand 
of yarn and this is sometimes ob- 
jectionable. There are very many 
fabrics, however, in whicli artificial 
silk in ordinary sizes can be used 
successfully. Everyone realizes that 
many cloths have been in demand 
which have had a rather low count, 
such as voiles, crepes, and various 
kinds of eponge cloths. 

In these materials artificial silk has 
been used quite extensively and will 
be used in similar cloths much more 
so in the future. Recently, we were 
shown a cloth in which a double nov- 
elty yam was used, one of the 
strands being a nub yarn composed 
entirely of artificial silk. The do- 
mestic manufacturer has to consider 
very seriously the fact that he can- 
not afford to use very much extra 
labor in his fabric making, even on 
the extreme novelties which are pro- 
duced in the market. For this reason, 
it is impossible to use artificial silk 
in fabrics here as extensively as it is 
in foreign countries, but it is undoubt- 
edly possible to use a much greater 
quantity than is at present noted. 
When a real silk is being used of a 
coarse size there are very many in- 
stances where an artificial silk could 
be substituted to advantage not only 
so far as the price is concerned, but 
also in regard to the ease of pro- 
duction. 

VALUE OF SMALL DETAILS. 

One of the great reasons why many 
foreign fancy fabrics appear better 
than domestic cloths of a similar 
character is because of the greater 
care used in cloth construction and 
in placing the weave upon the fabric. 
Due to a greater amount of expe- 
rience, and a greater production on 
fancy fabrics, the foreign manufac- 
turer has developed ideas which as 
yet are often submerged in the quan- 
tity production methods adopted gen- 
erally in domestic mills. Take the 
fabric which we have analyzed for 
an example. There are certain arti- 
flcial silk yarns which can be regularly 



obtained in the market, but there is 
not the wide variety of sizes which 
can be found in cotton yarns. Unless 
the correct size of cotton yarn is used 
in combination with the artificial silk 
it will not produce especially attrac- 
tive results. Often fabrics are made 
where the various yarns used do not 
combine in the manner best suited to 
produce the most attractive results. 

Another feature which is often lost 
sight of is the fact that 

A GOOD SELVAGE 
on a piece of cloth will make it appear 
much better and sometimes bring a 
higher price. It is not always neces- 
sary that the selvage be a wide one, 
but rather that it combines well with 
the cloth and does not have a ragged 
or uneven appearance. There are 
many cloths produced which would 
appear far better if the yarns in the 
selvage were reeded differently. The 
weave also should be adapted to the 
cloth construction. There are many 
converters in the domestic market 
who will have a certain fabric made 
by the mill and it will appear entirely 
satisfactory. Afterwards, they will 
pick out various designs to be used 
upon this ground cloth and the results 
will not be as attractive as was ex- 
pected. 

It is absolutely impossible to place 
a weave upon a cloth and expect it to 
appear exactly as well as some other 
weave does, inasmuch as the combina- 
tion is not the same and the 

CLOTH CONSTRUCTION 
and weave combination make the re- 
sults somewhat different. We have 
seen many instances where purchas- 
ers applied new weaves to fabrics 
formerly handled, and because the 
results were not at all like those pre- 
viously obtained, have criticized the 
mill severely, claiming that the cotton 
used, the method of making, or cloth 
construction was changed in order to 
make a higher profit, while such was 
not the case. There are very few 
reliable cotton manufacturers who 
manipulate their fabrics when sample 
pieces have been made and supplied 
to buyers. It will be noted that the 
weave of the cloth shows the artificial 
silk to advantage and some other 
method might not hav« been nearly so 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



ITS 



satisfactory. It will also be seen that 

THE WEAVE HAS MUCH TO DO 
with the cloth effect which has been 
obtained. In each stripe the three 
cotton threads weave exactly the 
same, namely plain weave, while the 
two threads of silk weave the same 
In most instances. This allows the 
various threads to slide together, and 
the fact that the plain weave in the 
different stripes changes holds the 
stripes apart and creates a regular 
ooen space. Naturally, this open 
space is originally created by having 
an empty dent in the reed, but un- 
less the cloth construction is correct 
and the weave used one which corre- 
sponds, the various threads will spread 



ability, the construction and design 
can be adapted more satisfactorily 
and much better results produced. 
Attractiveness is one of the main fea- 
tures to be considered in high-class 
cotton fabrics and it pays to place 
emphasis upon the details when the 
cloth is being planned. Often, the 
effects of good yarn and good weav- 
ing are more than counteracted by a 
small amount of carelessness in mak- 
ing the design. 

HIGH-CLASS YARN A NECESSITY. 
We do not believe there are many 
in the market who realize the great 
advance which has occurred during 
the past five years in the quality of 
the yarn which is used in many of 






^1 tff l^iii#i'•i#ll■li:|'i•s>l f |.itl,| 
i^'g-js; 3 f ^s.;i*'=: i.s i i ii's' i f I •■11,1 U s -i -•=. 

llllllllllllll 

M|i|iiif if i l||i tilfltHf I ii-|ll.i 

||l||||j|iyj|J|||| 

lllililliiltltiiilltilltillifllii 
■' = '^^ ■iilll:ilifii 

Artificial Silk Novelty Dress Goods 



i=lt 




5siS|g|gg 




radically when the cloth is being fin- 
ished and no open spaces will appear. 
In a good many openwork fabrics, 
A SMALL LENO THREAD 
is used alongside of the stripes in 
order to hold them firmly in place, 
this being noted more particularly 
when the stripes are wide. In certain 
instances, it has been known that 
manufacturers have used silk for 
stripes or checks and then eaten out 
this silk in order to create clear open- 
work effects. This method, however, 
is not generally used because of the 
cost. A very small amount of extra 
labor, and oftentimes through no ex- 
tra labor but rather through more 



the high-class domestic fabrics. This 
statement does not mean that there 
is not still a large field for improve- 
ment, but rather that results are much 
better than formerly. There never 
has been any great amount of criti- 
cism regarding the strength of most 
domestic yarns, but there has been a 
great deal of criticism regarding their 
regularity. Domestic makers use 
much longer staples and more twist 
for their yarns than do foreign mak- 
ers and this accounts for the greater 
strength even though the yarn is not 
so good in appearance. One reason 
why the yarns made in domestic 
mills are better than they were is 



176 



A COTTON FABRICS aLOSSARY 



because makers have been forced in- 
to producing better materials or else 
lose a portion of their business. 

Voiles and many other fabrics of a 
similar character have been in large 
demand and unless high-class yarns 
were used results were not especially 
attractive. A great deal of criticism 
has been noted in regard to the finish 
applied to fabrics by finishers of do- 
mestic cloths. It may be that such 
parties are partly responsible for the 
finish being less desirable than on 
foreign fabrics, but manufacturers 
themselves are also partly to blame. 
It is not possible to obtain as good a 
finish on a fabric in which uneven 
yarns are used as it is on one in which 
the yarns are very regular, and this is 
one of the reasons why many foreign 
fabrics take a better finish. Mule 
spinning and a larger amount of labor 
have a tendency to produce yarn of a 
regular character, while quantity pro- 
duction and ring spinning do not tend 
to make yarn of an especially high 
quality. As long as quantity rather 
than quality is the item of importance, 
just so long will the finish of domestic 
fabrics be criticized when compared 
with certain foreign materials. 

EASY DESIGN FOR SAMPLE. 

There are a great many, having 
had little experience in the matter, 
who consider that the making of de- 
signs on most jacquard cotton fabrics 
is a much more difficult process than 
the making of designs for fancy dobby 
cloths. This is not true in a majority 
of instances, and the fabric which we 
are considering is a good illustration 
of the simpleness of design work for 
many materials. Without doubt, an 
ordinary workman could complete a 
design such as is noted on the cloth 
considered in an hour's time or even 
less. It is not necessary to paint in 
the entire weave, but rather it is only 
essential to paint in the portions of 
the weave where the artificial silk 
floats on the surface. The plain 
weave ground can be entirely omitted 
and introduced by the party who 
places the weave upon the cards. 

It may be well to note that the arti- 
ficial silk floats for an odd number of 
picks in every case when the figure 
is being made. This Is necessary be- 



cause of the plain weave on the other 
threads in the cloth. Sometimes it is 
rather 

DIFFICULT FOR A BEGINNER 

to understand this fact, but by paint- 
ing in the ground weave around a 
figure it is easy enough to see how 
the floats all become odd numbers. 
The total cost for design, cards and 
other features for a fabric such as 
the one considered is not over one- 
tenth of a cent per yard added to the 
total cost of making. Of course, a 
cloth with a greater number of picks 
per inch, or one upon which a great 
deal more labor was expended in de- 
sign making, would cost much larger 
amount, but for many cloths the cost 
is of minor importance. The weave 
and cloth construction have Leen con- 
sidered sufficiently in this material, 
for the best results have been ob- 
tained. Many fabrics of a similar 
character have been sold which do not 
compare at all with the one con- 
sidered. 

PRODUCTION AND PROFITS. 

One feature which has appealed 
particularly to manufacturers of voiles 
and similar cloths is that there has 
been quite a satisfactory amount of 
profit in their making. This is true 
at present on all of the good grades, 
and was previously true even upon 
most of the lower grades. This sat- 
isfactory profit has resulted because 
the materials contain a comparatively 
small number of picks per inch, and 
there was a large yardage produced 
per loom and a low weaving and ex- 
pense cost. The material or the yarn 
which was used in such a fabric 
form a much larger proportion of the 
total cost than it did on many fabrics 
which had been previously made, and 
for this reason, there was a greater op- 
portunity to obtain a higher profit. A 
very small amount per yard creates a 
satisfactory dividend because the total 
amount is quite large, due to the 
amount of cloth which can be woven. 
Naturally, the demand for the material 
was partly responsible for the large 
PROFITS WHICH MANY SECURED. 

An item which is seldom considered 
at all by manufacturers, and by those 
who do consider it not in an accurate 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



m 



enough manner, is that which refers 
to the profits that should be secured 
on different fabrics. Tlie method most 
eenerally adopted in fancy cloth mak- 
ing is to figure profits upon a basis of 
a certain amount per loom per week. 
If a fabric produces one hundred yards 
per week and a manufacturer desires 
to make $2 per loom per week, the 
practice is to quote a price which 
shows about 2 cents per yard profit. 
This method is approximately correct 
for fabrics which make it possible for 
all the machinery in a plant to be 
operated, but this is seldom noted on 
most fancy cloths. 

Let us illustrate this point a little 
more clearly. A fancy mill is planned 
to make a certain kind of cloths, and 
has a layout with a special number 
of preparatory machines and a cer- 
tain number of spindles per loom. Let 
us say that a mill contains 40 spindles 
per loom, which would be satisfactory 
for many fancy cloths. Recently, 
many ■mills have made single yarn 
voiles and also large quantities of 
crepes and other 

SPECIAL YARN MATERIALS. 

On many of these cloths almost twice 
as many spindles per loom are neces- 
sary as for ordinary work, and still 
no change is made in the amount 
which a manufacturer expects to make 
on the loom basis. This is an in- 
correct method, because it will not 
produce the profits which a manufac- 
turer desires, the loom either earning 
more or less than the manufacturer 
has planned. When a greater number 
of spindles are necessary to produce 
the yarn for the loom than was 
planned, the profits are not enough to 
take care of the spindles and other 
machinery which are necessary or idle 
through the cloth being made. 

If less snindles per loom are being 
used the loom is earning more than 
it should to create the dividends ex- 
pected. There should also be some 
provision made for the different kinds 
of looms emnloyed. It is not a cor- 
rect policy to exnect a jacnuard box 
loom to earn monev at the same basic 
rate as does a dobbv or a plain loom, 
although this method is in more or 
less general use. Manufacturers have 
claimed that this policy is necessary. 



inasmuch as jacquard loom fabrics are 
sold upon practically the same basis 
as dob by materials, but the outlay 
necessary to produce jacquard cloth is 
somewhat greater and for this reason 
the amount obtained per yard should 
be varied accordingly. Much more 
care is being given to these items than 
previously, and the time will come 
when manufacturers will know more 
pf^curately just what their various 
machines are earning. 

TARIFF ON ARTIFICIAL SILK. 

In regard to fabrics in which artifi- 
cial silk has been used, there is quitP 
a little discussion being heard and 
some uncertainty in regard to the 
rafps of duty. The fact that provision 
was made for artificial silk and arti- 
ficial silk fabrics in the silk schedule, 
but that no provision was made in the 
cotton schedule, is a subject for criti- 
cism. When a fabric is woven from 
artificial silk, and the value of the 
f»'-tificial silk is greater than the other 
materials used, the fabric is classified 
in the silk schedule and the rate of 
duty is 60 per cent. When there is a 
greater amount of value of cotton 
varn in the fabric, the material is 
'■^qssed in the cotton schedule and the 
rate of dutv is 30 per cent. This is 
a wide variation and will undoubt- 
edly cause quite a little trouble 
when the fabric is anywhere near the 
dividing line. The reason the rate 
of duty is 30 per cent is because no 
special provision was made for this 
sort of cloth and it is classified under 
catch-all paragranh No. 266. 

Take the fabric which we have 
analyzed for an example. A mill 
which purchases fine yarns in order 
to make a cloth of this character 
would cause the fabric to be in the 
cotton classification, whereas if the 
artificial silk was handled an exces- 
sive number of times, or if only small 
quantities were purchased, the fabric 
would, from a maniif»rturiT;g sta'id- 
point, be in chief value of artificial 
silk. Then, many of tlv^se fabrics a'"e 
pipoe-dved rather thnn yarn-dyed. 
The losses in finishing are not the 
same for artificial and for real silk, 
and the basis which is used for or- 
dinary silk cannot be used at all in 
making a correct estimate regarding 



178 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



chief values. A fabric in which the 
chief value is cotton, and in which 
a dobby weave has been used, will 
have no lower rate of duty than if a 
fancy jacquard weave had been used, 
inasmuch as the rate of duty for both 
will be 30 per cent. 

This is not correct theoretically, be- 
cause 

ORDINARY COTTON FABRICS 
with a dobby weave are assessed ac- 
cording to their yarn size, but a 
similar fabric with a jacquard weave 
is 30 per cent. A fabric in which a 
single thread of artificial silk is used 
will carry as high a rate of duty as 
one in which quite a large portion of 
artificial silk has been used, and this 
t>eoretically is not correct and will un- 
doubtedly cause quite a large amount 
of silk to be used when any kind of 
a novelty fabric is to be made. Under 



the present tariff law there seems to 
he very little equality in the various 
rates for different kinds of cloth, 
the discrepancies undoubtedly being 
greater in number than were noted 
under the previous tariff law. The 
method of obtaining the weights of 
yarn and the weight of the cloth as 
it is produced by the loom is a com- 
paratively simple process and is as 
follows: 

1,542 ends -4- (100/2 X 840) = .0367. weight 

of cotton warp without take-up. 
12% take-up in weaving. 
.0367 H- .88 = .0417, total weight of cotton 

warp per woven yard. 
964 ends -h 30,000 yards = .0321, weight of 

art. silk without take-up. 
6% take-up In weaving. 
.0321 H- .94 = .0342, total weight Of art. 

silk per woven yard. 
52 picks X 44 1^" width in reed X 36" 

= 2,314 

36" 

yards of filling per yard. 
2,314 -4- (100/2 X 840) = .0551, total weight 

of filling per woven yard. 
.0417 -f .0342 -f .0551 = .1310, total weight 

per yard. 
1.0000 -H .1310 = 7.63 yards per pound 

(grey). 



100/2 S. I. combed, hard twist 
150 Denier artificial silk 



PATTERN. 
1 1 



1 — 

24 



1,542 Beam 1. 
964 Beam 2. 



482 X 



2,506 total ends. 



100/2 S. I. combed, hard twist; 52 picks. 

33 reed; 44%" width in reed, 41" grey width, SgVs" finished width. 
64 X 52 finished count, over all. 

YARNS. 



100/2 .S. I. combed warp, 1%" staple. 20 hank dou. rov., 
100/2 S. I. combed filling, 1%" staple, 20 hank dou. rov., 
150 Denier art. silk, 30,000 yards per lb. 





I.,abor, 






waste, twist- 




Cotton. 


ing, etc. 




28 %c. 


53%c. = 


82Mc. 


28M!C. 


47Vic. = 


75%c. 




= 


$2.16 



1,542 ends 100/2 S. I. combed warp + 12% take-up = .0417 ® 82%c. = $ .0343 

964 ends 150 Denier art. silk + 6% take-up = .0342 (5) $2.15 = .0736 

52 picks 100/2 S. I. combed filling = .0551 @ 75%c. = .0418 

Weaving .0316 

Expenses .0164 

$ .1977 

Selling (grey) .0040 

Mill cost (grey) $ .2017 

Mill price (about) $.2200 

Cost of dyeing and finishing .0350 

Converter's expenses .0200 

Converter's cost $ .2750 

Selling price (about) .3350 

Retail price .5000 

Foregoing prices estimated on domestl'' basis of direct selling 
Actual retail price $1 per yard, Imported. 
Rate of duty 30%. 
Tards per pound 7.63 (frey). 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



179 



SWIVEL DOTTED SWISS 

A variety of cotton fabric which is 
gradually becoming of greater impor- 
tance in textile distribution is that 
class of materials which are known as 
swivel fabrics. These are not pro- 
duced in the domestic market to any 
extent; in fact, it is probable that no 
•more than one or two mills are capa- 
ble of making such fabrics at all. 
There is a good reason why such a 
condition exists, mainly being that 
jacquard work represents the highest 
type of ordinary woven fabric which 
can be made, and swivel work 
is intricate jacquard weaving. 
Because of the newness of the 



is a wide variety of figures of a much 
more intricata character, which are 
regularly produced, though their con- 
struction varies according to the style 
of figure in demand. 

Because there are very few looms 
capable of producing similar fabrics 
in the domestic market, most of such 
cloth is made in foreign mills, though 
it is very probable that there will be 
an increase ia the domestic produc- 
tion in the near future. As a general 
thing, swivel fabrics made from cotton 
are used for waists, dresses and other 
similar purposes where an expensive 
and rather light fabric is desirable. 
Due to the method of producing, the 
labor and expense cost of making 
these fabrics is much higher than it 



Double Shuttle Swivel Fabric. 



domestic fancy goods indu^^try, there 
really has been very little time 
for the development of fancy jacquard 
weaves, inasmuch as simple jacquard 
fabrics are not produced in as large 
amounts as might be possible. Fab- 
rics made by the swivel mechanism 
are oftentimes composed entirely of 
silk, but there are certain styles of 
cloth which are 

MADE ENTIRELY FROM COTTON, 
and which have a wide distribution. 
Possibly, fabrics similar to that ana- 
lyzed illustrate the largest selling 
lines of swivel production, but there 



is in practically all lines of domestic 
made fabrics. 

It is probable that in most cotton 
swivel fabrics the material used forms 
less than 25 per cent of the total cost 
with labor and other items constitut- 
ing the remaining cost. The main 
characteristic of most swivel fabrics 
is a very light ground decorated with 
relatively heavy spots or figures. In 
a good many instances, the fabrics 
are used as overdresses, with the fig- 
ures showing contrast with the ground 
cloth, and also with the underdress. 

In a general way there are three 



180 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



methods which are largely used in 
decorating a liglit fabric ground with 
an extra figure. First, is the method 
ordinarily knov.'n as box loom work, 
in A. hich an extra filling of a heavy 
character is inserted for the whole 
width of the cloth, and v/hen the 
weaving operation is completed a por- 
tion of the extra heavy filling is 
sheared away, leaving only the light 
ground cloth with heavy interwoven 
figures. These box loom figures are 
made on a wide variety of fabrics, but 
can usually be distinguished very 
easily. A second method of produc- 
tion is that ordinarily known as lappet 
work. In this method an extra mo- 
tion is attached to the loom lay. In 
this extra motion there are a certain 
number of needles which project down- 
ward, the number of needles depend- 
ing i^pon the pattern being woven, and 
these needles containing ends of yarn 
are moved backward and forward as 
the pattern is n.ade. Sometimes the 
patterns are trailing ones, while in 
other instances Ihey are various kinds 
of spots. 

In the first case shearing is not nec- 
essary, while in the second case, a 
succeeding process is necessary to cut 
away the loose thread which is noted 
because a single thread continues to 
form succeeding spots and passes 
from one to the other. This kind of 
woven figure can be easily distin- 
guished from a box loom woven figure, 
because each spot is made from a 
single thread, whereas this does not 
occur when a box loom is used. It is, 
however, not so easy to distinguish 
certain kinds of lapnet work from cer- 
tain kinds of swivel work, though, in 
the mqioritv of instanops thorp 5r tio 
nuestion reearding the method of pro- 
duction. "^Tierever a certain type of 
figure can be produced by either lap- 
pet or swivel motion, the difference in 
method used can be noted through the 
irregularity in lappet motion opera- 
tion as seen in the woven cloth and 
also by the fact that the ends of the 
sheared lapnet FPot are practicallv al- 
ways on the face of the material, 
whereas, on swivel work they are on 
the back of the cloth. Swivel work is 
not only the most expensive method 
of making decorated cloths, such as 



are described, but is also best, though 
the most compli ated method. 

COST OF PRODUCTION. 

The various methods in relation to 
cost of production are, first, lappet; 
second, box loom work, and third, 
swivel work. The various swivel fig- 
ures as woven are made as exact as 
any jacquard woven figures; in fact, 
the jacquard motion is responsible for 
the interweaving of a swivel yarn and 
the motion can be depended upon to 
produce exactly the same effect in ev- 
ery repeat of the pattern. To a cer- 
tain extent swivel work appears some- 
what similar to lappet. There is ordi- 
narily only one thread used in making 
each figure, that is, if only one bank 
of swivel shuttles be used, and the 
swivel yarn does not pass across the 
entire warp, but rather incerweaves 
where the figure is being for^xied. In 
swivel work there is a small spool of 
yarn used for each swivel shuttle, 
whereas in ordinary lappet work, all 
of the various threads forming similar 
figures are nlared unon a laree snool 
which is placed unon the loom frame. 
There are a good many consumers 
who do not distinguish between swivel 
and embroideroQ cloths. In a swivel 
woven fabric the ends which decorate 
the cloth are always in a horizontal 
position, because the swivel shuttles 
operate in a similar manner to ordi- 
nary loom shuttles, while in an em- 
broidered fabric the varn which deco- 
rates the fabric is likely to be at any 
angle to the warp and filMng. accord- 
ing to the pattern which is being 
made. 

METHOD OF OPERATION. 

To a good many, especially in the 
domestic market, the method by 
which r.wivel patterns are made is not 
especially clear, and while it is not 
possible to give any detailed explana- 
tion in a short descrintion. neverthe- 
less it may be well to state a few of 
the fundamental fpatures. In the first 
place, there are three general tvnes of 
swivel mprhanisms us^d. Possibly, 
the one which is n=!ed most extensive- 
ly is that one wherein rertain small 
shuttles of a ho^izontnl nature are in- 
troduced into the fabric where the 
swivel figure Is to be made. These 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



181 



^inall shuttles contain very small 
spools of yarn, and there may be more 
than one bank of the shuttles accord- 
ing to the fabric to be produced, or 
the loom mechanism. These small 
shuttles have to correspond to the tie- 
up of the jacquard machines, and vice 
versa. If a 600-jacquard machine is 
used with a tie-up of 100 hooks per 
inch it will give a repeat in the reed 
of six inches. 

If two swivel shuttles be used, the 
pitch of the swivel shuttle will be 
three inches, whereas, if four shuttles 
be used, the pitch will be one and one- 
half inches, etc. There is a certain 
limit below which it is not satisfactory 
to go into the matter of shuttles by 
this "method. To make the swivel pat- 
tern the various jacquard hooks are 



allover patterns could not be pro- 
duced, or if they were made, only in 
a striped form, but this does not occur 
because the mechanism which holds 
the shuttles can be moved to the side 
to correspond to the pattern which is 
being made, and to allow space for 
the swivel shuttles to be inserted. 
A second kind of 

SWIVEL MECHANISM 

might be considered somewhat simi- 
lar to the one already described, but 
it has a number of different features. 
In this method the swivel shuttles are 
smaller and there usually are more 
shuttles in the cloth width. In a good 
many cases these small shuttles will 
traverse about one-half an inch in the 
cloth width, or will make a woven pat- 




Swivel Dotted Swiss. 



raised as desired, and the mechanism 
holding the swivel shuttles is lowered, 
the small shuttles passing underneath 
a portion of the warp threads. This 
is accomplished through a rack and 
gears upon the loom lay, the small 
shuttles passing from one shuttle 
holder to another. It must be remem- 
bered that a certain portion of the 
warp must remain down to allow 
space for the small shuttles to be in- 
serted. When the swivel figure is be- 
ing made the ordinary picking motion 
does not operate. From this foregoing 
description it might be supposed that 



tern from each thread about half an 
inch wide, though the combination and 
manipulation of the various shuttles 
will make large allover patterns. 
These small shuttles are lowered in 
the cloth shed, and instead of being 
transferred from one shuttle holder to 
another by rack and gears they are 
transferred by small levers which are 
operated by the loom mechanism. In 
this case there may be certain shut- 
tles idle a portion of the time where 
no figure is being made, but this 
causes no difficulty. The swivel 
mechanism is not moved in a horizon* 



182 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tal position in this method, but rather 
remains stationary, and the numerous 
swivel shuttles will produce the pat- 
tern wherever the warp threads are 
raised. 

A third method which appears dif- 
ferent than either of those described 
is one wherein a small shuttle travels 
underneath the warp threads in a cir- 
cular holder. In this method it is only 
possible to use one color of swivel 
thread at any time, inasmuch as there 
can be but one bank of swivel shut- 
tles, but there is a certain advantage 
over the first method described, inas- 
much as it allows the swivel shuttle 
to pass under a greater number or 
portion of warp threads. This is ex- 
plained by the fact that less space Is 
necessary than in the first method for 
the swivel shuttles to be inserted. As 
the swivel motion is a more expensive 
one it may be wondered wherein any 
advantage is secured. In the first 
place, various clear-edged figures can 
be made similar to those produced on 
the ordinary jacquards and be made 
of heavy extra yarn in order to show 
striking contrasts. The method of us- 
ing the swivel motion saves a great 
deal of yarn, and while this is of 
minor importance when compared to 
the effects produced, nevertheless it 
is essential. 

The swivel motion is also of advan- 
tage in decorating certain jacquard 
figures upon various fabrics, that is, it 
may be desirable to have a flower up- 
on a certain woven pattern made of 
colored yarn or of a heavier character 
than the ground fabric, and a swivel 
motion allows this to be done. In cot- 
ton fabrics most of the swivel decora- 
tion is done in one color, namely that 
of the ground cloth, but there are an 
increasing number of fabrics which 
Importers are showing to-day, where 
figures are introduced of one or more 
colors and contrasting decidedly with 
that of the ground cloth. On 
page 179 we illustrate one of 
the small figures oft^^n used 
with two colors. Tins is es- 
pecially true on certain lines of crepe 
cloths now being olTered. There are 
other advantages to be obtained, such 
aa a snot or flenire which will stand 
up better than by any other method, 
and bound in more firmly. 



There are certain features in con- 
nection with the fabric analyzed which 
are worth mentioning. In the first 
place, it is about as simple a figure as 
is ever made on a swivel mechanism, 
being one of simple detached spots. 
It will be noted that the spots are 
quite large and prominent and seem 
the same, both on the face and back 
of the fabric. This is made possible 
through the weaving process. There 
are four picks from the swivel mech- 
anism to one pick of ground cloth, 
when the spot is being woven, in oth- 
er words, the swivel shuttle passes 
around certain warp threads twice be- 
fore a ground pick is inserted. This 
can be accomplished very easily and 
is often done for fabrics such as that 
described. In many other instances 
the swivel shuttle does not pass en- 
tirely across the back, but is brought 
up and acts as a stuffer to the portion 
of the thread which is seen on the 
face. Were the spots being made con- 
tinuously, or were the swivel pattern 
always being made, there would be 
four times as many picks of swivel 
yarn as there would be for the ground 
cloth, but inasmuch as the swivel 
mechanism is not operating a portion 
of the time, this ratio does not occur 
for the whole fabric. Instead of there 
being 240 picks of swivel and 60 picks 
of ground, there are practically 71 
picks of swivel and 60 picks of eround, 
or a total of 131 picks per inch in the 
cloth as it comes from the loom. 

To make the second row of spots, 
the mechanism is moved O'er, the 
spots inserted and then it is returned 
to its original position, whpre the op- 
eration is repeated. One of the 

INTERESTING FEATURES 

in regard to the swivel work 
is that the cloth is woven face 
down. This is necessary because the 
swivel shuttles are placed above the 
warp threads, and because the loose 
threads, which go from one figure to 
another as sp'^t patterns are being 
made, are on the top of the cloth when 
it is being woven. A cloth such as 
that described has to have a shearing 
process in which the thread which 
f OPS from onp fieiirp to the other la 
cut off. It is always a very good pol- 
icy to have as much ground cloth as 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



188 



possible next to the selvages in or- 
der to make the weaving operation as 
easy as possible. 

Because the fabrics are of a light 
character it is customary to use a 
plain weave ground for fabrics such 
as are described. A woven ground 
figure never appears at all prominent 
on such a light material, though on 
other constructions intricate jacquard 
weaves are used, together with the 
swivel figures. One of the features 
which causes quite a little difficulty 
in the production of a fabric such as 
that analyzed is that the small swivel 
shuttles do not contain any great 
amount of yarn, and because of the 
heavy character of the spots the ma- 
terial is used up rapidly, causing 
many changes of shuttle spools and a 
corresponding loss in production. 
SIMILAR CLOTH GROUNDS. 

Inasmuch as these fabrics are 
largely a foreign product it may be 
well to comment regarding the qual- 
ity. Foreign fabrics are usually made 
by somewhat different methods than 
those produced in the domestic mar- 
ket, and it can be stated positively 
that in quite a number of instances 
the method of production does not re- 
sult in what would be considered high 
quality fabrics in the domestic mar- 
kets. This is especially true on some 
of the medium -weight fabrics such as 
the ground cloth of the fabric ana- 
lyzed. The foreign method of yarn 
making, wherein a relatively short 
staple of cotton is used and wherein 
the yarn is spun upon the mule, does 
not produce yarn of great strength. 
It does make a soft, round yarn which 
Is very desirable for certain fabrics, 
but is not dpsirable for a fabric such 
as that analyzed. The yarn in this 
fabric is regular, but it is not strong. 
We do not believe there is a 
single mill in the domestic market 
which, if asked to produce a ground 
cloth such as that noted in the fabric 
described, would not produce a cloth 
which would break twice as high as 
the foreign material and wear twice 
as long. 

This n^av sfem a 

RADICAL STATEMENT, 
but, nevertheless, it is true, and what 
Is more, the same conditions are noted 



on a great many more fabrics than 
either foreign manufacturers or do- 
mestic distributors are willing to ad- 
mit. In discussing imported fabrics 
buyers never give credit to do- 
mestic manufacturers for any su- 
periority whatever, when there are a 
good many instances where domestic 
fabrics are much superior. Soft twist 
and short staple are of advantage for 
certain fabrics, but long staple, a high- 
er standard of twist and strength are 
desiraole for other faorics, of which 
the one presented is an illustration. 
We do not believe there is a single 
mill in the domestic market which is 
weaving as weak yarn as that in the 
fabric analyzed, and if any attempts 
are made to import yarn of a similar 
character and ^\ eave it, there will be 
so many difficulties that domestic 
manufacturers will give up the idea in 
disgust. 

This does not mean that foreign 
manufacturers cannot ana do not 
make high-class yarns, for this is not 
true, but when comparisons are being 
made it would t-e just as well if other 
important features were considered 
along with the price. There would have 
h^en fp.wer fabrics imported in the 
nast if huvers had treated domocti'^ 
fabrics fairly, but they have not only 
built up many wrong impressions re- 
garding the quality of foreign fabrics, 
but also as to their values. 
Where such materials are distributed 
to a high-class trade it makes little 
difference, but inasmuch as ordinary 
consumers are buying increasing 
amounts of high-priced fabrics there 
is sure to be a much different idea re- 
garding the wearing quality and ac- 
tual value. 

The fabric analyzed was imported 
and sold at reta.l at 46 cents per yard. 
We have given an approximate cost of 
production upon a domestic basis. Of 
course, this cost might vary somewhat 
in a domestic plant, but it Is a high 
cost if anything. Other styles of pat- 
terns return a somewhat higher price 
than that noted and this shows that 
there Is an opportunity for domestic 
manufacturers to introduce the mak- 
ing of such cloths. We have esti- 
mated the maker's selling price at 25 
cents per yard, which would allow 
quite a aigh rate of profit to a domes- 



lU 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tic producer. Undoubtedly, a manufac- accurate results will not be obtained, 
turer could produce this clotli to sell Of greatest importance is the amount 
as low or lower than that of the for- of yarn necessary to weave the vari- 
eign manufacturer, and what is more, ous spots. This is quite large, inas- 
it unqvestionably would be of much much as the swivel threads pass 
higher quality. around the various warp ends twice 
The production of swivel patterns Is before a pick of filling is inserted, 
a much more staple business than The take-up in weaving is quite a 
many would consider to be the case little greater than for similar spots 
and it would be possible for a mod- made on a lappet motion, for it takes 
erate-sized plant to be operated con- about ten inches of yarn to weave one 
tinually on staple patterns such as inch of fabric. Instead of a single 
that illustrated. The introduction of thread being used for this swivel fig- 
silk into cotton fabrics and woven in ure, there are three ends used in each 
cotton mills offers unlimited oppor- shuttle, but they are not twisted to- 
tunities in various kinds of swivel gether. This allows a better spot to 
work. There is a large opportunity, be made and does not cause streaks 
because these combination fabrics in the fabric when the swivel filling 
have been produced much more ex- is being inserted. The method of ob- 
tensively in the domestic market than taining the weights is as follows: 
they have in foreign mills, in fact 2.372 ends ^ (so/i x 840) = .0353. weight 
there have been quite a number of of warp without take-up. 
such cloths exported during the past ^„'J.,*^''^""n? '" '"n^o'i.V"? • * , . u» , 

.„,„ , rriu • c ^ ^ j.y. .0353 -H .96 = .0368, total weight of warp 

two years. The prices for such cloth per woven yard. 

are naturally high and will remain ?<; x 3 = i08 swivel ends. 

so as long as present methods of los" J^'W"'! l!o8o'Tards^of swivel yarn per 

production continue, but there is a yard of cioth. 

growing demand for fabrics which 'Z\ti^!n.'^^'lll Zj'e^\l'A^' ''''^''' 

contain style, and the swivel mecha- 60 picks x 33%" reed width x 36" 

nism makes it possible to decorate a ^ " = 2"^'' 

fabric more extensively than the ordi- vards of fining per yard of cloth. 

nary jacquard mechanism. 2,010 - (95/1 x 840) = .0251, weight of 

m, ■' ^ i. ■ c 1. ' J filling yarn. 

There are certain features in regard .oses + .0161 + .0251 = .0780, total weight 
to obtaining the weight of the cloth , P^^L^'^^'^-^^^^ ,„„„ 
which must be considered carefully, or '^'^Xy^. ■'''' = ''•'' ^"''' "'' ^""""^ 

PATTERN. 
2 2 

80/1 Am. combed warp — 2,324 — = 2,372, total ends. 

12 12 

80/1 Am. combed for swivel. 3 ends per shuttle not twisted. 
95/1 Am. combed filling. 60 picks per inch ground. 
Average picks per inch over all 131. 
35 reed; 33%" width In reed, 31%" finished width. 
''4 X 60 ground count; 74 X 131 over all count. 

TARNS. 

Cotton. Labor, waste, etc. 

80/1 Am. combed; 1 7-16" sta.; 16 hank dou. rov., 23%c. 28%c. = 61%c. 

95/1 Am. combed; 1 7-16" eta.; 22 hank dou. rov., 23%c. 27%c. = 51%c. 

COST. 

2.372 ends 80/1 Am. combed warp + 4% take-up = .0368 @ 51%c. = $ .0191 

108 ends 80/1 Am. combed warp -|- 90% take-up = .0161 @ 51 %c. = .0084 

60 picks 95/1 Am. combed filling = .0251 @ 51^c. = .0123 

Weaving T .0561 

Expenses .0735 

$ .1703 

Shearing .0030 

Bleaching and finishing ., .0100 

$ .1833 
Selling .0065 

$ .18»8 

Selling price (approximate) 25c. 

Domestic retail price 46c. per yard 

Tarda per pound (grey) 12. 8J. 

86 swivel shuttlM rTrtfiirr i , ; J 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



185 



TOBACCO CLOTHS 

One cotton fabric which has a very 
extensive sale and is considered a 
staple line is tobacco cloth. In a gen- 
eral way, this material is not used 
regularly for dresses, but other uses 
create a large demand and keep a 
good many coarse mills with many 
looms continually producing certain 
constructions. The cloth is a light 
one, and is particularly noticeable be- 
cause of its cheapness. To a certain 
extent, it is known as cheese- 
cloth to-day, but because of the use 
for other purposes, it has come to 
be known as tobacco cloth to manu- 
facturers, and the number of construc- 
tions produced varies quite extensive- 
ly from that noted a few years aso. 



this is not the case. In warm climates 
it is not so necessary for ordinary 
houses to be plastered, anl a light 
cloth is used instead, which makes it 
possible for this cloth to be used 
as wall paper in a satisfactory 
manner. A much larger portion of the 
product is used for the above purpose 
than many believe. Another use 
which is rapidly increasing is for 

ANTISEPTIC GAUZE, 

of which tobacco cloth forms 
the foundation. Much more care 
is being used in all kinds of surg- 
ery and similar purposes than ever be- 
fore, and has made a large production 
of these cloths possible. During re- 
cent years there has been quite a large 
distribution of open fabrics for printed 
draperies and similar purposes. All 



'\>V -' 



jii::-!!" .; 




Tobacco Cloth. 



The name cheesecloth undoubtedly 
developed because the material was 
used tor covering cneeses, ana me 
change m name nas occurr^a on ac- 
count of its greater use for other pur- 
poses. 

Probably the change in name oc- 
curred because a large quantity of 
such cloth is used in the tobaro fields, 
where it serves various purposes and 
Is responsible for an improved prod- 
uct. It must not be thought, however, 
that the use in tobacco fields consti- 
tutes the entire distribution, for 



kinds of drapery fabrics have been 
selling well for a number of years, 
and to make it possible to get out fab- 
rics at a low price a low constructed 
material has been used quite success- 
fully. Certain of these draperies are 
sold in quite large volume in the 5 
and 10 cent stores, and it would not 
be surprising if other materials were 
sold In a like manner in the future. 
Certain kinds of fabrics which might 
be ordinarily known as tobacco cloths 
form the foundation for many of the 
cheap printed drapery fabrics recently 



186 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



offered. There are numerous other 
purposes for which more or less of 
such material is used, and altogether 
the sale is quite an important one. At 
certain seasons of the year there is 
a large demand for various kinds 
of cheap bunting. In many of these 
materials tobacco cloths form the 
foundation for the printed results. 
What consumers want is a large yard- 
age for a small outlay, and tobacco 
cloth is about as desirable, if not more 
so, than any other cotton fabric. 
METHOD OF PRODUCTION. 

Tobacco cloth represents what can 
be done in cloth production at a very 
low cost. In most instances where 
cloth is being made certain ideas as 
to style, effect, or uses determine 
largely what the cost of making or the 
selling price is likely to be. It is sel- 
dom tnat low quamy ciotu is aesir- 
able, but with tobacco cloth, the main 
features are large quantity and low 
selling price. Because of this fact the 
various machines in the mill are op- 
erated to their greatest capacity with- 
in reason, and the yarns and fabrics 
are not based upon as high a stand- 
ard as for most other fabrics. In 
making the yarn as short a cotton sta- 
ple is used as is possible, and still ob- 
tain a good production. There is a 
certain point beyond which a manu- 
facturer cannot go and still get the 
best results, and this is why yarns of 
even lower quality or shorter cotton 
are not sometimes used. It does not 
pay to make yarns of so low quality 
that the weaving expense increases 
radically, because the cost of material 
In such cloth is a relatively small one. 

In a good many instances, the yarns 
are made from single roving, though 
the product has to be somewhat better 
when automatic weaving machin- 
ery is being used. The produc- 
tion m yards per loom Is very larere, 
uiamiy oecause tne cloth construction 
Is very low. Inasmuch as plain weave 
will return the firmest fabric for any 
given construction, it can be raid that 
plain weave is Invariably used unon 
tobacco cloths. Most of such fabric 
constructions slip quite badly, and this 



makes them impossible of use for 
dress fabrics, even though 

ATTRACTIVE PATTERNS 

might be printed upon them. Pos- 
sibly in the majority of tobaico 
cloth constructions, the ordinary yarns 
which are used in print cloth con- 
structions are noted, that is, approxi- 
mately 28-1 to 30-1 warp, and from 
36-1 to 40-1 filling. For the coarser 
constructions or lower count fabrics, 
coarser yarn sizes are used, as can 
be observed from the weights of the 
various fabrics. Some of the con- 
structions which are sold regularly 
are as follows, though they do not rep- 
resent all of the fabrics which are 
sold. In a general way they represent 
about the highest and lowest construc- 
tions which are regularly sold. For 
the lower count fabrics the cloth 
weight will vary with different mak- 
ers. 

Yards 







pdf 








pound 


cents 


48/44 


36 in. 


7.75 


3% 


48/40 


36 in. 


8.10 


3% 


44/40 


36 in. 


8.50 


3% 


40/40 


36 in. 


9.20 


3% 


44/36 


36 in. 


9.20 


3 


40/36 


36 in. 


9.65 


2 15-16 


40/32 


36 in. 


10.20 


2% 


36/32 


36 in. 


10..50 


2% 


36/32 


36 in. 


11.20 


2 11-16 


32/28 


36 in. 


12.00 


2 7-16 


32/28 


36 in. 


13.00 


2% 


32/24 


36 in. 


13.50 


2 5-16 


28/24 


36 in. 




2 1-16 


26/22 


36 in. 




1 15-16 


24/20 


36 in. 




1 13-16 


22/18 


36 in. 




1 11-16 


20/16 


36 in. 




1% 


20/14 


36 in. 




1 7-16 


20/12 


36 in. 




1% 



These fabrics are all In the grey state, 
and the selling prices represent the 
relative difference between the vari- 
ous constructions with cotton selling 
from 13 to 13 1/^ cents per pound. It 
will be noted that the constructions 
are sometimes similar, but that the 
weights of the cloths will differ, due 
to the use of different sizes of yarn. 
A good many mills figure their cloth 
prices upon a poundage basis, and rel- 
atively, the selling prices per yard can 
be arrived at upon this basis. 

As previously stated, the weaving 
of the cloth in a successful manner 
depends a goo^ deal upon the yam or- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



U7 



ganization of the plant. If very poor 
yarns are made it will be absolutely 
impossible to run the looms at the 
highest rate of speed at which they 
are capable of being operated, whereas 
if a longer cotton and better yarn be 
made, it will be possible to run the 
looms at a higher speed or to use au- 
tomatic weaving machinery. Un- 
doubtedly, automatic looms are of dis- 
tinct advantage where pl^in cloth is 
to be made, and where quantity pro- 
duction is of so great importance. A 
fact which a good many manufactur- 
ers overlook is that there is a certain 
balance which is best for each plant. 
In a fabric such as is being described 
it would be a foolish policy to use a 
long staple of cotton to make espe- 
cially good yarn, and to weave the 
cloth on an ordinary loom at a low or 
relatively low speed. Of course, such 
a method of production would result 
in a better looking fabric, but it is 
absolutely certain that a cloth maker 
would not obtain a price which would 
return him a satisfactory dividend. 
There are very few fabrics of this 
character made in which cotton over 
1 1-16 inches in length is used, and it 
is probable that a large majority of 
these cloths contain cotton which is 
one inch or less in length, according 
to the test standards of cotton length. 
There have been some manufacturers 
in the past who 

ADVOCATED AUTOMATIC LOOMS 

for light cloths and a very high 
speed, or one which approached that 
obtainable on ordinary looms. 
Through experience this has been 
found to be a mistaken policy, and 
lower loom speeds are now generally 
adopted, together with cotton which 
seems best at the lower or reasonable 
speeds. 

The fabric which we have 
analyzed is probably one of the 
best tobacco constructions made, in- 
asmuch as it counts 48 x 44, and is 
about as heavy as any fabric regularly 
sold fo" such purposes. The size of 
reed which is used in making any con- 
struction will vary somewhat, depend- 
ing upon the twist in the yarn, the 
length of cotton which has been used 
and whether or not the cloth is woven 
upon an automatic loom. If the cloth 



shrinks a good deal in the weaving op- 
eration a coarser reed will be neces- 
sary, while if there is vcry little 
shrinkage from reed to c'oth width, 
then a somewhat finer reed will 
be necessary. This difference in reed 
size or dents per inch will not amount 
to very much when the cloth count is 
low, but where there are more threads 
per inch, the shrinkage in weaving 
width becomes of greater importan e. 
We have seen staple fabrics changed 
from ordinary to automatic looms, and 
in a large number of instances new 
reeds had to be obtained, because the 
shrinkage was not identical. 

PRICES AND PROFITS. 

A few facts regarding the prices 
and profits secured upon tobacco 
cloths may be of interest. In the first 
place, to one not conversant with 
manufacturing, the selling price of 
these cloths would seem so low that 
it would not return any profit what- 
ever to the maker. The reason why 
the price is so low is because only a 
small amount of material per yard is 
used and because the production is so 
great that the cost of putting the 
yarns together is relatively a small 
amount per yard. Take the cloth 
which We have analyzed as an illus- 
tration. The mill cost is three and 
four-tenths cents per yard. The mill's 
selling price to-day is three and five- 
eighths cents per yard. This allows a 
profit per yard of somewhat less than 
one-quarter of a cent, or .225 cents 
per yard. On most fancy fabrics this 
small profit would not return a satis- 
factory dividend, and few manufactur- 
ers would feel like operating at such 
a small profit. Due to the large num- 
ber of yards produced per loom, this 
small profit per yard appears much 
more satisfactory when considered 
upon a production basis, and while the 
prices are not especially satisfactory 
to-day, the small amount named will 
return per year a profit of about |36 
per loom. 

Considering the cost of building 
a plant to produce cloth of this 
character the rate of profit upon 
the investment would be about 5% per 
cent. Any concern which has consid- 
ered depreciation in the past, and 
which has a low capitalization per 



18S 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



spindle or per loom, would necessarily 
show somewhat larger earnings. All 
of the estimates of cost made are upon 
an ordinary loom basis and wherever 
automatic machinery is used the cost 
would be lower and the rate of profit 
somewhat higher. The total prod- 
act of mills making tobacco cloth 
is large in yardage, but relatively 
small in value when compared with 
practically all c .:.er woven materials. 

Inasmuch as tobacco cloth is used 
for different purposes, there is quite a 
variation in the method of finishing, 
though, naturally, results do not vary 
as widely as they do on some of the 
more expensive materials. A large 
amount of this cloth is used in the grey 
state, because low price is the item of 
great importance, and because the 
cloth in the grey state answers the pur- 
pose just as well, and probably better, 
than if it were finished. When it is 
used for covering cheeses it naturally 
Is bleachf d and whenever the cloth is 
sold in solid colors it is piece-dyed. 
When the material is used for bunt- 
ing, -t is £,cmetimes piece-dyed, and 
in other instances printed, depending 
upon the results which are desired. 
When the material is to be used for 
antiseptic gauze it naturally has to be 
treated more carefully and, in addition 
to the bleaching process, is subjected 
to further manipulation, which causes 
it to be of an antiseptic character. 
When the fabric is used for draperies 
it is usually bleached, and theu print- 
ed with the pattern and colors which 
happen to be in demand at that par- 
ticular season. As a general thing, 
the cloth sells for less than 10 cents 
per yard in the finished state, some of 
it being much lower than the price 
named. There are 

OTHER INSTANCES 

where certain of the low constructed 
tobacco cloths are used for particular 
purposes when the material is filled 
quite extensively, the substances 



used varying quite a little A 
large percentage of these light-weight 
tobacco cloths are sold in the grey 
state at 36 inches wide, and they are 
also finished t approximately this 
same width, inasmuch as they are 
not usually allowed to shrink very 
much when they are being finished. 
The same conditions are noted in 
finishing as for other kinds of cotton 
cloth, and the method by which they 
are finished will affect the width of 
the cloth when it is ready for sale. 
Naturally, the finisher tries to have 
the fabric look as well as possible, and 
works the cloth in order to make the 
various threads and picks slip into 
their proper places, but due to the low 
construction of most of these fabrics, 
the threads do not remain in their po- 
sitions after the material has been 
used. This is not especially objection- 
able for most purposes where the cloth 
is largely sold. There is nothing of 
particular interest in the method by 
which the yarn weights are obtaiued, 
though one notable item is ob- 
served in the amount of size which 
remains in the warp yarn after the 
weaving operation is completed. Some 
manufacturers make their warp yarn 
slightly finer than they figure in order 
to take care of the size in the yarn, 
while ethers add a certain percentage 
of weight to the yarn to bring the fig- 
ured cloth weight what it actually is. 
Unless some allowance is made for 
this feature the actual weight of the 
cloth will invariably be heavier than 
the figured weight will indicate. The 
weights are obtained as follows: 

1.T4S ends h- (30/1 X 840) = .0694. weigrht 

of warp yarn without take-up. 
5<T- take-up In weaving. 
.0694 -f- .95 = .0731. total weight of warp 

varn per woven vard. 
44'plck8 X 3S'^' reed width X 36" 

— = 1.694 

36" 

vards of fllllng per yard of cloth. 
1.694 -4- (36 '1 X S40) = .0360, total weight 

of filling oer woven yard. 
.OTSl + .560 = .1291. total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -*- .1291 =» 7.75 yards per pound 

(rrey). 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



189 



PATTERN. 
3 2 

30/1 Am. carded warp — 1,716 — -= 1,748, total ends. 

8 8 

86/1 Am. carded filling. 44 picks per inch. 
22 V4 reed; 38 Vi" reed widtli, 36" wide grey. 
48 X 44 grey count. 

TARNS. 

Cotton. Labor, waste, etc. 

80/1 Am. carded; 1" staple; 3.50 hank .single rev., 13%c. BV^c. = 20%c. 

36/1 Am. carded; 1" staple; 4.75 hank single rov., 13%c. iVtC. = 20c. 

COST. 

1,748 ends 30/1 Am. carded warp + 5% tal<e-up = .0731 @ 20i4c = $ .0148 

44 picks 36/1 Am. carded filling = .0560 (W 20c = .0112 

Weaving .0035 

Expenses .0041 

$ .0336 
Selling (grey) .0004 

Mill cost (net) $ .0340 

Mill selling price to-day $ .03625 

Mill profit per yard .00225 

Mill profit per year, per loom, about $36. 

Kate of profit upon investment, about 5%%. 

Yards per pound, 7.75 (grey). 

Plain weave. 



JACQUARD FILLING 
REVERSIBLE 

Without doubt, one of the best sell- 
ing and most important lines of all 
cotton cloth which might be consid- 
ered in a staple class is that which 
is ordinarily known as cotton blanket 
cloth or sometimes from a mill stand- 
point as a filling reversible. The man- 
ufacturers who produce these materi- 
als have been especially well sold for 
a number of years past, and there is 
every prospect that the demand will 
continually increase. During , recent' 
years, quite a large number of these 
fabrics have been made on jacquard 
looms and their uses are quite varied, 
though naturally the largest distri 
bution is noted for blankets for vari- 
ous purposes. They are also 

USED FOR BATH ROBES 

in place of the more expensive wool 
materials and many other purposes 
where a heavy, soft fabric is desirable. 
The colors which are used do not 
change radically from year to year, 
this being of advantage in producing 
the cloth. In some instances, various 
colors of cotton fibre are used in 
order to make a different shade of 
yarn, and the result seems to be en- 
tirely satisfactory for the fabric con- 



sidered. The pattern analyzed has 
been produced in this manner, in- 
asmuch as black and white cotton 
have been mixed to give a sort of 
grey effect to one surface of the wo- 
ven material. The present season 
these cotton blankets were sold up 
very early, and if reports from dis- 
tributors be believed, there is a much 
larger demand than there is supply. 
Quite a number of these fabrics are 

MADE WITH BORDERS 
at either end, this giving a finished 
appearance, although it does increase 
the number of cards necessary to pro- 
duce the design. The ends of the 
blanket are cut and then bound with 
a buttonhole stitch to keep the end 
of the cloth from unraveling. Many 
blankets for children's beds are re- 
tailed at 75 cents each, this price 
showing a somewhat larger profit per 
yard than when yarded goods are dis- 
tributed. 

The patterns which are used on 
fancy cloths of the character described 
are not especially intricate, because 
the cloth is not of a very high count, 
and only general effects are possible. 
Any weave where the threads change 
a great deal would not show prom- 
inently enough to be of great value, 
because such changes would not ap- 
pear when the cloth was napped. The 
figures are mostly large ones, when, 
compared with those applied to most 



ido 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



of the ordinary cloths, the effects be- 
ing somewhat similar to the large bro- 
caded ones ordinarily made entirely 
from silk, though, because of the cloth 
construction, the result is entirely 
different and not nearly so fine when 
the figure details are considered. 
Many of the children's bed blankets 
in recent years have been orna- 
mented 

WITH FIGURES OF ANIMALS, 
such as kittens, ducks, dogs and oth- 
ers of a similar nature which are well 
known to children. These styles have 
had a very large sale, and undoubtedly 
will be continually in demand. Many 
consider that the fabric is a double 
one, because one side of the cloth ap- 
pears to be the reverse of the other, 
so far as the color and pattern are 



in ordinary fabrics. Is that the weave, 
although it gives the same results, 
changes somewhat 

ON EVERY FOUR PICKS, 
and the threads which operate on the 
first four picks do not work on the 
second four picks, that is, relatively 
speaking. The weave which we illus- 
trate shows this quite clearly. Notice 
that threads one and two in the first 
two picks operate in a twill manner, 
while threads three and four do not 
operate on the first two picks. On 
picks five and six, threads one and 
two do not operate, while threads 
three and four operate somewhat sim- 
ilar to what threads one and two do 
on the lirst two picks. It may be 
wondered why this method is adopt- 
ed. For one thing, it binds the cloth 




Jacquard Filling Reversible Fabric. 



concerned. This is not the case, in- 
asmuch as only one warp is used with 
two fillings. The method in which the 
weave is constructed is shown by the 
illustration, of which we are giving a 
number of repeats. It will be noted 
that two picks weave on the face and 
the succeeding two picks weave on 
the back of the cloth, and where the 
figure is formed the ordinary position 
of the various yarns is reversed. One 
point of importance which is worth 
mentioning, and which often is not 
considered to a great enough extent 



firmly together and makes it much 
stronger when it has been napped. 
For another thing, it causes the same 
number of changes in weave upon 
each warp thread, a fact which is of 
great importance in good weaving and 
which makes but a single warp neces- 
sary. With any radically different 
weave it would be necessary to use 
more than a single warp beam, and 
when this occurs, costs of making in- 
crease along with weaving difllcul- 
ties. Because there are so few picks 
per inch, namely only twenty-seven. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



19J 



on the face and also on the back of 
the cloth, it is possible to distinguish 
the picks of filling in the material. 
This can be noted only on the figure 
and not on the ground cloth, at least 
It cannot be noted on the side of the 
fabric where the darkest color Is 
used, and it is caused by the reversal 
of the two fillings to form the figure. 

THIS REVERSAL OF FILLINGS 

separates the yarn and makes a cer- 
tain amount of streakiness which can- 
not be entirely avoided. Not all fab 
ties of the character described are 
produced on a jacquard loom, for 
many are made on dobby looms. The 
ground weave, as will be seen from 
the weave illustrations, necessitates 
the use of only four harnesses, with 
two extra for selvages, which makes 
it possible to use quite a good many 
other harnesses in the production of 
dobby figures, although, of course, the 
variety of patterns produced in this 
manner is limited. 

INTERESTING DETAILS. 

There are a large majority of man- 
ufacturers, and probably nearly every 
distributor and consumer, who do not 
realize some of the methods which 
manufacturers of certain cloths adopt 
in order to produce materials at a 
lower cost. Certain manufacturers of 
staple lines use cotton which Is 
bleached and dyed before it Is han- 
dled, and in this way obtain quite a 
radical reduction In the cost of the 
yam. Other makers use yarns which 
are dyed fast In stripes and checks, 
and grey yarn in the body or tne 
cloth and thpn piece-bleach this 
material, thus obtaining a lower cost. 
There are undoubtedly shirting fab- 
rics selling in the market which are 
sold by one class of mills at least 5 
cents per yard lower than can be ob- 
tained by another class of mills. Take 
this cloth which we are considering. 
There are certain of such fabrics 
manufactured in which the warp Is 
made of unbleached or only half- 
bleached cotton, while the filling: Is 
made of ordinary bleached and dyed 
yarns. The reason this can be done 
Is because the filling Is radically 
heavier than the warp, and when the 



cloth is napped, the warp yarn is en- 
tirely covered. This results in a 

LOWER COST OF PRODUCTION, 

and would be overlooked by a good 
many in planning economy. These 
napped fabrics lose a large amount of 
weight, relatively, when they are fin- 
ished. This is because the filling 
forms such a large proportion of the 
cloth weight and the napping process 
affects the heavy filling yarn. Ordi- 
nary napped fabrics may sometimes 
be napped just as hard or harder than 
certain of the blanket cloths consid- 
ered, but there is not so great a dif- 
ference in the total warp and filling 
weight, and therefore a smaller total 
weight lost. A feature of importance 
is that both sides of the fabric are 
napped. This does not occur on a 
good many lines of ordinary fabrics, 
and while it increases somewhat the 
cost of finishing, it is made possible 
by the cloth construction. Practically 
all of these fabrics are made with a 
comparatively small number of 
threads and picks per inch, this be- 
ing necessary Because tne yarns are 
quite heavy and the weave does not 
permit the introduction of any large 
amount of yarn. Of course, there are 
nearly twice as many picks in the 
cloth as would otherwise be possible 

BECAUSE OF THE WEAVE USED, 

but even this does not make the con- 
struction high in comparison with 
many other cotton fabrics. The waste 
which is taken out in certain proc- 
esses of yarn making Is often re- 
worked into tabrics such as are de- 
scribed. Sometimes China cotton is 
used in miking filling yarn for such 
materials, inasmuch as this cotton has 
a certain amount of harshness which 
is desirable in making the fabric feel 
more like wool. Sometimes the filling 
yarn is made on a mule frame, while 
the warp yarn is spun on a ring frame, 
though this is not always the case. 
The short staple can be handled more 
satisfactorily on the mule, and the 
fact that there is little tension when 
spinning allows a low standard of 
twist to be used, giving a softer yarr 
and a more delicate and desirable fab 
rlc. In a good many heavy fabrics ot 



192 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



this character a number of heavy ply 
threads are used on the outside of the 
selvages, in order to make weaving 
more satisfactory with the heavy fill- 
ing. The pull of the filling yarn is so 
great that it is likely to cause sel- 
vage yarn to break unless it is quite 
strong. Naturally, a box loom is nec- 
essary in order to place in the fabric 
the fillings of different colors. In the 
large majority of instances two picks 
of each color of yarn are used in sue 
cession. 

PROFITS. 

During the present season the prof- 
its secured from the making of cloth 
such as is described have been 
brought to attention about as prom- 
inently as for any other cotton fabric. 
This is because the producing capac 
ity has not been increasing as rapidly 
as the demand. The profits are also 
quite large, because the production of 
the looms is large, due to the com- 
paratively small number of picks per 
inch. It is relatively one of the best 
fabrics from a mill standpoint in the 
domestic market. One of the mill men 
who already makes fabrics of this 
character was overheard to say a 
short time ago that if he were to build 
a new mill to produce any kind of 
cotton fabrics, a plant to make 
blanket cloths would be the kind of a 
mill he would build. A good many 
manufacturers of ordinary fancy 
cloths plan to obtain a profit per yard 
which will allow them to average 
about $2 a loom per week. This re- 
sults in about $100 a loom per year, 
but it is very likely that comparative- 
ly few succeed in obtaining profits 
which show anything like the amount 
named. These cotton blanket cloths 
often show a rate of profit quite a 
little 

IN EXCESS OF $3 

a loom per week, and there is not 
nearly so much difl!iculty in producing 
the cloth as there is in producing most 
lines of fancy iraterials. Tlere is one 
advantage which a great many man- 
uraciurers overlook but which is of 
great importance in obtaining profits 
and It is the few changes which are 
necessary when fabrics of this char- 



acter are being made. An ordinary 

fancy mill is likely to make changes 
in fabrics at the end of every beam or 
in a comparatively short time, and the 
quantities of yarn of a certain size are 
relatively small, while in a mill mak- 
ing a staple line the yarn sizes for 
warp and filling do not change, neither 
does the cloth construction change to 
any great extent, the only difference 
being noted in the designs applied to 
the cloth and the colors or combina- 
tions of color which arc made. De- 
signing is a much more simple process 
when the differpnt cloth constructions 
do not vary widely and the operatives 
are more familiar with the various 
processes and difficulties which exist. 

IN A FANCY CLOTH MILL 

where constructions and yarns are al- 
ways changing, diflJculties are contin- 
ually arising, and often there is no 
basis upon which to consider the va- 
rious matters, inas ruch as the problem 
Is an entirely new one. When staple 
lines are being made it is much more 
possible to obtain an accurate cost for 
the cloth making, inasmuch as it is a 
more easy matter to apply the various 
expense items exactly where they be- 
long. This is absolutely impossible 
to accomplish on miny fancy construc- 
tions at least without an expenditure 
of more money than the saving is 
worth. One of the features which is of 
importance in cloth distribution is that 
prices on these lines may be varied 
accordine; to the season wititout so 
much difficulty occurring as there does 
on certain of the larger selling lines. 
A half cent advance on certain ging- 
hams will cause a great deal of dis- 
cussion among purchasers, while it 
does not occur so extensively on fab- 
rics such as are described. This mate- 
rial is being distributed at a price 
which is not ordinarily noted. Most 
staple lines are made to sell at a cer- 
tain set price per yard, but this mate- 
rial is evidently constructed in a sim- 
ilar manner to cloths w^hich are used 
in blankets and is sold at the best 
price obt-inable. and siicreedins: dis- 
tributors let it fall into the price at 
which they can sell it. Thus, fabrics 
somewhat similar to this one are sell- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



193 



ing at 27 cents, 29 cents and In some 
cases 

AS HIGH AS 35 CENTS 
per j-ard. They may or may 
rot le o:" identical construc- 
tion, but so far as the con- 
sii'i er is concerned, the appearance 
is Just as desirable at the lower price 
as it is at the higher one. It may be 




Weave Plan. 

possible that the fabrics are the same 
and the different prices noted be- 
cause of larger purchases or because 
of different ideas as to what a sat- 
isfactory profit should be. The value 



of the yarns which are used in mak- 
ing blanket fabrics forms by far the 
largest portion of the total cost. The 
weaving price per yard is low, due to 
the small number of picks per inch, 
and the various expenses per yard 
are also low due to the same feature. 
Inasmuch as the yarns are dyed when 
they reach the loom there is very little 
finishing necessary, except the nap- 
ping process. 

The method of finding the weights 
of the yarn and thj weight of 
the cloth is rather simple, but it 
must be done in a careful manner or 
else any estimate regarding cloth costs 
will not be correct. The fact that the 
cloth has lost quite a little weight in 
the napping process and that the yams 
are actually finer than when they were 
spun causes a much lighter material 
with a lower cost for the materials 
used than when the cloth comes from 
the loom. The weights of the yarn are 
obtained as follows: 

1,516 ends h- (20/1 X 840) = .0902. warp 

weight without take-up. 
9% take-up in weaving. 
.0902 -f- .91 = .0991, total weight of warp 

per woven vard as it comes from loom. 
54 picks X 30" width in reed X 36" 

= 1,620 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
1,620 H- (5/1 X 840) = .3857, total weight 

of filling per woven yard as It comes 

from loom. 
.0991 + .3857 = .4848, total weight per 

vard from loom. 
l.dOOO -i- .4848 = 2.06 yards per pound from 

loom. 



PATTERN. 
2 2 

20/1 Am. carded warp — 1,484 — = 1,516, total ends. 

8 8 

6/1 Am. carded filling; 54 picks per Inch. 
25 reed, 30" width In reed. 27%" finished width. 
54 X 54 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Cotton. 

20/1 Am. carded; 1" staple; 4% hank dou. rov., 13%c. 

5/1 Am. carded; %" staple; .75 hank single rov., 13»4c. 

COST. 

1,516 ends 20/1 Am. carded warp 4 9% take-up 

54 picks 5/1 .\m. carded filling 

Weaving 

Expenses 



Labor, waste, 

dyeing, etc. 

7%c. 

loy^c. 



.0991 @ 2114c. 
.3857 @ 23%c. 



Selling 



Selling price to jobber (about) . . . . 

Selling price to retailer (about)... 

Selling price to consumer (about). 
Jacquard weave. 

Yards per pound before napping 2.06. 
Yards per pound finished 2.40. 



21>^c. 
23%c. 



i .0211 
.0907 
.0163 
.0178 

$ .1459 
.0058 

S .1517 

$ .1700 
.2000 
.2900 



194 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



MERCERIZED ETAMINE 

Etamines have been used at various 
times in the past in quite large quan- 
tities, though tlie amount vi^laich can 
be sold depends a good deal upon the 
style of cloth selling. They are used 
for almost any purpose where a rather 
heavy and somewhat open material is 
desirable, and when they are in de- 
mand very satisfactory profits and an 
extraordinary distribution takes place. 
For a number of years past there has 
been very little interest in such fab- 
rics, but it would not be surprising if a 
greater quantity of these cloths would 
be soon desirable and another run 
upon them take place. Possibly the 
only reason why there has not been a 
demand for these cloths for some 
years has been because many voiles 
are somewhat similar, and many con- 
sumers would use them for about the 
same purposes, and, therefore, has 
made any great production compara- 
tively impossible. 

Due to the great change which mer- 
cerization has made in the appearance 
of various lines of fabrics the eta- 
mines which would be produced to-day 
when Kiercerizea are a much different 
appearing clom to those of other 
years, and some description regarding 
their method of production would 
seem i^esirable. The construction of 
the ckths will 

VARY WIDELY, 

just as it will for any other fancy cot- 
ton mill product, out, as a general 
thing, the threads and picks per 
inch are comparatively tew in num- 
ber and the yarns usea ot nuavy size. 
Not only are the yarns neavy, but a 
large percentage of them are of a ply 
character, possibly the majority being 
two or three-ply, though there is 
quite a quantity of these fabrics made 
in which a greater number of tnreads 
are used in making the ply yarn, the 
cloth under discussion being of this 
chai^'ter, as it is made of four-ply 
yarn, both warp and filling. There are 
certain features in regard to the pro- 
duction of these cloths which would 
not considered at all by many who 
are quite well acquainted with cloth 
making and the manipulation of yarn 



sizes, iind methods of manufacturing 
are likely to create quite a variation in 
the cost of production and the selling 
prices. The fabric analyzed was made 
from Egyptian cotton and its method 
of construction creates a nigh rela- 
tive cost, but somewhat similar lines 
can be produced which, to ordinary 
consumers, might be just about as sat- 
isfactory, and at a much lower cost. 

CONSTRUCTION FEATURES. 

These fabrics are made from heavy 
yarns and with a low count, and, 
therefore, any kind of a fancy weave 
is seldom employed in their manufac- 
ture, inasmuch as any weave creates 
a loose fabric and the effect does not 
show up in a very desirable manner. 
Patterns placed upon heavy cloth are 
even more unsatisfactory than those 
placed upon very fine cloth, and ev- 
eryone knows that usually it is noi 
worth while to make fancy figures up- 
on very fine yarn materials. Due to 
the low count, a plain weave is practi- 
cally always employed, as this creates 
the firmest fabric and gives better re- 
sults. One feature which Is well 
worth mentioning is that even though 
plain weave is employed, there is a 
distinct twill elfect noted upon the fin- 
ished cloth, tliis being caused by the 
heavy character of the yam as the 
various threads interweave back ana 
forth. At one time it was considered 
necessary to make any kind of yam 
which was to be mercerized, either be- 
fore or after weaving, out of Eens^otian 
cotton, in order to get satisfactory re- 
sults. This is not so true to-day, for 
the improvement in mercerization has 
been so great that practically as good 
results can be obtained from 1%-lnch 
cotton to-day, as could be oDtained 10 
years ago from 1%-inch cotton. The 
saving in this one feature alone is of 
great importance, and while we have 
given the cost of the cloth as made, 
nevertheless it is entirely probable 
that most manufacturers would make 
the cloth analyzed from American 
cotton of a much shorter staple. 
Shorter cotton costs less and in addi- 
tion creates a much 

SMALLER LOSS FOR WASTE. 

not only because of lower price, but 
also because there is likely to be a 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



196 



smaller percentage of short fibres in 
cotton of shorter length. There is a 
very great difference in appearance 
noted in various etamine cloths caused 
by the irregularity iu the threads 
and picks per inch, but there is also a 
great difference in appearance which 
is caused by the number of threads 
used in the ply yarn, and in the 
amount of twist per inch which is in- 
serted. In the fabric analyzed the 
amount of twist and the number of 
threads in the ply yarn have a distinct 
influence upon the result, because the 
twist in the yarn seems to form small 
checked patterns which are seldom 
visible in any other kind of a finished 
fabric, and sometimes are very desir- 
able. Until the cloth is examined and 
analyzed it would seem a.i. if there 



mine can be produced and these vari- 
ous methods have quite an influence 
upon the cost of production. First, 
the fabric can be made from yaruo 
which have been mercerized and dyed 
before they are woven. In this case 
no finishing is necessary, as the term 
is ordinarily known when speaking of 
grey cloth. Second, the fabric can be 
made entirely from grey yarns and 
then piece-dyed and mercerized. This 
method in some fabrics gives a lower 
cost and just as desirable results, but 
it is questionable whether it would 
give as desirable results in the cloth 
analyzed, although it undoubtedly 
would cause a lower cost. In this con- 
nection it might be well to state that 
both the warp and filling are mercer- 
ized in this cloth, whereas in many 




Mercerized Etamine. 



was a very much higher count than 
actually exists. The direction of twist 
in the ply yarn also has an influence 
on the result, because when both warp 
and filling are twisted in the same 
direction the various squares seem 
more prominent, whereas when the 
warp is twisted in one direction, and 
the filling in an opposite direction the 
various threads in the ply yarn seem 
to correspond more closely in the 
warp and filling, and the small squares 
do not appear so prominent. 

METHODS OF PRODUCTION. 

There are quite a number of ways 
In which a dyed and mercerized eta- 



fabrics only the warp or the filling, as 
the case may be, is the portion which 
shows the mercerization effects. 

The improvement in mercerization 
during the past few years has made 
this method much more satisfactory 
than it previously was, and for many 
fabrics of the character described, no 
other method could be adopted. 
Third, this method consists of using 
yarn which has been mercarized but 
not dyed before the weaving operation. 
When the weaving is completed the 
grey fabric made from mercerized 
yarns is bleached and then piece-dyed 
in whatever color seems most desir- 
able. This method, while being 



196 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



somewhat more expensive than 
the second method described, is, 
nevertheless, responsible for the warp 
and filling having exactly the same 
amount of luster, a feature which is 
sometimes of importance where warp 
and filling are both as prominent as 
in the cloth considered. In any of 
these methods of construction there 
is very little difference in the actual 
cloth production, for the yarn is strong 
enough so thv^t practically no break- 
ages occur in weaving, the operation 
of changing shuttles being the one 
which consumes practically the entire 
time of the operative. If such cloths 
are to be produced in quite large 
quantities, and more or less continu- 
ously, it is a very good plan to adopt 
methods whereby a large amount of 
yarn can be placed upon the filling 
bobbins, so as to make the loss from 
shuttle changing as small as possible, 
and also to make as large a number 
of looms per weaver as possible. Even 
though this be done the number of 
looms which can be operated io some- 
what smaller than for most other fab- 
rics. 

PLY YARN MAKING. 

Many might consider that the 
making of ply yarns is a simple mat- 
ter, and this is often true for medium 
sizes of such yarns where only two 
ground threads are used, but difficul- 
ties increase as the number of ground 
threads are increased and as the ne- 
cessity becomes greater for all of 
these various threads to be present in 
the finished ply yarn. In a good many 
mills stop motions are used where 
two-ply yarns are made, which stop 
the operation of the rolls when one 
end breaks. In other plants it Is the 
custom to make the twist in the yam 
such an amount that if one thread 
breaks down the untwisting of the re- 
maining thread will be enough for the 
traveler to break down the thread 
which lemains. When three or more 
ground threads are being twisted the 
breaking of one will not stop thv3 twist- 
ing operation, and whenever an op- 
erative is looking after quite a num- 
ber of spindles it might be that the 
ply yarn was made for some time 
with one of the ground threads miss- 
ing. Whenever this occurs, and this 



yam is not eliminated, it is likely to 
cause streaks in the cloth, and spoil 
otherwise valuable material. 

SECONDS CAUSE LOSSES. 

Any large amount of seconds in 
fancy cloth may cause large losses, 
which make the production of sucu 
fabrics much less desirable than costs 
indicate, inasmuch as seconds cannot 
be sold at anything like the price for 
firsts when any large quantity is 
made. To obviate any difficulty when 
ply yarns are being made certain ma- 
chines have been developed which 
place together the various ground 
threads, but do not insert auy twist 
whatever. On these frames there is 
a ftop motion on every ground 
thread, which makes it certain that 
the ply yarn which is produced will 
always contain the correct number of 
threads. When spools are tilled with 
these ply threads which are not twist- 
ed, they are taken to the twisting 
frame and the correct amount of twist 
inserted, but all the threads in the 
ply yarn come off of a single spool 
upon the twisting frame instead of 
coming off of three, four or more 
spools as the case may be. Although 
the cost of placing these yarns upon a 
spool is relatively high, nevertheless 
the results obtained in a lower twist 
Ing cost and in a smaller number oi 
seconds more than warrants the in- 
stallation of such a process, at least 
where anything but the cneapest cloth 
is being produced. 

ANOTHER FEATURE 

which is of importance in yarn pro- 
duction is that a high percentage ol 
production should be obtained, largely 
because a long staple of cotton is used 
for a relatively coarse size of yarn. 
There are very few fabrics where 
anything over one-inch staple would 
be used for a yarn which is as coarse 
as 16-1. It is also possible to make 
yarn with a lower standard of twist 
than that normally used, just because 
the staple is longer than necessary 
for the size of yarn being made. This 
lower standard of twist is of impor- 
tance, inasmuch as it makes a greater 
amount of luster when the yarn is 
mercerized. The less twist there Is in 
yarn or the straighter the various cot- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



197 



Lou fibres lie when woven, the better 
is the result produced when the yarn 
or cloth is mercerized. This is why 
soft twist yarn is used in che warp 
when warp yarn is mercerized in 
clotLs similar to poplins, and is also 
the reason why sott twist filling yarn 
is used in mercerized shirting fabrics 
of a wide variety. 

BALANCE OF ORGANIZATION. 

There are a great many problems 
which come up when different kinds 
of fancy coiton fabrics are being pro- 
duced, but none of them have any 
more serious effect upon profits than 
the correct balance of the whole plant. 
This subject is not considered care- 
fully ei^ough by a good many mill men 
and possibly by a majority of those 
who sell the cloth, inasmuch as they 
ntten know very little regarding the 
actual effect which the accepting of 
any order will have on the operation 
of the various machines. Take a fab- 
ric like that analyzed for an example 
when it has been produced from a cot- 
ton such as that noted. Up to the 
roving machinery the methods em- 
ployed will be somewhat similar to 
those ordinarily seen when medium or 
fine yarns are to be made. At the 
point mentioned a great difference 
is noted, for few fly-frame processes 
are necessary, and the roving instead 
of being of fine size in order to make 
fine yarns must be of coarse size to 
give the best results. 

On the spinning frame the produc- 
tion instead of being small, as would 
be noted for the length of cotton be- 
ing used, is quite large, due to the low 
count of yarn and also to the some- 
what lower than normal standard of 
twist. If this coarse yarn is made on 
a spinning frame which has been run- 
ning: on coa'-se varns, that is, a frame 
with rings of nuite eond size, the spin- 
ning frame rolls will have to be reset 
in order to handle a longer staple of 
cotton. If frames with small rings 
only are available then there are diffi- 
culties because of the small amount 
which a bobbin will hold. Due to the 
large production on the spinning 
frame, a relatively small number of 
spindles in comparison to carding and 
other machinery is necessary, and of- 
ten the making of such yarn will cause 



idle spinning machinery. Due to the 
coaise size of roving necessary one 
and sometimes more processes of tly- 
frames aie eliminated, and usualiy 
there is no other work to keep such 
idle machinery in operation. The 
STRENGTH OF THE YARN 
and other conditions permit of large 
pioduction on machines which sue 
vcea uie spinning name, ana tnis caus- 
es stoppage 01 machineiy and other 
difticulLiea. Ihexe aie many miil men 
who never consiaer idle machinery in 
the cost of any cloth, and whne this 
is a difficult problem, neveitheless 
there aie a gooa many cloths on 
which some provision should be made 
if anyihing uke coirect results aie to 
be ootamtd. ii oue-thiru o: the spin- 
ning machinery is idle, the remainder 
must earn laige enough profits to 
make the dividends of a satisiactory 
chaiacter. 

Anoiher feature which must be con- 
sideied when a cloth such as that ana- 
lyzed is being made is that the yarn 
Will have to be spun and twisted and 
then shipped to some other plant to 
be mercerized in the majority of in- 
stances. This will make delivery 
dates uncertain and will increase the 
cost of production quite radically if 
the yarn does not happen to be avail- 
able at the time necessary. This has 
been one of the main reasons why 
certain silk sellers have been able to 
obtain a large portion of th-^ silk busi- 
ness of cotton mills, for they keep silk 
always available, so that no machinery 
is idle. Of course, it is the duty of 
the seller to see that ample provision 
is made when orders are accepted, but 
unsatisfactory delivery causes many 
troubles, and even if damage suits are 
instituted they seldom compensate for 
losses which are incurred. When fab- 
rics vary radically from season to 
season, and from month to month, or 
when every order may be of a differ- 
ent character, it takes a 

GREAT DEAL OF ABILITY 
on the part of a Roller to keep machin- 
ery operating in full. Sometimes it is 
a good plan to sell certain fahrics at 
cost when thev are necessary for eco- 
nomical oneratinn f the plant instpad 
of accepting orders for some other 
kind of fabric which ordinarily would 



198 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



show a satisfactory profit. Recently 
this organization problem has been il- 
lustrated clearly by conditions in 
many fine goods mills. In these plants 
not over 80 per cent of the looms and 
some other machinery have been op- 
erating, while cards and certain other 
machines have been running full and 
in some cases overtime. Not only is 
an intimate knowledge of mills in gen- 
eral and the one sold in particular 
necessary, if the best profit be se- 
cured, but it is also necessary to have 
accurate records kept regarding the 
various machines in the plant. Un- 
less this be done trouble will surely 
result with delivery dates uncertain 
and friction between buyers and sell- 
ers. 

THE OBTAINING OF PROFITS. 

One feature which has not been 
brought to attention during recent 
years has been that a large proportion 
of the cloths made have been of rather 
low constructions. This fact has al- 
lowed quite a large production to oc- 
cur on the looms, and makes satisfac- 
tory mill dividends when a -'ery small 
profit per yard is secured. Take 
voiles for an example. On many of 
these fabrics one-half to three-quar- 
ters of a cent per yard would be re- 
sponsible for an excellent mill show- 
ing, while on certain kinds of sateens 
and shirtings, the same amount of 
profit per ya»-d would be rather unsat- 
isfactory from a mill standpoint. 

With competition as keen as it has 
been and the demand in yardage rath- 
er subnormal, there would not have 
been as satisfactory a mill condition 
as exists to-day. if higher constructed 
fabrics have been in demand. It is 
also probable that the number of 
looms which have been operating have 
been able to produce as many, if not 
more, yards of cloth than was former- 
ly produced when operating in full. 
Although the percentage of produc- 
tion is not quite as high when some 
of the low pick materials are being 
madfi, nevertheless the construction 
of the cloth has been responsible for 
a distinct gnin in yardage per loom 
obtainpd. Take the cloth analyzed. 
This has nnlv 24 picks per inch when 
woven, and this fact makes it possible 
for a very large yardage per loom 



to be obtained in comparison to many 
of the fancy fabrics which have some- 
times been in demand. Even when 
compared with voiles and crepes, the 
production is quite a little larger in 
yards produced. Due to the above 
fact the amount of profit per yard nec- 
essary to pay a reasonable dividend 
seems incredibly small, when com- 
pared with the profits which retailers 
and others often find to be necessary. 

We have given the cost of making 
the fabric analyzed and its approxi- 
mate selling prices. It is entirely 
probable that a construction of a 
similar character could be made from 
shorter cotton and sold to retail at 
35 cents per yard, or even less. To a 
consumer such a construction would 
be just as desirable as that analyzed. 
In fact, it is questionable whether the 
cotton used in tliis fabric adds any- 
thing whatever to the finished result. 
This question of cotton for any fabric 
is one which has never been con- 
sidered as carefully as it might be. 

A subject which in some cases 
CAUSES DIFFICULTIES 
is the fact that ply yarns may 
shrink or stretch according to 
the twist which is being inserted. If 
a single yarn sizes 20-1 and when 
twisted two ply sizes relatively 9.5-1, 
it makes a lot of difference in the cost 
of the cloth than if it sized 10.5-1. If 
either occurs and provision is not 
made for it the proper cost is not ob- 
tained, and if the cloth is heavy the 
profit figured is not being obtained, 
while if the cloth is light an extra 
profit is being secured. Some manu- 
facturers spin their single yarns so as 
to produce a certain sue of yarn when 
they are twisted and in this case the 
problem is very simple. When this 
ply yarn variation has been satisfac- 
torily settled the method of finding the 
weights of yarn and cloth is very 
simple, and is as follows: 

720 ends -h (16/4 X 840) = .2143, welpht 

of warp per yard without take-up. 
T'^'r take-un In wp^vinp:. 
.2143 H- .93 = .2304, total weight of warp 

vnrn ppr woven vard. 
24 picks X 29 V4" reed width X 36" 

= 708 

36" 

vds. of filling: per woven vard. 
708 -^ (16/4 X S40) = .2107, total welffht 

r>f fiPine- per woven vard. 
.2304 + .2107 = .4411, total weight per yard, 
1.0""" -=- .4411 "= 2.27 yards per pound 

(«r*y). 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



199 



PATTERN. 
lC/4 Eg. mercerized warp 12 696 12 = 720, total ends. 
16/4 Kg. mercerizeil fihlng. 24 picks. 

24 reed; 2yV4i" width in reed, 28" grey width, 27" finished width. 
2t> X 23 tinished count. 

YARN. 

Labor, waste, 
twisting, 
merceriz- 
Cotton. Ing. eic. 
lb/4 Kg. combed warp and filling; 1%" sta. ; 3% hank dou. rov., 2Zc. 16%c. = 38?ic. 

CLOTH COST. 

720 ends 16/4 Eg. combed mercerized warp + 1% take-up... = .2]43 @ 38%c. = $ .0831 

!4 picks lti/4 Lg. combed mercerized tilling = .2107 ^ 3!i%,c. = .0K17 

Weaving .0064 

Expenses .0052 

$ .1764 
Selling (grey) .0035 

$ .1799 

Mill selling price (approximately) $ .1775 

Finishing, dyeing, etc .0150 

$ .1925 

Converter's price (about) $ .2750 

Jobbers price (about) .3250 

Retailers price .4600 

Kards per pound 2.27 (grey). 

Plain weave. 

• ♦*» 

TUMA n TDDfn CDAT rvDUCC ^o'' *^^® introduction of heavy filling. 

LIjIiU uLiririU OlUl UIvJjijij As previously mentioned, the cloths 

are 
TAAnC MADE FROM YARNS 

UUUl/0 . which would be considered of fine 

_,, . ,. i, , XT. ,.. ,. • character by the majority of manufac- 

Therr is one line of cloth which is ^^^^^^ ^l^i^ j^ necessary bec:.use the 

made in quite wide variety and which ^^^^.^ produced are made through the 

in a general way is of a -ight charac- contrast of a fine ground fabric with 

ter haying a more or less regular j^^^^ „ ^^,^^ f, ^^ Naturally, yarns 

distribcuion. thougn seldom mentioned. ^^ jj^ ^^^ ,5^ ^^^ essential if 

in a good many instances, such fab- ^,^g ^^^^^^ produced le satisfactory, 

ncs are known by special names ^^^ ^ amount of irregularity 

which are likely to change in different j^^ j^^^ .^^^ i^ particularly noticeable 

seasons, but to a manufacturer they ^^.^^^^ ^^^^^^ i^^^ ^j ,,,^^ especially if 

are known as a fine yarn box loom ^,^^j ^,,^,^1^ ^^ j ^^^^^ ^jtl^ i^in 

and leno product. The ground con- vveave 

structions of the fabrics do not vary ' HEAV"' YARN 

widely from season to season, though „ necessary for the heavy 

the effects may differ quite radically, ^p^^^ ^.eLuse this creates a distinct 

uiey are used tor contrast with the light and semitrans- 

WAISTINGS AND DRESSES parent ground. In some cases the 

, . , . J J in 1 4.U yarn which forms the spots, or the 

dIrTTre ?or ' smalle'r quIntiUe: ^^^ra filling yarn, is of a dyed charac- 
orders are tor smaller quantities ^ ^ ^ .^^ ^^j^gj. ^^g^g ^^ jg entirely 

than a good many manufacturers usu- ^^ probablv the greatest por- 

ally pioduce never h ess they are . ^j^^g^ ^l„t,^g ^^^ ^^^^ ^^d 

one of the fabrics which should form . ^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ introduc- 

a portion of the staple business of a . ^ ,^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ t,,^„ ,, of ^ 

fancy mill usinp fine yarns. They c^o . , character, sometimes 

not require machinery of an especially ^ ' /-"dtt-at' t^tt-at 

complicated character, for they can be ADDS A GREAT DEAL, 

made on an ordinary dobby loom, to the attractiveness of the result, in- 

which is equipped with a box motion asmuch as it makes possible an en- 



200 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tirely different effect, and creates an 
impression of a mucii more open fab- 
ric tlian actually exists. Sometimes 
cfianges can be made very easily in 
the patterns produced, and it is not 
always necessary to redraw warps or 
to have a different cloth construction 
in order to obtain various effects. 
This is noted because the warp is 
made entirely from one kind of yarn, 
whereas the 

BOX LOOM MOTION 

is responsible for the figure and can 
be changed much easier than if the 
pattern were made in the warp. Ef- 
fects in great variety ars made by tne 
combination of tlie two weaves men- 
tioned, and it forms the basis for a 
large sale of what might be termed 



the cotton which is used for any size 
of yarn must be longer than when 
grey yarns are being used anu often 
very different methods have to be 
used in order to obtam satisfactory 
results. When new dyestufts were de 
veloped, which would stand the 
bleaclung process, it made possible 
another method of production, which 
undoubtedly gives a 

LOWER COST 

of prodjction, and eliminates certain 
of the difhcullies and many of the 
urocesses previously uecess'ry. This 
does not mean that all manufacturers 
have adopted such a method to-day 
but it means that an increasmg num 
ber of such cloths will be made iron 
grey yarns and with last color spots 




■•lizm 



Leno Clipped Spot Dress Goods. 



one of the fanciest varieties of cotton 
fabric made with ordinary equipment. 
Until a few years ago it wa: possi- 
ble to make effects such as are seen 
in the sample analyzed in only one 
manner, this being through the use of 
bleached and dyed yarns.' • Fev/ manu- 
facturers of fabrics realize the diffi- 
culties which exist when fine yarns 
are bleaclied, dyed, and then woven 
into fabrics. In the first place, the 
various processes which are necessary 
make the cost of such cloths ex- 
cessive, and limit the sale to 
a great extent. For another thing. 



The reason for thir is that the use oi 
grey yarns, whi ^h are stronger than 
when bleached and handled, gives a 
greater percentage of production and 
a lower cost. It eliminates many of 
the troubles which occur when 

FINE BLEACHED YARNS 

are used, and, in a good many in- 
stances, is undoubtedly responsible for 
a much better finished fabric. For 
practically all fabrics, such as are be- 
ing described, a plain weave ground is 
used, because fine yarns ■< ould slip 
badly with a low construction if any 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



201 



woven figure were used. Then, woven 
figures do not show any great contrast 
aiiQ are not especially effective when 
made entirely from fine yarn, and 
with no heavy yarns useu in addition. 

FIRMNESS 

is also an essential characteristic in 
any fabric which is to be used for 
dress goods, and to give this firmness 
with a low count it is necessary to use 
plain weave, or at least some simple 
wtave. Inasmuch as most of the sim- 
ple weaves do not show any particu- 
larly desirable effects on fine cloths, 
It happens that plain weave practical- 
ly always forms the ground. All of 
these light fabrics are, however, fab- 
rics in which 

STRONG CONTRAST 

usually exists, and these contrasts are 
bn.ught about by the fine yarn ground 
and the heavy spots o figures which 
are made by the box loom motion. 
The introduction of various small leno 
figures is desirable, inasmuch as they 
offer some coutiast to the ground cloth. 
Due to their small nature, it does not 
slip badly and so is satisfactory. One 
of the noticeable features in these 
cloths is the way the elects are pro- 
duced. The arrangement of the leno- 
and heavy yarn figures is often re- 
sponsible for the success or failure of 
any pattern, and the combination of 
them produces effects which to many 
seem more complicated than most oth- 
er kinds of woven cloth. These kinds 
of cloths are being developed quite ex- 
tensively in foreign mills at present, 
with allover figures and with leno 
and plain weave grounds. Undoubted- 
ly domestic mills will attemi t to pro- 
duce fabrics somewhat similar, but 
they are 

NOT EQUIPPED 

at all extensively with jacquards In 
combination with the leno attachment, 
ana for this reason the figures pos- 
sible are very limited. It only re- 
quires ten harnesses for the produc- 
tion of the box loom spot, ana these, 
in addition to the harnesses which 
weave leno and those which form the 
plain ground, complete the number 
necessary. In many of such fabrics it 
is only essential to have two harness- 



es for plain weave, inasmuch as the 
leno and box loom portions of the 
cloth 

ELIMINATE DIFFICULTIES 

from overcrowding of heddles cm the 
ground fabric harnesses. The warp 
yarn would have to be placed upon 
two different beams in order to be 
woven satisfactorily, ina. much as the 
leno portion is likely to have a iffer- 
cnl pu;i\up than ti^a-, portion wuere 
ground cJclh is being made. In oouie 
kiiid.«: of leno it is i-. oessary to h <\o 
two beams extra for the leno, but in 
this case it is not necessary, as the 
ground and crossing threads in the 
leno take up identical amounts. 

INGENUITY IN DEVELOPING. 

Just how the fabric is developed 
will have a large amount of influence 
upon the results obtained, and this is 
ore reason why a certain portion of 
the foreign fabrics made show better 
results. Domestic makers are very 
liable to slight fabric details when 
they are developing ideas, and con- 
sider quantity of more importance 
than quality. This, however, is not of 
advantage when it comes to selling 
cloth, neither does it aid very much m 
getting off the 

LARGEST PERCENTAGE 

of production. In the fabric consid- 
ered, it is necessary to use a reed 
where four ends are drawn in dent be- 
cause of the leno weave. Of course, it 
would be possible to use a 36-reed, 
and wherever the l3no is made, to re- 
move the wire so that there would be 
four ends per dent, but this practice 
spoils the reed and is not especially 
desirable where small quantities of 
any fabric are to be made. In addition 
to spoiling the reed other 

UNDESIRABLE RESULTS 

would be produced, which would not 
be considered of importance by those 
not experienced. In a cloth like that 
analyzed if one portion contains four 
ends per dent, and another portion 
two ends per dent, the reed marks 
would not be so prominent in one part 
as in another part of the cloth, and 
buyers would object to the streaky ap- 



202 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



pearance produced. They would criti- 
cize the results, and it would be 

VERY HARD TO EXPLAIN 

why the same effect could not be pro- 
duced throughout the entire fabric. 
"Under such conditions it is tetter to 
have the whole fabric showing promi- 
nent reed marks than ': is to have 
only one portion of the cloth particu- 
larly noticeable in this direction. This 
is the reason why an 18-reed was used 
with four ends per dent rather than a 
36-reed with the ground portion drawn 
in two threads per dent. It makes a 
great deal of difference where the 

HEAVY SPOTS 

are introduced into the cloth, and it 
is one of the most important things 
when developing a cloth tu introduce 
these spots where they wi 1 show up 
well, and, in addition, where they will 
cause little difficulty in the weaving 
operation. The operation of the leno 
threads and the introduction of heavy 
filling in one portion of a fabric and 
not in other portions is very likely to 
cause very bad streaks; in fact, in 
some patterns it is 

ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE 

tcf eliminate some of the bad features. 
Whenever such cloths are being wo- 
ven, careful weaving and loom setting 
will be responsible for a great differ- 
ence in the effect produced. In order 
to aid in obtaining a regular ground 
cloth, it is the usual practice to use 
heavy filling with soft twist, either in 
single yarn or when 2-ply is used. A 
low standard of twist allows the 
ground picks to be driven in closer, 
and helps to eliminate the tendencies 
to streakiness. 

THICK AND THIN PLACES 

are one of the greatest difficulties 
noted when fine yarn fabrics deco- 
rated with heavy spots arp being 
made. It is necessary to lift the take- 
up paw] so that the cloth will not 
weave down and leave a thin place 
when the heavy yarn is being inserted. 
It often happens that the pawl must 
be raired before the heavy filling is 
inserted, in order to eliminate diffi- 
culty, and sometimes the pawl is 
raised many more times at the start 



of a spot than it is when the last por- 
tion of the figure is being made. 

MECHANICAL DIFFICULTIES 
and the variation in yarn and pattern 
are responsible for this practice, and 
any dilticuities are usually adjusted at 
the loom in order to produce the best 
effect possible. Because this take-up 
pawl is raised the number of picks per 
inch are greater than the pick gear 
used would indicate. To get the aver- 
age number of picks per inch some- 
times causes a good deal of difficulty, 
because the take-up in the fabric may 
vary somewhat. The 

VARIOUS LENO THREADS 

operate in a plain manner when they 
are not crossing back and forth. In 
each leno effect there are four threads, 
and when open work is being made 
two of these threads cross over the 
remaining two threads and stay in 
their position while three picks are 
being inserted. To anyone who is at 
all familiar with leno work, the meth- 
od of producing such a weave is very 
simple. It only requires that the two 
crossing threads be drawn 

THROUGH THE LOOP 
of the doup instead of the single 
heavy end so often noted. Instead of 
having these two crossing threads op- 
e-ate with one or more ground 
threads, they operate upon two ground 
threads which, when leno is not being 
made, weave in a plain manner. One 
feature which is worth noting is that 
the cloth is practically always woven 
face down. This is done because it 
allows a 

MUCH SMALLER PORTION 
of the warp yarn to be lifted when the 
figure is being made than if the cloth 
v^ere woven face up. The lifting up 
of a smaller portion of tne face yarn 
is likely to eliminate a portion of the 
streaking tendencies. This cloth 
and many others of a similar 
character can be woven with the 
face UT', but it is seldom made in 
this manner. One objection to weav- 
ing a fabric face down is that it does 
not peimit the operative to see the 
portion of the cloth which is to be the 
face when finished, and as everyone 
knows, there are often places- which 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



203 



can be Improved by the operative 
when seen, but which often slip by 
when they are on the back of the 
cloth. 

PROCESSES AFTER WEAVING. 

A process which is seldom noted on 
ordinary cotton fabrics, but ^^hich is 
necessary in order to create attrac- 
tive results on fabrics suca as that 
analyzed, is the shearing of the heavy 
yarn from the fabric, when it is not 
producing a figure on the face of the 
cloth. The heavy filling floats from 
one figure to the next repeat across 
the width of the fabric, and these long 
floats would be very undesirable to 
consumers when made into a garment. 
To eliminate this difficulty they are 

CLIPPED OFF 
by machine. Manufacturers much 
prefer to produce clipped spots by the 
box loom method, inasmuch aii it is a 
comparatively easy process to cut off 
filling floats when the cloth is woven. 
As the cloth passes through the ma- 
chine it is much easier for the knives 
to be inserted under filling floats than 
under warp floats. One of the great 
difficulties in making certain kinds of 
clipped spot figures is to get ihe va- 
rious floats long enough so that the 
knives can operate. In most cases it 
is necessary to give the fabric 
A NUMBER OF RUNS 
upon the shearing machine, in order 
to get the spots properly sheared. In 
a good many instances, the flrst proc- 
ess merely consists in cutting the va- 
rious floats, and succeeding processes 
brush up the clipped ends and permit 
the shears to cut the ends down close 
to the woven figure. The arrangement 
of the pattern has much to do with 
the success of the shearing operation. 
When detached small figures are 
made there is usually little difl^culty, 
but where laree allover figures are 
woven there are likely to be small 
places where the knives will not work 
and the openwork effects are not pro- 
duced. 

REGULATING PROFITS. 

All of these various fabrics must be 
made carefullv and in addition sold 
carefully, if the best results be se- 
cured, and if a satisfactory profit be 
made. The production in yards Is 



comparatively small per loom, because 
it is box loom work where a low loom 
speed is noted, and, in addition, the 
percentage of production is likely to 
be radically lower than for ordinary 
fabrics, because of 

THE LENO MOTION 
with the use of fine yarns. These 
fabrics are ones where information 
in regard to particular fabrics is of 
value, for various small features have 
a great influence upon the cost of pro- 
duction. The use of good cotton is al- 
ways to be recommended, because 
the costs for material are relatively 
small, and the costs for labor relative- 
ly high. Sometimes the introduction 
of a longer cotton will save much 
more than its cost through greater 
percentage of production at the loom. 
This is regardless of the fict that bet- 
ter yarn and better cloth are made, 
and a 

BETTER FINISHED RESULT 
produced. Sometimes the use of bet- 
ter yarn will permit a greater number 
of looms per operative to be run. The 
fact that quite a little leno is used, to- 
gether with the box loom motion, 
makes it necessary for many fewer 
looms per operative to be noted, and 
this increases the cost of weaving 
quite radically. A good many manu- 
facturers do not like to make such 
fabrics for this very reason, inasmuch 
as it makes many more weavers nec- 
essary f )r the number of looms oper- 
ated and these weavers are 

NOT ALWAYS AVAILABLE 
and any further change In fabric style 
makes them again unnecessary. This 
brings up the fact that an experienced 
seller will manipulate the orders re- 
ceived 'n such a manner as to kiep all 
of the help employed continually, this 
being of great importance when prof- 
Its are concerned. When fabrics vary 
widely in character, it Is absolutely 
necessary to have some reasonably 
accurate method of obtaining the cost, 
and where the number of picks per 
Inch 

WILL DIFFER WIDELY, 
and yarn sizes of a variable nature be 
used, the avernee production method 
so often noted Is certain to give Inac- 
curate results The cloths are usually 



204 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



finished in a crisp manner, but there 
is comparatively little difficulty when 
the clotli is woven and sheared. Due 
to the fine character of the yarns there 
is a very small take-up in the weaving 
process, and there is also a much 
smaller shrinkage in width than for 
other heavier fabrics where the yarn 
shows a greater amount of curvature. 
One of the most difficult problems 
when 

ANALYZING A FABRIC 
of this character is to estimate the 
size of the yarn which has been used 
for making the clipped spoij. When- 
ever wide figures are made, it is usu- 
ally possible to take from the fabric 
pieces of heavy yarn which can be 
easily compared with others ard be es- 
timated quite accurately. But when 
the figures are very small, this is not 
so easy, and the estimated yarn size 



may vary from what was actually 
used. When this has been accom- 
plished, there is 

NO GREAT DIFFICULTY 
in obtaining the cloth weight as it 
comes from the loom. Few care 
about the weight in a finished state, 
and for this reason the weight Is sel- 
dom obtained when the fabric has 
been sheared. To find the average 
yarn size upon which the new rates of 
duty are ascertained is not so easy a 
problem as many have considered it to 
be, and there is likely to be a great 
amount of trouble when average yarn 
sizes for such cloths come anywhere 
near the dividing line. Due to the 

VARIATION IN SHEARING 

and other features, there are likely to 
be no two portions of the cloth simi- 
lar, and no average obtained which 
will be at all accurate. The method 



PATTERN. 



60/1 Am. combed warp 



75/1 Am. combed fillinff. 
40/2 Am. combed filling. 



2,144 — 

2 12 

70 picks ground. 

ICVi pick.s figure. Dyed. 



2,192. total ends. 



IS reed; 30" width in reed; 2S%" finished width 
76 X S6Vi over all finished count. 



YARNS. 

Labor, waste, 
twisting, 
„„ ,, . Cotton. dyeing, etc. 

60/1 Am. combed: 1% sta.; 12 hank dou. rov., 22c. 19V.C. = 4H4c. 

7G/1 Am. combed; 1%" sla. ; 17 hank dou. rov., 22c. 21c. = 43c 

40/2 Am. combed; 1%" sta.; 8 hank dou. rov., 16i^c. 2Si4c. = 44%c. 

COST. 

2,192 ends 00/1 Am. combed warp + 5% take-up = .04R8 @ 41%c. = $ .0190 

(0 picks 75/1 .\m. combed filling = .0333 & 43c. = .0143 

16% picks 40/2 Am. combed filling, dyed = .0295 (ii> 44%c. = .0132 

Weaving "y .0522 

Expenses ..."....'....' !!!!.!!!..*.!!!!! .0227 

f^eari-.g 0025 

Selhns:: (grey) .0028 

Mill cost (grey^ $ .1267 

Selling price (about) $.1500 

Bleaching, finishing, etc .0125 

-, , , $ .1025 

Converter s expenses .0200 

Cost to converter j .1825 

Selling price, converter (about) $ 2400 

Selling price, jobber (about) ' '"' 3000 

Selling price, retailer .4«imi 

Yards per pound. 9.21 (grey) before shearing. 

Rpeded 4 ends per dent. 



1 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



205 



of obtaining the weights of the yam 
and cloth is as follows: 

2,192 ends h- (60/1 X 840) = .0436. weleht 

of warp without take-up. 
b'/o average take-up In warp. 
.0435 -H .!*5 = .0458, total weight of warp 

per woven yard. 
70 picks X 30" reed width X 3fi" 

— 1 = 2,100 yds. 

36" 

of fine filling per yard of cloth. 
2.100 -^ (75/1 X 840) = .0333, total weight 

of fine filling per yard of cloth. 
16.5 picks X 30" reed width X 36" 

= 495 yds. 

36" 

of heavv filling per yard of cloth. 
495 -^ (40/2 X 840) = .0295, total weight 

of heavv filling per yard of cloth. 
045S -I- .0333 + .0295 = .1086, total weight 

per yard. 
1.0000 -^ .1086 = 9.21 yards per pound, be- 
fore shearing. 



FANCY LENO STRIPE 

Leno fabrics are ones which are 
more or less open, and are used for 
different purposes. They have been 
used quite extensively in the past, but 
for five years or so, there has been lit- 
tle call for cloths of this character. 
The past season has seen an increas- 
ing demand for these fabrics, and 
there have been produced many varia- 
tions of this weave. At present the 
weave is used for narrow stripes on 
men's shirtings and ladies' waistings, 
in check effects for waistings, in plain 
all-over leno for overdresses and many 
other combinations in various fabrics. 

The weave is made by having ends 
twist around one or more other ends, 
thus giving in some cases a wave ef- 
fect, or in the cloth we are consider- 
ing 

AN OPENWORK EFFECT. 

The twisting of the ends is made pos- 
sible by an arrangement on the loom 
which permits the leno or crossing end 
10 pass from one side to the other of 
the ground end or ends, as the case 
may be. Because of this crossing back 
and forth, the loom is run at a speed 
son-ewhat slower than on ordinary 
work. To make this crossing possible, 
the crossing end or leno end is run 
through a doup which is attached to a 
harness on which there are no heddles. 
These doups, which are usually made 
of good hard-twisted worsted yarn, are 
passed through the eye in a second 



harness. By raising a back harness 
this slips the doup up through the eye 
to make the crossing on one side of 
the ground ends, and by raising the 
harness and doup both, it makes a 
crossing on the opposite side of the 
ground end or ends. This is the sim- 
plest leno weave which is produced, 
and it is called 

GAUZE. 

It is composed by having two ends 
which cross each other at every pick, 
and from this foundation idea many 
beautiful effects in weave and color 
are produced, for there are leno mo 
tions which are attached to jacquard 
looms also, giving a leno weave in a 
jacquard pattern all over the cloth. 

Because these doups wear out, thus 
requiring much care in some cases, 
fewer looms are given a weaver to run 
and this, of course, makes the weaving 
price high for this kind of cloth. It 
is to be noticed that we have allowed 
2 looms to a weaver, although in some 
mills more are given than this on a 
fabric similar to the one we have an- 
alyzed. In these fabrics the amount 
of yarn used is rather small — in the 
cloth we are considering less than 2^/2 
cents of the total 8 cents grey cost— so 
any amount saved would naturally be 
taken off the labor cost, and in these 
classes of fabrics it is the produc- 
tion and economy in labor that make 
the largest reduction in the fabric 
costs. 

On our drawing-in draft it will be 
noticed that we have marked some 
dents with ciphers, and this means 
that no ends are drawn in, or rather 
needed, in these dents, and the reason 
why the ends do not all slip together 
when woven is because of the twist 
given by the leno weave. The filling on 
a fabric of this character is nearly 
straight, so that the finished width 
and grey width are identical in many 
cases, and sometimes the finished 
width is wider than the grey width. 

To obtain the result wanted some- 
times means a lot of experimenting at 
the mill, because in many cases the 
cloth is wanted at a certain price, and 
until some of the cloth is woven, it is 
very hard to tell just how the fabric 
will look, as the size of the yarn and 



206 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



the kind of reed used and also the 
numher of picks affect the looks of the 
cloth to a certain extent. 

NOT CONSIDERING THE PRICE. 

Some of these cloths are being made 
to-day by mills which have never be- 
fore attempted to make them, and we 
would say that if they did consider 
the cost of making they would be more 






der for this grade of cloth), they "Will 
surely wish they had never touched it 
at the price. This point should be 
carefully considered by mill treasur- 
ers, and before a new cloth is sold, 
some idea of the cost to make should 
be obtained, for, in many cases, a mill 
treasurer is as much at sea regarding 
the cost to make as a buyer is. 

The take-up on the leno ends in this 









Leno Overdress Fabric. 



careful of the price at which they sold. 
We have personally seen leno cloths 
within a very short time which were 
sold by the mills at 5i cents per yard 
which surely could not be produced at 
anywhere near this figure. The mills 
which sold them had never had much 
experience in making leno cloths, and 
we should say that, before the order 
is completed (it is a rather large or- 



cloth is rather small, but in many 
cases of ordinary leno work the take- 
up will be from 25 to 40 per cent, and 
in a Russian cord the take-up will be 
about 75 to 80 per cent, or in other 
words, for 1 inch of cloth 5 inches of 
yarn will be required for the crossing 
or leno end. These Russian cords 
which are just ordinary leno, are be 
ing used very extensively as stripes in 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



907 



fast colors In men's shirting material. 




Draft and Chain. 
A pattern is laid out for a leno such 



as we are considering, as if it were 
plain weave instead of openwork 
stripes. By comparison of the plain 
stripes and leno we find that a 44 reed 
was used, and by pulling out some fill- 
ing we make the reed width 29^ 
inches. 

44 reed X 29% inches = 1.2S7 dents total. 
1,2S7 — 12 selvages = 1,275 dents Inside 

selvages. 
1,275 -T- 42 In a repeat = 30 repeats 4- 15 

dents. 

To find the place to start our draw- 
ing-in draft so that the pattern will 
perfectly balance, we will proceed as 
follows: Add the nuirber of dents in 
the wide stripe and the nun:ber of 
dents left over, and divide by two; 
this gives the nun:ber of dents to start 
the drawing-in draft ahead of the 
double stripe. 

29 + 15 = 44. 

44 -H 2 = 22 dents to start ahead of stripe. 

If we consider the cloth we will 
find that a leno is next the selvage 
so instead of using 22 dents to start 
we will use 21 dents, which will bring 
a leno next the selvage. This is done 
because some dents are skipped, as we 
stated above, in our reed, and if we 
leave out one dent on each side, we 
will have 30 repeats plus 13 dents, 
w^hich is the w-'^^y we have laid out our 
drawing-in draft. By 

EXAMINING THE DRAFT 

carefully it will be noticed that the 
two leno ends are crossed on the draft, 
and this shows to the girls who draw 
in the warps that one end is to be 
crossed over and drawn into the doup. 
In figuring the yards per pound we 
will proceed as follows: 

1,008 ends -^ (840 X SO) = .0200. weight of 

60/1 In 1 vard of cloth without take-up. 
.0200 H- .96 "= .0208, weight of 60/1 in 1 

vard of cloth with take-up. 
608 ends -4- (840 X 30) = .0241, weight of 

60/2 without take-up. 
.0241 -i- .88 = .0274. weight of 60/2 in 1 

yard of cloth with take-up. 

.-.fi picks X 29 1^" X 36 

— = 1.638 yard.s of fUling 

36 in 1 yard of cloth. 

1.638 -!- (840 X 90) = .0217, weight of 90/1 

In 1 yard of cloth. 
.0208 + .0274 + .0217 = .0699, total weight 

of 1 yard of cloth. 
1.0000 -f- .0699 = 14.31 yards per pound. 

The count we have given is the 



208 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



over-all count, because of the fact that 
so many dents are skipped In our 
reeding-in plan. The ends in the 
crowded stripes are drawn in two-pl>, 
as may be seen from our pattern plan. 
It will also be noticed that the picks 
are placed in the cloth 2 in a shed. 
This is probably done because it 
would be impossible to weave a cloth 
with 54 picks per inch and have the 
leno change every pick. In other 
words, there would be so many cross- 
ing places that the cloth would not 
hold that number of picks. Of course, 
more picks could be put into the cloth 
if a finer yarn was used for the 60-2, 
but with 60-2 warp the picks seldom 
run higher than 34 or 36 per inch, if 
the leno ends change every pick. The 
cloth is woven with doups, which are 
tied to the bottom of the loose harness 
and are, therefore, called 

BOTTOM DOUPS. 
On harness No. 2 is an arrangement 
whereby harness No. 1 is raised when 
No. 2 raises. This is necessary, be- 
cause the doup passes through the 
heddle eye on harness No. 2, and if 
No. 1 harness did not raise at the 
same time No. 2 did, it would either 
break the doups or keep No. 2 harness 



from lifting. In some places these two 
harnesses are not hitched together, 
and in this case, harness No. 1 would 
have to be lifted continually on our 
head chain. In either case, the result 
is the same, for on the loom our har- 
ness No. 1 lifts continually, although 
the chain does not show it. 

Over No. 7 harness we have marked 
the word "juirper". This is an ar- 
rangement put on the loom which 
raises this harness part way up. This 
is done to straighten out the doups as 
it slips them back through the heddle 
eye and stops them snarling up. This 
arrangement is used for a double lift 
dobby, for on a single lift loom where 
all the harnesses co;re to a bottom 
shed the doups naturally slip b:ck into 
place, and this arrangement is not 
necessary. We have also marked the 
word "slackener" over some pegs in 
the harness chain. These pegs are 
usually placed behind the regular har- 
ness chain on a harness which is not 
being used, and the purpose is this: 
When the leno or crossing threads are 
in a crossed position they twist 
around the ground threads, and unless 
some provision is made to let off a lit- 
tle extra yarn at this time, the ground 



1.ENO OVERDRESS. 
PATTERN. 



2 






2 




2 






1 ^ 


12 




12 


8 


4 


8 


4 


8 


1 12 

1 



60/1 American combed. 
60/2 American combed. 

30 X 
aO/1 American combed filling. E6 picks. 

^4 reed; 29%" width in reed; 28" grey width; 28' finished width, 
over all). 57 X 54 (finished count over all). 



1,008 beam 1 
608 beam 2 



1,616 total 

ends. 

j6 (grey count 



YARNS. 



60/1 Am. combed, 1%" sta. ; 12 hank dou. rov., 
611/2 Am. combed. 1%" sta.; 12 hank dou. rov., 
90/1 Am. combed, 1%" sta.; 20 hank dou. rov., 



Cotton. 
26c. 
26c. 
26c. 



Labor, 
waste. 
ISc. 
ISc. 



Twisting. 



COST. 

1,008 ends, 60/1 American combed + i% take-up = .0208 @ 44c. 

608 ends, 60/2 American combed -f- 12% take-up = .0274 @ 48c. 

56 picks, 90/1 American combed = .0217 @ 50%c. 

Weaving, 14.=; speed, 75% production, 2 looms, $11.50 wage 

Expenses, $2.50 per loom 



Selling 2%. 



Grey cost 

Bleaching, finishing, etc. 



Finished cost. 

Tards per pound = 14.31. 
Harness to weave = 8. 
■detail price, 25c. per yard. 



44c. 
48c. 
SOMiC. 



$ .0092 
.0132 
.0110 
.0317 
.0137 

$ .0788 
.0016 

$ .0804 
.0100 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



209 



ends are liable to be broken. The ends 
which are drawn in on harness No. 8 
are the ones which are d.'awn throug.i 
the loop on harness No. 1. 



JACQUARD SILK WARP 
EOLIENNE 

These cloths were quite popular 
about ten years ago and since then 
have had a regular sale, but during 
the past two years the nunber of 
yards sold has teen largely increased 
and there are many new patterns and 
constructions beiig prod.iced to-d3y. 
The better colors, and the fact that 
the cotton can be dyed one color and 
the silk another has helped increase 
the sales to a certain extent. 

Sometimes it requires a little ex- 
perimenting to get the construction 
what it should be for the different 
counts in the warp and filling. The 
one we are considering is a reg::lar 
one, tha: is, 124x5? in the grey count 
with 40-2 combed filling. The filling 
used in these cloths is al r.ost always 
combed yarn and also hard twisted, 
although in many cases it is not so 
hard twisted as it would be for a voile 
cloth. 

The silk warps used in the making 
of these cloths vary in the different 
mills, being gauged in most cases by 
the size of yarn w^hich they can best 
run, but it is practically always 

ITALIAN SILK, 
and runs from 20-22 to 24-26 in size 
in most cases. These silk warps, one 
would naturally think, would create 
some trouble in a cotton mill, but 
after the help becomes used to the 
work a warp can be started up in 
fully as short a time as a whole cot- 
ton warp. In the loom.s the work is 
liable to create some trouble if the 
heddle eyes have some shirp places, 
as they cut the yarn easily, and a'sj 
on jacquard work, if the harness 
threads are worn, they are likely to 
catch the light silk threads an J oreak 
or cut them. These c'oths are nadt. 
In quite large quantities with hard 
twist worsted filling, but, of course, 
cost more than the cotton filling va- 



rieties, although the v. orsted yan 
gives them a drape which cotton never 
gives. Cotton yarn gi\es possibly a 
smootlier cloth and shows up the silk 
som.ewhat better. These cloths are 
being made with silk stripes added, 
and because of the extra silk required, 
the cost is higher. 

It nay be asked by some the differ- 
ence between these eolienne cloths 
and crepe clotlis, as they both have 
silk warps and the count is somew'hat 
sinilar in many cases. One difference, 
which does not always hold true, is 
that the crepe has single tiling and 
the eolienne h:s two-ply filling, al- 
though tney are both hard twisted. In 
many cases, the crepe is woven on a 
box loom and is called a crepe de 
chine, w-hile in others it is not woven 
on a box loom and is called serpen 
tine crepe, but 

THE :\IAIN DIFFERENCE 

is usually created by the finishing 
process, because in a crepe cloth the 
shrinkage may be as high as 33 per 
cent, V, hile in an eolienne the cloih is 
finished out nearly to its grey width. 
This can be easily seen by looking 
at the two different cloths, as in a 
crepe the filling is all full of curves 
and crinkles, while in an eolienne the 
filling is as straight as finishing can 
make it without spoiling the cloth. 

One thing which helps in the weav- 
ing of these cloths is that the silk 
used is practically always in the raw 
state, and does not look at all like 
it does when finished, but is full of 
gum, and this gum sticks the fibres 
together and keeps them from rub- 
bing to pieces in the loom and is re- 
moved in the finis'iing process, and 
then the gloss appears on the silk 
threads. Care has to be given to the 
weaving of these cloths, because there 
are many things which will show 
when finished which on a cotton cloth 
would never appear. Possibly, one 
thing shows more than anything 
else and this is when a reed is a trifle 
bent in some places. In this way. a 
few ends are crowded, rnd thsn there 
is a small space where they are light- 
er, and in fnishing these cloths it is 
very hard, almost impossible, to make 
these threads slide in even again 



210 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSAKi 



This does not make much difference 
in a 

PIECE-DYED FABRIC 
where one color is used, but where 
the cloth is cross-dyed it shows up 
this condition very plainly, because 
the warp shows more in one place and 
the filling shows plainly next to it. 
The cloth in hand shows this condi- 
tion, while the solid colors show 
practically no streaks of any descrip- 
tion. 

These cloths are laid out in the reg- 
ular manner used for cotton jacquard 
work, and we will work out the cloth 
by successive steps. The first thing 
to do is to find the size of warp and 
filling which is used. This is easy 
enough in the filling, but the warp has 



which In this case is 126 times 53. As 
these cloths come in about | inch in 
weaving and h inch in finishing, and 
as the finished width is 25| inches, we 
next find the reed count and reed 
used. 



25.5 finished width, 26.75 reed width : : X 

: 1:;6 = 120 reed count. 
120 H- 2 = 60 reed to be used. 

Then we have: 

60 X 20% reed width = 1,604 total dents. 
1.604 — 44 for selvages = 1,560 cloth dents 

inside selvages. 
1.560 X 2 = 3,120 + 176 selvages = 3,296 

total ends. 

The probabilities are that as long as 
the pattern finished is about 3 3-16 
inches wide, it was 3 1-3 inches wide 




Jacquard Silk Warp Eolienne. 



lost quite a little because of the gum 
being boiled out of the silk, and it 
requires not only fine balances, but 
also a knowledge of the amount of 
gum in the silk, and care in the sizing 
of the silk, for it is very liable to 
split up in pulling out the threads. It 
also requires 

A GENERAL KNOWLEDGE 

of the silk sizes used by cotton mills 
in the making of these cloths. We 
find the size of the warp to be 20-22 
vhen used and the filling about 40-2. 
We next find the finished count, 



in the reed, as we can figure out for 
ourselves. From the whole layout of 
the cloth it appears to have been m.ade 
on a 400 machine which was tied up 
120 per inch in the comber board. 
This makes our machine laid out as 
follows: 



400 machine ■ 
in 1 repeat. 



120 per inch = 3% inches 



It will then be seen that in this 
cloth the entire machine has been 
used, that is, ends are drawn into all 
the heddle eyes, and there is no cast 
out. This is done in most cotton mills 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



2U 



making these cloths, for very few 
mills except silk mills have machines 
tied up to more than 120 per inch, 
that is, in the ordinary cotton mills 
which produce shirting materials. The 

NUMBER OF REPEATS 
of the pattern is then found. 



3.120 ends -+- 400 



7 repeats + 320 ends. 



By referring to the following small 
sketch it can be seen in which sec- 
tions of the tie-up the ends are used. 
We will consider that the width tied 
up is 40 inches, as this is a usual 
width in cotton mills. This makes 12 
sections or 12 harnesses attached to 
one hook. 



and instructions for drawing-ln would 
be given as follows: Start to draw on 
hook No. 1, row No. 6, section No. 3. 
Finish drawing on hook No. 8, row 
No. 45, section No. 10. It will be 
noticed that 8 hooks are used in a 
row, as a 400 machine has usually this 
number of hooks placed in a row, and 
there are 50 rows in the machine. To 
lay out our pattern we will consider 
our cloth sketch as made, and the first 
thing to do is to find the paper to 
use. As the hooks are tied 8 in a row, 
the paper will be in 8 squares in the 
warp, and to find the filling squares 
we will figure thus: 



126 : 53 : 



3% or 8 X 3 paper. 



.40 Inches wide -4-3% inches in 1 repeat = 12 repeats or sections. 

2 I 3 I 4 I 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 I 10 I 11 I 12 




It can thus be seen that in sections 
4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 there are 400 ends 
or all the heddles used, and that in 
sections No. 3 and No. 10 there are 
only 360 ends used. By laying the pat- 
ern out as above, it will be seen that 
it is exactly in the center of the tie- 
up and this helps in the running of 



But possibly in a cloth like this it 
would be better to use an 8x4 paper, 
but in any case, with a count as high 
in the warp and as low in the filling, 
it is to a great extent 

A MATTER OF EXPERIMENT 

ind experience to get the effects to 



PATTERN. 
2 2 

20/22 Italian silk warp. 44 3,120 44 = 3,296 total ends. 
40/2 American combed hard twist filUng. 56 picks. 

60 reed, 26%" width in reed, 26" grey width, 25%" finished width. 123 X 56 grey count. 
126 X 53 finished count. 

TARNS. 
20/22 Italian silk; 205,000 yards per pound; on beams = $4.75. 

Labor, 
Cotton. waste. Twisting. 
40/2 American combed; 1%" staple; 8 hank dou. rov., 21c. lOVic. 4c. = 35%c. 

COST. 

3,296 ends, 20/22 Italian silk + S% take-up = .0175 @ $4.75 = $ .0831 

56 picks, 40/2 American comber hard twist = .0908 @ .35% = .0322 

Weaving .0159 

Expenses .013^ 

Jacquard cards .0005 

$ .1455 
Selling, 2% .0029 

Cost grey $ .1484 

Dyeing and finishing .0250 

Cost finished $ .1734 

Yards per pound, 9.23. 

Cost at retail, 38c. per yard. 

the work. The pattern to be used come out right in these cloths. There 
w( uld he balanced up and placed on are so few picks, comparatively speak- 
the design paper, and the layout Ing, that the floats cannot be very 



212 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



long, in any case, in the warp. It is 
to be noticed that on the snail slots 
a pick of filling is allowed to float on 
the top and botto.n of the spot to 
make the figure rounder and to hold 
down the warp better. This is a gen- 
eral practice on these cloths with 
small ground spots, as it makes a 
more even looking cloth and figure. 
To get the number of squares in the 
height of the design, it is better where 
the picks are as low as in this cloth, 
to find the height of the pattern and 
multiply by the picks per inch, and 

THIS RESULT 

should be divided by the picks in a 
square, and in this way, a more ac- 
curate result is obtained in the num- 
ber of squares to be used, thus: 

53 picks finished X 3% Inches = about 200 

picks in a repeat. 
200 -H 3 = 66 squares about, or If 8 X 4 

paper. 

was used we would have 

200 -4- 4 = 50 squares In the filling. 

In the warp we would have 

400 -^ 8 = 50 squares in the warp. 

To find the weight of the warp and 
filling and from these the yards per 
pound, and then th:, cost, is a rather 
simple proceeding. The yards per 
pound in the silk warp will vary, but 
we have taken a low enough number 
of yards to be on the safe side in 
figuring. To obtain the output of the 
warp, we figure as follows: 

3,296 ends -i- 205,000 yards = .0160, weight 

of warp without take-up. 
.0160 -^ .92 — .0175, weight of warp In 1 

yard of cloth. 

We have used 8 per cent for take- 
up in weaving. 

The weight of the filling is obtained 
thus : 



1.498 



50 picks X 26%" reed width X 36" 

36 

yards of filling. 
1,498 -V- 16,500 = .0908, weight of filling in 
1 yard of cloth. 

We have used this number of yards 
for 40-2, because in twisting it con- 
tracts somewhat. 



.0175 + .0908 = .1083, weight of 1 yard of 

Cloth. 
1.0000 -H .1083 = 9.23 yards per pound. 

The cloth is lighter than this when 
sold for 

THREE REASONS: 
First, because of finishing and iron- 
ing the yarns are som.ewhat finer, al- 
though this makes only a s.nall dif- 
ference in weight; second, because 
the silk loses the largest shire of the 
gum it contained in finishing; third, 
because in finishing the cloth is 
stretched about 5 per cent, and this 
not only makes less picks per inch, 
but stretches out some of the take-up 
of the warp in weaving. 



FAST COLOR SOIESETTE 
SHIRTING 

The nam,e soiesette is copyrighted 
and is used by Clarence Whitman & 
Con:pany on the line of cloths which 
is produced by them. These cloths are 
made in varied styles and construc- 
tions and have had a large sale. It 
must not be thought that the cloths 
produced by this concern are the only 
ones which can be bought in thesu 
lines, for many mills n^ake similar 
fabrics which have had a large sale, 
and although the nam.e soiesette can- 
not be used by others, the construc- 
tions and ideas can and are. Buyers 
ask for a soiesette construction and 
all they really mean is that it is a soft 
twist filing fabric with a construction 
such that it will take mercerization 
well. The name soiesette has lost to 
a certain extent its connection with 
fabrics produced by any certain house, 
and the trade in general uses the 
name when speaking of a certain 

CLOTH CONSTRUCTION 

and not the production of any one cer- 
tain house. Thus, the ideas have been 
absorbed for the good of the trade. 
In our analysis we find the warp which 
was used was 85-1 and the filling was 
43-1. We have used Egyptim cot- 
ton for filling, but it is also possible 
to use American. 

The cloth we are considering is a 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



213 



fair example of the many lines of 
shirtings which are being sold at pres- 
ent. It is to be noted that even though 
the price of this cloth is 30 cents in 
the stores, many shirts are being sold 
with cloth of this quality at about 
$1.50, and these shirts are better than 
have been sold previously. The quality 
of men's shirtings and ladies' waist- 
ings has iirproved very much during 
the past five years, this i improvement 
being due in a great measure to the 
improvements in finishing cloth, and 
also to the dyeing of yarn and cloth 
which is also sho\\ing large improve- 
ment. The quality of yarn entering 



of the warp and soft twist grey or un- 
bleached filling, and when the cloth 
is woven it is bleached which, of 
course, makes the grey yarn white, 
but does not affect the dyed yarn, and 
then it is mercerized which gives the 
filling a sheen which makes the cloth 
n:ore desirable. It can be seen that 
by using grey soft twist filling a bet- 
ter mercerized finish will result, be- 
cause in the mercerizing process a 
soft twist yarn mercerizes better and, 
of course, grey yarn which is not han- 
dled can be used softer twisted than 
bleached yarn. The process of mer- 
cerizing cloth consists of immersion 






"ast Color Soiesette Shirting. 



into cloth is to-day better than ever, 
and this may be due partly to the 
larger competition in these lines of 
fabrics and also to the fact that even 
yarn makes a large difference in the 
finish of a piece of goods as fnished 
to-day. Possibly the fact that in most 
all colored lines where dyed and 
bleached yarn was used the cloth did 
not take a mercerized finish because 
of harder twist in the filling to facili- 
tate handling, made the cloth sor.e- 
what less desirable than at present. 
The fact is thit yarn can be dyed fast 
colors which will stand bleaching. 
and ihat then a cloth can be n:ade up 
as a regular colored shirting using 
grey or unbleached yarn for the rest 



in caustic soda and at the same time 
keeping the tension as much as pos- 
sible on the filling or cloth width. If 
the tension was not much, the cloth 
when passed into the liquid would 
shrink and there would be no luster, 
and the reason the tension is placed 
on the filling in this particular in- 
stance is because the filling is made 
soft twisted, and this takes the finish 
better than the warp. In some lines of 
fabrics the tension is placed on the 
warp, especially such cloths as mer- 
cerized poplins. The reason this is 
done is because the warp is made of 
two-ply soft twist yarn. Almost all 
cloths which are mercerized are m.er- 
cerized in the filling, because there are 



214 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



comparatively few cloths on which 
two-ply soft twist warp is used, while 
there are many fabrics which have 
medium or soft twist filling. 
ONE FEATURE 
which appears in this cloth is not no- 
ticeable with other colors of dyed 
yarn. With an ordinary magnifying 
glass may be seen what are called 
black hairs, which project off the 
black, fast-colored yarn. In many 
cases this black yarn has n'ade mucla 
trouble for the mills in cloth rejec- 
tions, for in some cases the cloth will 
be full of these hairs alongside the 
black yarn, although in this cloth the 
amount of these hairs is about as 
small as possible. For the above rea- 
son, mills have been forced to use as 
good black yarn as is possible in this 
class of fabric, and in many cases it 
has been necessary to use fine two-ply 
yarn wherever a black color was used. 
It has been a practice to use black 
combed yarn for stripes in carded col- 
ored yarn shirtings, for these black 
hairs, which, of course, are more 
prominent in carded yarn, would in 
many cases spoil the fabric. With me- 
dium dark colors this effect is not 
noticeable, although these hairs are 
present, but because of their fineness 
and because they do not so strongly 
contrast with the white ground, they 
are not noticeable to any extent, and 
certainly not enough to hurt the gen- 
eral appearance of the cloth in most 
cases. 

One thing which hurts the wearing 
qualities of most all shirtings is the 
presence of hard cords in the pat- 
tern. When the cloth is ironed there 
is a tendency to cut the filling, and this 
soon makes the cloth split on the 
cords and so renders a shirt useless 
before it is actually worn anywhere. 
We do not think the above will make 
any difference in the amount of shirt- 
ings with cords which are made, and 
we hope it will not, because it is a 
case where the beauty of a pattern is 
much better with the addition of a few 
cords even if the wearing qualities are 
lessened to a certain extent. Shirtings 
In many cases would not be made In 



attractive patterns if It were not for 
the 

TOUCH OF VARIETY 
which is added by the addition of a 
few cords. Nearly the same effect is 
produced by very narrow satin stripes 
and the wearing qualities of a s'.iirting 
with satin stripes for cords is largely 
improved. 

It is to be noticed in most all 
soiesette cloths that the warp is usu 
ally of fine yarn, relatively speaking, 
in comparison with the filing, also 
that the count is somewhat lower in 
the warp than in the filling. These 
above facts are brought about in the 
construction of the cloth so that the 
finish will be better when mercerized, 
and another fact which helps in this 
direction is soft twist in the filling, 
and in many cases, the use of Egyp- 
tian cotton which possibly takes mer- 
cerization somewhat better than many 
grades of American cotton. 

The grey counts on some of these 
cloths are as follows: 64 times 72 with 
50-1 warp and 30-1 filling, 68 times 
84 with 50-1 warp and 35-1 filling, 72 
tin:es 96 with 60-1 or 70-1 warp and 
40-1 filling, and there are many vari- 
ations from these constructions both 
in yarn and count, but the warp is 
almost always m.ade of fine yarn, and 
the filling of coarser 

SOFT TWIST FILLING. 

In weaving cloths such as we are 
considering it is necessary that care 
be exercised by the fixers or else the 
take-up on the lighter beams is liable 
to be large, and this will make an en- 
tirely different looking fabric, and in 
some cases, spoil the effect. The 
above is not so likely to happen if sin- 
gle yarn is used, but when two-ply is 
used, much m.ore care is necessary as 
the stiffness of the yarn is liable to 
help make loops and a large take-up. 
thereby making a bad looking fabric 
in many cases. Cloth has been noticed 
in the stores where this effect has ap- 
proached a regular seersucker effect, 
and then when more tension has been 
applied, the defect has entirely disap- 
peared in the cloth. 

THE EXPENSE 
of making these cloths is rather high. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



21& 



because of the fact that, having a lilgh 
number of picks, the production is 
rather slow, and this makes the weav- 
ing and other charges greater. The 
cost of finishing this sort of fabric is 
not large, as it has only to be bleached 
when woven and then mercerized, and 
it is much easier and cheaper to 
bleach and mercerize cloth than it is 
to handle yarn in the same manner. 

If the filling is made well on these 
cloths, the result is likely to appear 
well, as the filing covers up to a cer- 
tain extent the warp yarn, although 
a warp as fine as the one we are con- 
sidering has to be good yarn to stand 
the beating vp of so many picks. 

These cloths are about 32 inches 
wide finished, and as they shrink 
about 2 inches in finishing and Ig to 
2 inches in weaving, we have from 
the finished counts of 72 in the warp 
the following: 

32 : 35.75 : : X : 72 = about 64. 
64 -^ 2 = 32 reed to be used. 
32 X 35% = 1.144 total dents. 
1,144 — 16 selvages = 1,128 dents Inside 
selvages. 

By comparison we find the cords are 



reeded 1 In a dent, while all the other 
yarn is reeded 2 in a dent, and then 
by laying out our pattern we find that 
there are 60 dents in a repeat of the 
pattern, so we have: 

1,128 -4- 60 = 18 repeats + 48 dents over. 

In balancing up this pattern we find 
that with 48 dents over we will have 
one cord next the selvage on one side 
and none on the other, so to make 
the two edges exact we will use only 
47 dents over and then the pattern 
will balance as we have laid out in our 

COST ANALYSIS. 

The picks in the finished cloth av- 
erage about 92, and so there were 
probably 96 in the grey cloth. 

The yarn is drawn in on four har- 
nesses in regular order just as if it 
were for an ordinary plain white 
warp, but when the warp is reeded in 
the cords are drawn 1 in a dent, while 
the other yarn is reeded 2 in a dent. 
The sizes of the yarns are found in the 
usual manner, and we then proceed to 
find the weight of the cloth. 

1,870 ends -^ (S40 X 85) = .0262, weight 

of 85/1 warp without take-up. 
.0262 -4- .92 = .0295, weight of 85/1 warp 



85/1 Am. c'mb'd 
30/1 Am. c'mb<l 

black 

16/2 Am. c'mbd 



















PATTERN. 






















2 












































j 


16 




31 






8 




8 






31 




6 




31 






8 




8 






311 








3 






2 






3 












3 




2 






3 


1 
1 










2 








2 






1 




1 






2 








2 




1 



21 
—I 
161 = 1,870 

I = 152 
I = 148 



3 X 



2,170 



18 X 
96 picks. 43/1 English combed soft twist filling. 32 reed, 35%" width In reed; 34" grey 
Width, 32" finished width; 68 X 96 grey count ground; 72 X 92 finished count ground. 



YARNS. 

o,. „ . Cotton. 

85/1 Am. combed: 1«4" sta. ; 17 hank dou. rov., 2Sc. 

30/1 Am. combed b'k; IM" sta.; 6 hank dou. rov., 21c. 
16/2 Am. combed; l'/,o" .sta.; 3.25 hank dou. rov.. 17i^c. 
43/1 Eng. combed; H4" sta.; 10.5 hank dou. rov., 26c. 

COST. 

1.870 ends. S5/1 Am. combed -f- 8% take-up = .0295 @ 

152 ends. 30/1 Am. combed + 10% take-up = .0067 @ 

148 enil.s. 16/2 Am. combed + 2% take-up = .0224 @ 



Labor, 
waste. 
27c. 

9c. 

5MiC. 
13c. 



Dveing 8c. 
Twisting 2c. 



55c. 
38c. 

^^^^ ^ „*, ^ 26c 

96 picks, 43/1 Eng. combed ..........'...".'.". .'."."^ ."f. = !o950 @ 39c 

Weaving 

Expenses '.'.'.'.'.'. 



Selling 

Bleaching, mercerizing, etc. 



lards per pound, 6.61. 

Plain weave. 

R«tall prlc*. lOc p*r rard. 



= 55c. 

= 38c. 

= 26c. 

= 39c. 



i .0162 
.0026 
.0058 
.0371 
.0154 
.0201 

$ .0972 
.0020 

$ .0992 
.0150 

t .1142 



216 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



with take-up. 
152 ends -4- (!S40 X 30) = .0060, weight of 

30/1 warp without take-up. 
0060 ^ .9 = .0067, weight of 30/1 warp 

with take-up. 
148 ends h- (840 X 8) = .0220, weight of 

16/2 warp without take-up. 
.0220 -;- .98 = .0224, weight of 16/2 warp 

with take-up. 
96 X 35% X36 

■ — — = 3,432 yards of filling in 1 

36 yard of cloth. 

3,432 -T- (S40 X 43) = .0950, weight of fill- 
ing in 1 yard of cloth. 
.0295 -f .0067 -I- .0224 + .0950 = .1536. 

weight of 1 yard ot cloth. 
1.0000 -i- .1536 = 6.51 yards per pound. 

These fabrics look well as long as 
they will hold together, for the fibre 
has undergone a change, and the nice 
glossy appearance will not wash out 
as in some fabrics, but 

THE WEARING VALUE 

of these cloths does not compare with 
a well mercerized two-ply warp pop- 
lin, although, of course, both cloths 
have individual uses where the other 
cannot be used. The weaving cost is 
rather high on these cloths, becaus? 
of the high number of picks. This 
cloth, as made in most cases, has 104 
■picks in the grey, but the piece Wo 
have analyzed has only 92 picks fin- 
ished, so the grey count probably was 
not over 96. If this cloth was mads 
with 104 picks, the cost would be 
about gc. extra from the price we 
have figured, that is, the extra 8 picks 
would add about ^c. in yarn and the 
weaving and expenses would aild 
about ic. per yard. 

Mercerization makes the cotton fi- 
bre, which is a flat twisted tube, swell 
up and become rather round, and 
takes out of the fibre the crinkle sd 
that it is like a small glass rod. This 
gives the fibre its luster. In merceriz- 
ing cloth by some methods 

CARE HAS TO BE EXERCI3ED 
or the cloth is likely to split because 
of the tension caused in the process; 
especially is this true of the lighter 
cloths which are mercerized. Cloth 
with soft twist filling, of course, is not 
likely to wear as well as if the filing 
were harder twisted, but what is sac- 
rificed in wearing qualities is more 
than made up in the improved looks 
of the cloth because of the merceriz- 
ing process. Large profits have been 
realized from the sale of these cloths. 



as there was a £0od profit per yara, 

and the yards produced have been 

larger than in many other lines of 
fancy cloth. 



BOX LOOM DOTTED SWISS 

These varieties* of fabrics are made 
and sold in large volume, and the sale 
seems to be more regular than on 
many other lines. Cloths of this de- 
scription are used for many purposes, 
such as waists and dresses, curtains 
and also for printing purposes. The 
goods are made in many qualities, but 
as a usual thing, the ground cloth is 
rather fine, as cloths go, and the count 
is not as close as in some other lines 
of fabrics, although the ground cloth 
is hardly ever loose enough to slip ex- 
cept on the very cheap fabrics. 

The spots are usually in the shape 
of small polka dots spaced in a drop 
pattern order, the spaces between the 
spots being regulated to a certain ex- 
tent by the size of the spots; that is, 
for a small spot a small space is al- 
lowed between, while with a larger 
spot a larger space is allowed. These 
spots are made with the use of extra 
yarn, and the box loom is used for 
weaving the pattern, sometimes a pick 
and pick loom is used, as in the cloth 
we are considering, while at other in- 
stances a box loom is used which can 
throw no less than two picks of each 
kind of filling. Patterns are not only 
made with spots as noted, but in many 
cases 

FANCY FIGURES 

are made and jacquard looms are used 
in their production. Spots are also 
made by using extra warp yarn, and 
then an ordinary loom is used which 
has no box attachment. These cloths 
are not as good as the ones made with 
extra filling, because it is impossible 
to get as much yarn into the spot, and 
this has a tendency to make the ex- 
tra warp spots look light, but the price 
of extra warp spots is less because 
there are less picks per inch, and this 
allows a larger production and re- 
duces the price. Spots are also made 
with the lappet motion which are 
sometimes sold in the same >lass with 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



217 



the spots made, as above described 
but they are iu most cases not as good 
as fillmg-made spots, although the 
gi'ound cloth is usually similar ic 
weight and count. Ihe price ot these 
cloths is usually less than either of the 
above. 

Possibly, the greatest trouble expe- 
rienced in the making of these cloths 
is found in the fact that, when the ex- 
tra warp or tillmg is being placed in 
the cloth, there is very likely to be a 
streak in the cloth where there are 
fewer picks than there ought to be. 
This is due to ihe fact that the ground 
cloth is ratner light ana tne neavier 
hilmg or warp yarn wneu placed in 
the cloth holds out the filling from 
beating up, thus making thin and thick 
places. This noids true in all kinds of 



when the spot is being made to lift 
about three-quarters of the total warp 
yarn, and this would make a bad 
streak, because it makes a heavier lift 
for the loom than when making the 
plain part of the pattern. With the 
face woven down, this trouble is not 
present to any extent. When the spot 
or extra filling is being placed in the 
cloth, the take-up pawl is raised, and 
this makes the ground cloth have the 
same number of picks throughout the 
pattern. 

It can be noticed in this cloth that 
the extra filling is not woven into the 
selvage. Many mills persist in mak- 
ing these cloths with filling woven into 
the selvage, thereby spoiling, in some 
cases, wnat otherwise would be a good 
looking piece of cloth. It is unneces- 



Bcx Loo:n Dotted Swiss. 



cloth of this nature, and many times 
it is absolutely impossible to eradicate 
a'.l of the trouble, especially when a 
very light ground is used with a heavy 
spc. 

In making this kind of cloth with 
extra fi.ling it is necessary to weave 

THE CLOTH FACE DOWN 

to pet goo',1 results. A reason can be 
seen for this, which is as follows: If 
woven face up, it would be necessary 



sary to have this condition, as a wire 
or cord will obviate the necessity of 
holding the filling which makes the 
spot. 

One large advantage in the use of 
extra filling is that when the cloth 
is to be sheared the knives on the 
shearer will pick up the extra filling 
much easier than extra warp, thereby 
making a much better piece of work.. 
Because of this same reason, it is pos- 
sible to make spots closer together 



218 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



with extra filling, and it is hardly ever 
necessary to bind in the filling, while 
in many cases extra warp yarn has to 
be bound in above and below the spot, 
so as to hold it tight enough to be 
sheared without pulling out. This is 
one thing which is often noticed on 
cloth made with extra warp, and 
throughout the patterns or spots, there 
is likely to be extra warp threads 
•missing which 

THE SHEARING PROCESS 
has pulled out. Sometimes this cannot 
^0 h'^lped, as it is impossible to bind 



means quite a saving on the cost of 
the cloth to the manufacturer. 

There is no question but that in the 
majority of cases the cloths made on 
the pick and pick looms are much bet- 
ter than patterns made with the ordi- 
nary box loom, and the prices of these 
cloths are higher than those made by 
other methods. The above statement 
holds true possibly in very few cases, 
but it is a fact with the kind of cloth 
we are considering. 

ONE ADVANTAGE 
of using extra filling in making these 



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in the extra yarn satisfactorily with- 
out spoiling the looks of the figure. 
The cloth is first run through a ma- 
chine which cuts the long floats, but 
does not clip them close, as is noticed 
in the cloth. This is done in a follow- 
ing process, where the long, loose 
threads are brushed up and clipped 
down close. In the first process, care 
must be exercised or the machine is 
likely to clip holes in the cloth, there- 
by spoiling it for use. Sometimes only 
one machine is used, and the cloth is 
given a number of runs so the ends 
can be cut down close. 

On many of these fabrics the waste 
produced is ouite an item, as the 
amount of cloth sold is large. On the 
cloth we are considering, about 1 
pound of waste is made on every 25 
yards of cloth. If this waste can be 
used In some cheaper yarn, or if it can 
be sold to advantage, it sometimes 



cloths is that a spot will be softer and 
look better than if extra warp were 
used. This is because warp yarn is 
twisted harder than filling and does 
not spread out so well and make a 
nice full spot. 

Many of the cheaper cloths are 
made from carded yarns and sell as 
low as 5 cents per yard at the mills. 
The cost of cloth made with filling is 
higher, because the speed of the looms 
is much lower and the picks per inch 
total are higher. This makes the 
yards produced smaller, and, there- 
fore, increases the cost. 

Spots similar to the ones we are 
considering are sometimes made on an 
embroidery loom. This, of course, 
makes a much better result, and the 
price is usually much higher. Cloths 
made on these looms are entirely dif- 
ferent from the results obtained either 
by box loom or lappet motion. In fact. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



S19 



the ordinary cloths such as we are 
analyzhig are usually copies of spots 
or effects which have been made on 
an embroidered cloth. 

The effects usually produced on 
dobby looms are similar to the one we 
have analyzed, although, as we stated 
previously, there are many effects 
made on jacquard and embroidery 
looms. In most all cases on the simple 



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patterns it is not a question of com- 
plex designing but one of 

TROUBLESOME WEAVING 
which makes poor looking cloth. A 
man who lays out patterns for cloths 
such as these ought to study construc- 
tions very carefully, for it is possible 
many times to run a sample piece with 
care so that the cloth is practically 
even and has no thick and thin places, 
but when this cloth is ordered and 
looms are put on weaving the cloth. 



it is nearly impossible to get good re- 
sults. Much trouble is likely to be 
caused in this manner unless care is 
exercised when the cloth is first laid 
out. This is a very broad subject and 
one which is coming more and more 
to the front, for it is beginning to be 
realized by men in the trade that or- 
ders are placed in many cases on cloth 
which should not be woven, because 
the construction used was not what it 
should be for the cloth being made. 
Sometimes the count is too low and 
the goods will slip and cause cancella- 
tions, and in other cases, a too close 
count will be used to produce the best 
results. This can be seen in some 
cases on voile cloths being sold, for on 
some of these the count is too close, 
and not only is it a waste of material, 
but a poorer effect is produced than 
if a somewhat lower count were used. 
These facts show that there is a need 
of closer study of cloth construction 
by buyers, because the making of 
fancy cloths is broadening out very 
rapidly, and there is little knowledge 
on the subject which can be obtained 
which applies in these particular in- 
stances. 

WEIGHTS OF YARNS. 

To get the weights of the various 
yarns used and the yards per pound 
we figure as follows: 

2,206 ends -H (840 X 55) = .0477, weight 

without take-up. 
.0477 H- .95 = .0502, weight with take-up. 
64 .X 20i;i X 36 

■ = 1,SSS yards 65/1 filling In 

36 1 yard of cloth. 

l.SSS H- (65 X 840) = .0346, weight of 65/1 

tilling. 
15.16 X 29% X 36 



36 



= 447.17 yards 10/1 fUllng 
in 1 yard of cloth. 



447.17 -^ (840 X 10) = .0532, weight of 10/1 
filling. 

.0502 + .0346 + .0532 = .1380, total weight. 

1.0000 -7- .1380 = 7.25 yards per pound be- 
fore shearing. 

These fabrics are almost always 
made of grey yarn, and are bleached 
when woven and sheared. When sold 
to the converter they are sold sheared, 
and he has them finished, dyed or 
printed, as the trade demands. How- 
ever, in most cases, they are finished 
white. Fabrics with bunches of mate- 
rial printed on have taken some of the 



220 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



places where these fabrics have been ing demand for cloth of this descrip 
used, but there is a large and increas- tion. 

PATTERN. 
2 2. 

B5/1 ^^merican combed warp. 12 2,158 12 = 2,206 ends. 

65/1 American combed filling 64 picks. 

10/1 American carded filling 15.16 picks. 

79.16 picks total. 
37 reed; 29%" reed width; 2T^" finished width; 27%" grey width; finished count. 80 X 61 
ground; 80 X 76 over all. Grey count, SO X 64 ground; 80 X 79.16 over all. 

YARNS. 

Cotton. Labor & waste. 
55/1 American combed; 1 5-16" sta. ; 11 hank dou. rov., 25c. 16c. = 41c. 

65/1 American combed; 1%" sta.; 16 hank dou. rov., 24c. 17%c. = 41%c. 

10/1 American carded; 1" sta.; 2.5 hank dou. rov., 14c. 4c. = 18c. 

COST. 

2,206 ends, 55/1 American combed + 5% take-up = .0.'')02 @ 41c. = $ .0206 

64 picks 65/1 American combed = .0346 @ 41Vic. = .0144 

15.16 picks, 10/1 American carded = .0532 @ 18c. = .0096 

Weaving .0168 

Expenses .022o 

$ .0834 
Shearing .OOl.. 

$ .OSnH 
Selling .0017 

Cost grey $ .ObTi. 

Bleaching, finishing, etc '. .0]2."i 

Cost finished $ .lOui 

Yards per pound = 7.25 before shearing. 
Yfirds per pound ^ 9.75 about finished. 
Price at retail, 25c. 

■» ♦ » ■ 

ADTTUir'TJlT CTTF QTDTDU have come to notice where on voile 

iiullrlulilL OlLll OlulriJ cloths a lower count could have been 

used and not only a better price se- 

UfjTT V cured, but a better looking fabric would 

lUliilj have resulted. It is a fact that in 
many cases even the cotton used in a 

The cloth we are considering is one cloth will, to a certain amount, reg- 

of a variety which is being sold in uiate the count to be used, for a rough 

quite large quantities at present and cotton will require a lower count 

is likely to sell in larger quantities the ,han a sniocth cotton to prodrce as 

coming summer. It is n ade of much flrm a texture, 

finer yarn than ic usually sold, but it is -rirTT^xj tv/tamv qttt t tt-rq 

a well-made fabric with even yarn, and ^ITH MAN\ SELLERS 

is representative of the finer expensive it is a practice to '^^ake cloths of as 

class of cotton voiles. low count as possible and not have 

The construction used is about what them slip badly when handled. This 

it should be for the size of yarn used. policy is a good one for some grades 

This question of cloth construction is of cloth, such as voiles, but for many 

one which has been considered but other fabrics it is a bad pracM-e to 

lightly by many buyers, for in many adopt, for sometimes cloth quahty is 

cases, constructions are ordered which regulated by its fineness and firrness. 

are not suitable. Many times con- and other times by its sheer look or 

str ctions are bought which are too openness. To pi't all fabrics on the 

low, and of course, it can be imagined same basis would be a foolish step, 

that these were bought to get them as but this is about what some buyers 

low in price as possible, but in other or sellers would like to do. Of r-ourse, 

cases, a too high count has been or- it is well known that many cloths are 

dered. Quite a number of instances ordered with low counts through ig- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



221 



iiorance in many cases, for it tias been 
impossible to obtain men wlio under- 
stood cloth con&tiuction well enough 
to direct the buying. This condition is 
just beginning to oe realized, becj.use 
of the large increase in fancy woven 
fabrics, and to understand conditions 
well, it is all est necessa-y ihat sjiie 
technical training be had as a founda- 
tion, and it is also necessary that quite 
a little actual mill experience be ob- 
tained to give any sort of reliable es- 
timates or information on the many 
grades of fabrics being bought and 



silk. The price on this artificial silk has 
been reduced k tely and the quality 
improved so that its use is likeiy to 
increase, especially in such cloths as 
voiles and low count fancy cloths. The 
reason why more of this silk has not 
been woven, regardless of the price, is 
because in any liui a coarse cl^th the 
rubbing of the reed in weaving has 
split up the fibres in the thread, there- 
by making it weak and causing very 
bad weaving yarn. The yarn is strong 
if no rubbing is applied which splits 
the threads, although tiie ne>\er >arn 





Artificial Silk Stripe Voile. 



used to-day. It is to be noticed that 
there is quite a little artificial silk 
used in the pattern. This silk has been 
used but little in the weaving of cloth 
in America, but has been made into 
braids, ties and like articles. 

THE REASON 

for this has been its high cost, com- 
paratively speaking, for the cost has 
not been, as many supposed, very 
rrucb lower than re^l sHk bpcanse the 
threads are heavier and what has been 
in many cases savtd in the lower price 
has been made up by the fact that not 
so many yards of cloth could be ob- 
tained per pourd as when using real 



is much better than that foimerly sold. 
Of course, all buyers have been fa- 
miliar with the fact that by wetting 
the yarn the strength was lost. This 
fact has also 

RETARDED ITS USE, 
although by using this silk for stripes 
where the strain comej on the ground 
yarn, there seems to be no serious ob- 
jection to a large increase in I'sp. 

In bleaching, the silk is liable to 
lose a nart of its hi'^h liistr>r unless 
especial care is exercised, although, in 
the case in hand, whioh is a Meached 
and piece-dyed fabric, the cilk seems 
to look as well as before processing. 
One thing which haa helped In the 



'?? 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 





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weaving of this yam is the use of it in 
the grey state before bein^ bleached, 



as this prevents part of the bad split- 
ting upually noticed. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



223 



These voile fabrics which are be- 
ing made and sold to-day in large 
quantities are most of them made of 
hard twist two-ply yarn. Some cloth 
has been made and sold in which sin- 
gle hard-twist yarn was used, but the 
quantity made in fancy cloths has been 
small and the quality has not com- 
pared with the two-ply article. The 
hard twist two-ply is made on a twist- 
ing frame, or, in some cases on a 
spinning frame. The reason the yarn 
is hard twisted is because by this 
method a smooth, round thread is pro- 
duced. In making this yarn sometimes 
trouble is caused by the yarn cutting 
the travelers, and as it is hard twist- 
ed, it will kink up and break down 
more ends. If a spinning frame is 
used, quite a number of processes are 
saved in the making of filling, for with 
the use of enamelled bobbins the yarn 
when twisted and steamed is ready 
for the loom. This, of course, is 

QUITE A SAVIN Lr 

in the cost to make, besides a smaller 
amount of machinery is required. 

The standard of twist used in this 
yarn varies in different mills and for 
different qualities of cloth. In usual 
cases the standard is from 6.50 to 8, 
but the main point is to have the 
yarn as smootn and round as possible. 
To obt?in this result, yarn is some- 
times run through a gas flame, which 
burrs off a large share of the fibres 
which project. 

Clcth such as we are considering 
is usually sold by a converter rather 
than a jobber. These cloths are in 
man" cases sold direct to the retailer 
and the prices and profits obtained are 
much larger than in rrany coarser fab- 
rics. It is to be noticed that in the 
heavy stripe where 60-2 yam is used 
the cloth approaches the effect produc- 
ed in the class of fabrics known as 
poplins, and on which the count is 
in many cases about 100x48. These 
fabrics are used in many cases for 
overdresses, and the quality produced 
f">mpares very favorablv with the wor- 
sted cloths made for the same pur- 
pose, when the 

DIFFERENCE IN PRICE 

is considered. Possibly, each has a 



large place to fill In the production of 
desirable fabrics. The finished count 
in the warp is about 54, so under these 
conditions, a 50-reed was probably 
used, and as these cloths shrink in 
weaving and finishing from two to 
three inches, depending on the yam 
size and construction used, we will 
find the layout of the pattern "as 
follows: 



50 reed X 42 Inches 
2.100 — 2S selvages 
selvages. 



2,100 total dents. 
2,072 dents Inside 



By comparing the different parts of 
the pattern we find that the 60-2 yarn 
is reeded two ends in a dent, the 100-2 
one end in a dent, and the artificial 
silk one end in a dent drawn two-ply. 
This gives the total number of dents in 
the pattern as 86. The only way to tell 
how these or any yarns are reeded 
when a cloth is finished is by careful 
observation, and can only be learned 
through years of experience in the 
making up of cloth, and actual expe- 
rience in a mill, and even under these 
conditions, it is rather hard to tell 
because cloth is pulled a lot in the 
finishing operations. 



2.072 



56 = 24 repeats + 8 dents. 



To balance up our patterns so that 
the stripes will be the same distance 
from the selvage, we add the dents 
left over (8) to the dents in the plain 
part of pattern (50) and divide by 2: 



50 f 8 = 58 -»- 2 



29. 



This gives us 29 dents of plain or 
voile weave to follow when the selvage 
is drawn, and it car be seen from the 
layout of the pattern on our cost es- 
timate that the cloth exactly balances, 
as it starts and ends with 29 dents of 
plain. Patterns should always be bal- 
anced, if possible, for it makes a much 
better looking piece of goods on the 
counters and helps much in the selling. 

To get 

THE DIFFERENT WEIGHTS 

of yam used in one yard of cloth, and 
from these weights to get the yards 
of cloth per pound, we proceed as fol- 
lows: 



224 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



1,456 ends -i- 38,500 = .0378. weight of 100/2 

wiirp without take-up. 
0378 -h .95 = .0398, weight of 100/2 in 1 

yard of cloth. 
■576 ends -f- (60/2 X 840) = .0228. weight 

of 60/2 warp without take-up. 
.0228 -7- .93 = .0245, weight of 60/2 In 1 

yard of cloth. 
768 ends -i- 30,000 = .0256. weight of 150 

denier warp without take-up. 
.0256 H- .96 = .0267. weight of 150 denier 

in 1 yard of cloth. 
h2 picks X 42" X 36 

— = 2,1S4 yards of fUling 

36 m 1 yard of cloth. 

2. 184 -f- 38.500 = .0567, weight of 100/2 

filling in 1 yard of cioth. • 
.0398 -f .0245 -t- .0267 -f .0567 = .1477. 

total weight of 1 yard of cloth. 
1.0000 -T- .1477 = 6.77 yards per pound. 



It is to be noticed that 38,500 yards 



are used for figuring weights instead of 
42,000 yards, which is the standard 
usually taken for 100-2. The reason 
this is done is because in tlie twisting 
operation, when hard twist is made, 
the yarn contracts to a certain extent, 
and this yardage allows for this con- 
traction. Ihe yardage taken tor the 
artificial silk, namely 30,000, is what it 
actually runs when sized, and not the 
theoretical yardasre. for this will be 
found to be somewhat over 29,500. In 
finishing, the cloth is held out, be- 
cause the hard twist yarn will make 
the cloth crepe up unless this is done. 



PATTER>\ 



100/2 Sea Island hard twist |14( 

60/2 American combed I 



150 denier artificial silk. 



29 




4 




24 




4 


1 1 
1211 

1 1 




2 




2 




2 




2 




4 




4 




4 




41 



I 2i 
I— I 
1141 



I = 



= 1.456 
576 



I I 



52 picks, 100/2 Sea Island hard twist. 

50 reed, 42" width in reed, 40" finished width. 



24 X 
70 X 50 finished 



ount over all. 



TARNS. 

Labor. 
Cotton. waste, etc. 

•100/2 Sea Island hard twist; 1%" sta. ; 20 hank dou. rov.. 30c. 48c. 

60/2 Am. combed; 1%" sta.; 12 hank dou. rov.. 26c. 21c. 

150 denier artificial silk; 30.000 yds. per lb. Price on spools. $2.50 + 10c. beaming = 
100/2 Sea Island hard twist filling; same as warp. = 

COST. 

1,456 ends. 100/2 Sea Island hard twist + 5% take-up = 

576 ends, 60/2 American combed -f 7% take-up = 

768 envls. 150 denier artificial silk f i% take-up = 

56 picks, 100/2 Sea Island hard twist = 

Weaving 

Expenses 



.0398 
.0245 
.0267 
.0567 



.47 

2.60 

.78 



Selling 



Grey cost 

Bleaching, dyeing and finishing 



Finishe 
Yards per pound, 6.7 7. 
Cost at retail, 69 cents. 



2,800 



$ .78 

.47 

2.60 

.78 



$ .0310 
.0115 
.0694 
.0442 
.0147 
.0128 

$ .1836 
.0037 

$ .1873 
.0300 

$ .2173 



FINE YARN STRIPE 

The cloth we have analyzed is 
one of many which can be obtained in 
most stores. The weight varies to 
quite an extent on these cloths, as dif- 
ferent cloth constructions and stripe 
spacings are used, and the yarns may 
be of many different sizes, but the 
cloths are all light, because fir 3 yarns 
are almost always used in -manufac- 
turire Scire M-es of fabrics are finish- 
ed white, and probably most of these 
cloths reach the consumer in this con- 



dition, but many times printed pat- 
terns are used, and sometimes the 
cloth is dyed solid colors. Many cases 
have been noticed where the cloth 
quality was poor and where the con- 
verter, to cover up the effect produced 
by uneven yarn, would have patterns 
printed which more or less eliminated 
this defect. 

The beauty of these fabrics lies in 
the evenness and the sheer effect pro- 
duced. Of course, as it is realized that 
fieures which pre woven on sui^h a 
cloth do not appear well, plain weave 
is invariably used in weaving, and in 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



225 



the yams used Llie result will largely 
depend. This means that not only 
tuust good staple cotton be used to 
make the fine yarn required, but care 
must be exercised in the different 
processes of yarn malting. The cost of 
a yarn will vary possibly more in 
fine nun^bers than in coarse, because 
even though high-piiced cotton is used, 
the material cost is small, as compared 
with the labor cost, whereas in coarse 
yarn the material constitutes the large 
item of expense. The staple of cot- 
ton used in a certain eize of yarn will 
vary, and this affects the cost, but the 
economy of management where large 
saving is made in the labor expense 



than lost by the difference in yarn 
and weaving cost. 

Patterns which are made in con- 
structions similar to our sample are 
limited in comparison with gooes made 
on fancy looms, and the large produc- 
tion is confined to plain cloth, checks 
and stripes in various counts and yam 
sizes. These fabrics are sold largely 
to converters, who have them finished 
and then distribute them in their reg- 
ular channels. Printing establishments 
have bought and used large quan- 
tities of cloths, which they finish and 
print in various patterns. The amounts 
of cloth which are bought are larger 
than in other fancy or fine construe- 




Fine Yarn Stripe; 



will more largely affect the yam price. 
To obtain the best price for the cloth 
produced, or the highest profit, re- 
quires a good deal of judgment, for it 
is sometimes possible to make a poor 
quality of yam ^rom short staple cot- 
ton, comparatively speaking, and by 
pushing production to the limit, and 
even if the cloth quality is not as good 
as it might be, to sometimes obtain a 
larger profit than if a better article 
were made. To obtain the best pro- 
duction in yarn and in weaving, it is 
necessary to use good cotton, for what 
can be saved In cotton cost is more 



tion lines. This does not mean that 
more total goods are sold, but that 
where a buyer takes 100 pieces of 
fancy cloth he is likely to buy 1,000 
pieces of a fine construction cloth. 
In this way, the individual orders 
to a mill are larger and the costs 
of production less in comparison. Pos- 
sibly, fewer converters handle such 
lines than they do fancy cloth. 

It might be a good thing to say that 
to-day the prices on most lines of fine 
cloths are much lower than in the past, 
for the price of cotton used in these 
cloths will not be much lower, and 



226 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



competition has been keener than for yard, >'ut this price varies with the 
some time. Prices are much lower in quality and width. Fabrics are made 
comparison on fine goods than on the on high-speed looms of light con- 
coarser lines to-day. This results struction, and few mills have been 
from the fact that prices on coarser built to make such cloths except in 
lines have not been readjusted to the quite large units. This, of course, 
lower price of short staple cotton. They cuts down many expenses which would 
have been lowered somewhat but not make it hard for a small mill to com- 
as much as they will be under condi- pete for business. In many mills warp 
tions as they are at present. It is a yam is made on a spinning frame, 
fact that the margin of profit on print while the fine filling is spun on mules, 
cloth is larger to-day than many be- It is a fact that with the use of longer 
lieve, for only five times in the past staple cottons not as large a standard 
twenty-five years has the margin been of twist is necessary to produce as 

PATTERN. 

jjj 1 )j»| |_4| Ml I Ml 

80/1 Sea Island combed |l2| | 6| l| 21 l| 21 l\ 61 I12I = 3,072 total ends. 

108 X 
1C5/1 Sea I.sland combed; 88 picks. 

40 reed, 30" width In reed, 28" finished width; 109 X S8 finished count over all; 86 X 88 
finished ground count. 

TARNS. 

Cotton. Labor, waste. 
80/1 Sea Island combed, 1%" staple, 16 hank dou. rov., 30c. 26c. = 56c. 

165/1 Sea Island combed, 1%" staple, 30 hank dou. rov., 32c. 46c. = 78c. 

COST. 

3,072 ends, 80/1 Sea Island + 4% = .0475 @ 56c. = % .0266 

88 picks, 1G5/1 Sea Island = .0191 @ 78c. = .0149 

Weaving .0068 

Expenses .0087 

$ .0570 
Selling .0012 

Grey cost $.0582 

Finishing, etc .0150 

Finished cost $ .0732 

Yards per pound, 15.01. 
Plain weave. 
Retail price, 25c. 

more than at the present time. Buy- good results as In coarser sizes of 

ers would do well to consider the yarn, and with many manufacturers 

future, for we do not believe there will too high a standard has been used 

be a much better time to obtain fa- on many yarns to obtain the highest 

vorable prices on fine goods than at break. Manufacturers have been too 

present, and we do not blame buyers busy in many cases to make enough 

for holding off purchases on coarse extended experiments to show them 

goods, for it looks as if better prices that a slightly stronger yarn could be. 

:ould be obtained later. The only produced with less twist than has 

thing which has kept up coarse cloth sometimes been used and so they 

prices has been the small quartity would govern themselves by someone 

of goods on hand, and it is likely prices else's ideas rather than by facts. We 

will fail as mills of this sort begin have in our analysis placed all the 

to operate. Buyers usually figure warp yam on one beam. This may or 

prices on a pound basis on fine cloths, may not have been th*.. case in making 

and to show what some of these cost, the cloth, for sometimes small cords 

we will say that the price on can be woven from 

INDIA LINONS, THE SAME BEAM 

which weigh about the same as this as the ground, and in other cases they 

cloth, is in the vicinity of 80 cents require an extra beam. Some mills 

per pound, or over 5 cents per weave satin stripes from a ground 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



287 



beam, while others never have much 
success in this method. The quality 
of the yarn used and the reeding of 
the yarn sometimes determines how 
many beams to use, for take-ups have 
to be somewhat similar to make good 
weaving warps. 

To find the weight of the warp and 
filling used, and from these weights to 
obtain the jards per pound, is a rath- 
er siajple proceeding: 

3.072 ends -h (80 X 840) = .0457, weight of 

warp without take-up. 
.04i7 -i- .96 = .0475, weight of warp with 

tuke-up. 

The weaving take-up as used is 
about 4 per cent. 



picks X 30" X 36" 



2,640 yds. of filling in 
1 yard of cloth. 
165) = .0191, weight of 



36" 
2.640 -H (S40 X 

filling. 

.0475 + .0191 = .0666, total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -i- .0606 = 15.01 yards per pound. 

Many of the imported fabrics have 
decorations in embroidery, and for this 
reason, these fabrics cost more than 
the plain cloths. Possibly, the larger 
share of domestic manufactures are 
made so that they sell at a price be- 
low 25 cents per yard. 

In marked contrast to some of the 
costs of manufacture, the price of ma- 
terial, including waste on this cost, 
only amounts to about 43 per cent, 
while the remainder, which constitutes 
the larger share, is made up of labor, 
repairs, insurance, depreciation and 
the various iten^s of cost. Very few of 
the ordinary cloths are made in which 
the material, including waste, does 
not exceed the other items of expense. 
A very small profit per yard, in com- 
parison with that which the retailer 
obtains, is suflScient to make a good 
return upon the capital invested, and 
it is probable that 1 cent per yard is 
as much as a mill would average to 
receive in profits on many fabrics sim- 
ilar to sample. 



JACQUARD SHIRTINGS 

The fabric we have analyzed is one 
on which very many pitterns are pro- 
duced and which is sold from year to 
year in more or less regularity. Dif- 
ferent patterns are made up to suit 
the various demands of fashion, but 



the cloth construction and width do 
not vary to any large degree. The 
cloth is made of carded yarn and on a 
jacquard loom and is made to sell in 
place of finer combed yarn cloths, 
which have about the same construc- 
tion. It is a fact that some of these 
carded fabrics are mercerized and 
make serviceable and good materials 
in many ways. In our cost we have 
allowed good staple cotton for making 
the yarn, as it is true that these yarns 
are more often made of shorter cot- 
ton. In our different items of expense, 
we have given figures which are 
known facts, and the results secured 
are rather interesting, in that the 
cloth is being sold more or less at 
present. Prices of material and other 
expenses do not vary largely in to- 
day's basis from those obtaining 
when the cloth was sold. This fab- 
ric was sold or offered for sale by Seth 
Borden and was made in either the 
Hargraves or Parker mills, probably 
in the latter-mentioned plant. 

The original price at the 
beginning of the season was 
121/^ cents, but before the sea- 
son was through, the price had de- 
clined to 10y2 cents. It is probable 
that the larger amount of cloth was 
sold at the first price. In considering 
the manufacturing price on our cost, 
no attention need be paid to the fin- 
ishing charges, as these cloths are 
usually sold to converters in the grey 
state and they pay all finishing 
charges, so the grey cloth cost and 
manufacturer's price represent the 
profits secured by the mill which 
made the cloth. 

In our estimate, the total 

COST OF MAKING 

this fabric is about 8 1-7 cents per 
yard. Allowing that IQi^ cents was 
the price of the cloth to a converter, 
it is evident that a profit of over 2 
cents per yard is obtained, or exactly 
2.35 cents. At this profit per yard a 
loom will earn about $3.50 per week 
or about $182 per year. In a mill of 
1,000 looms, if this same rate of profit 
be secured, the total profit would be 
about $182,000. In the capitalization, 
the amount given is $800,000, so the 
profit secured would be somewhat 



228 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



over 22 per cent if all cloths were 
sold under the same ratio of profit. 
What the profit would be if 12% cents, 
the highest price, were used can eas- 
ily be seen, as it would give an earn- 
ing per yard per loom of $286, or about 
a profit of 35 per cent if $800,000 were 
used as the total amount invested. 

This fabric was evidently made on 
a 400-jacquard loom and has three 
repeats of the pattern in the width of 
the machine. It is tied up 100 per inch, 
giving a width in the comber board 
of four inches and a grey cloth width 
of about three and three-quarters 
inches and slightly less than this 
width when finished. Looms which 
make fabrics similar to sample have 
double the number of hooks in the 
jacquard head, but they are tied up so 
that two hooks operate one eye, and in 
this machine, which could weave 400 
ends in a pattern, there would be 800 
hooks in the machine head. The rea 
son for tying up in this manner is 
that a much higher loom speed can 
be obtained, and a fair estimate would 
give a speed of about 145 to 150 picks 
per minute. Some looms are operated 
faster than this, but it is questionable 
whether results warrant higher speeds 
than this or not. 

In making patterns like sample it is 
necessary to have 

THE INDIVIDUAL FIGURES 

grouped so that no open spaces ap- 
pear between figures in either warp 
or filling direction. If this is not done 
bad streaks are likely to result in the 
woven cloth. It is always a good plan 
to make figures overlap slightly, thus 
eliminating much of this trouble. Fig- 
ures are practically always made of 
filling floats, though warp floats are 
sometimes used to bring up special ef 
fects. The reason why filling floats 
are used largely is that this yarn is 
of softer twist than the warp, cov- 
ering up and making a smoother and 
better effect, and when mercerized, 
the process usually gives the luster to 
the filling yarn, for the cloth is held in 
tension in the cloth width direction. 
The usual method in selling fabrics 
similar to sample is to quote a price 
for the cloth construction, and when 
an order is placed, the buyer will pick 



out patterns which he thinks may be 
suitable for his trade. Sometimes 
much confusion is made by a buyer 
deciding to change his patterns when 
cloth making is in process, and many 
times friction is made between buy- 
ers and sellers lor this reason. Many 
methods are used in making similar 
cloths salable, for they are bleached 
and mercerized like sample, they are 
piece-dyed in various colors, and 
are bleached and printed with various 
patterns and colors. A large outlet 
is thus made possible in these lines, 
but probably most of the cloth is sold 
in the white condition, the woven pat- 
tern constituting the only effect in the 
finished cloth. It is certain that most 
of the cloth for the coming summer 
will be bleached and mercerized only 
and not dyed or printed in fabrics of 
this character, so woven figures will 
constitute the effects produced. 
LARGE ORDERS OBTAINED. 

Contrary to the belief of many, it 
can be said that sometimes large or- 
ders are obtained on fabrics of this 
kind. It is true that the number of 
pieces per pattern may be compara- 
tively small, but the number of yards 
woven with a certain cloth construc- 
tion may be large. The only difference 
which obtains between orders on some 
of the coarser lines, and on lines sim- 
ilar to sample, is that designs must be 
changed more often on fancy cloth. 
This is not so large an undertaking 
nor so expensive as many believe, for 
making designs for simple filling float 
figures is a comparatively quick oper- 
ation, as is the cutting of cards for the 
loom. The cost of jacquard cards may 
seem a rather large item, but when 
figured down to the cost per yard 
which is produced, the amount is very 
small, as can be seen from our analy- 
sis of costs. 

In making up the details for placing 
the design upon point paper and in 
the instructions regarding the draw- 
ing-in operation, the foundation }i|S 
obtained in analyzing the cloth. As 
we have given in the cost estimate, 
the reed used was probably No. 40 
and the jacquard head, a regular 400, 
which was tied up, 100 per inch in the 
comber board, giving a width of four 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



S2d 



iDcbes, then we have 40 reed times 
four inches equals 160 dents in total 
pattern or machine repeat. 160 dents 
times 2 ends per dent equals 320 ends 
in total pattern or machine repeat. 

As there are three repeats of the 
pattern in the total pattern or ma- 
chine repeat, it can be seen that 320 
will not be exactly the number of ends 
to have the repeats come right, that 
is, the total ends must be either 318 
or 324. The facts are that in a pattern 
similar to the sample analyzed, 320 
ends would probably be used and one 
of the figure repeats be moved over 
two ends, making the figures take up 
106, 106 and 108 ends, respectively, 
giving a total of 320. This change 
never would be noted on a pattern of 
this kind. 

Considering that the jacquard ma- 
chine is made to weave 40-inch cloth, 
we would have 40 inches divided by 4 
inches, one repeat, equals 10 sections 
in the tie-up. As we have figured that 
the warp has 2,420 ends inside the 
selvages and there are 320 ends used 
in one section, we can find the sec- 
tions used and in this way balance the 
cloth in the loom. 

2,420 -f- 320 = 7 sections + 180 ends. 

If we refer to the small diagram it 
will be seen plainly in which sections 
the ends are drawn. The lower half 
represents the total tie-up while the 
upper half represents the ends which 
are used. 



From the diagram given it can be 
seen that the warp is balanced in the 
loom, thereby making better work. In- 
structions for drawing-in would be as 
follows: 

Start drawing warp on hook No. 7, 
row No. 9, section No. 2. 

Finishing drawing w'arp on hook No. 
2, row No. 39, section No. 9. 

If a pattern should be used in which 
stripes or cords were present, the pat- 
tern itself would be balanced in a 
method similar to regular dobby work, 
and if a pattern was balanced and 
called for 50 ends of plain to start, 
these 50 ends would start on the 
point-paper on the 7th hook or end in 
row 9, as above noted. This arrange- 
ment gives accurate results and the 
best looking and running cloth. In 
very many instances, jacquard pat- 
terns are never balanced, detracting 
much from the looks of the woven 
cloth and also its selling ability. Many 
times, it is impossible to make pat- 
terns balance, for designers do not al- 
ways plan the layout in the loom. Pat 
terns have to be sometimes repainted 
for this very reason. 

In making patterns some buyers du 
not understand why some cloths with 
identical constructions do not appear 
as firm as others. They order pat- 
terns with varying sizes of figures and 
others with ground weaves, and be- 
cause some patterns slip, they think 



1 


2 1 


3 1 


1 4 1 


5 1 


1 6 1 


1 7 1 


1 8 


'. 9 1 


10 1 

1 




90 1601 


320 1 


1 320 1 


~t/o 


1 320 


1 320 1 


1 320 


1160 901 


1 


1 400 


1 400 1 


400 1 


1 400 1 


400 1 


1 400 1 


1 400 1 


1 400 


1 400 1 


400 1 



As 400 machines are tied up 8 hooks 
In a row, it can be seen that there are 
50 rows total. If only 320 ends or 
hooks are used, there will be 400 less 
320 equals 80 hooks to cast out. 

80 -H 8 In a row = 10 rows or 5 rows In 
each half section cast out. 

Possibly the best way to cast out 
these rows would be to cast out rows 
11. 12, 23, 24, 25, 36, 37, 48, 49, 50. 
This splits up the total cast out and 
makes better running work than if the 
total amount was cast out in one 
place. 



mills are cutting down on cloth con- 
struction or yarns, when the facts are 
that the less interweaving there is in 
cloth, due to longer floats on ground 
weaves, the more a cloth will slip, and 
the more nearly the weave approaches 
the plain weave the firmer will be the 
result. More care on the part of some 
buyers will eliminate a part of the 
friction which sometimes appears be- 
tween buyers and sellers regarding 
the cloth produced. Two different 
weaves may produce entirely different 
results even if the cloth construction 
be identical. 



230 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



PATTERN. 
2 a 

40/1 Am. carded warp. 20 2,240 20 ■= 2,500, total ends. 
28/1 American carded filling. 72 picks. 

40 reed, 30%" width In reed, 29" grey width, 28" finished width; 85 X 72 grey count: 
88 X 68 finished count. 

YARN. 

Cotton. Labor, waste. 

40/1 Am. carded; 1%" staple; 8 bank dou. rov., 21c. 9c. = 30c. 

28/1 Am. carded; 1%" staple; 6.5 hank dou. rov., 21c. 7c. = 28c. 

COST. 

2,500 ends, 40/1 Am. carded + 8% take-up = .0809 ® 30c = ) .0243 

72 picks, 28/1 Am. carded = .0941 @ 28c = .0264 

Weaving .0122 

Expenses .0166 

Jacquard cards .0004 

I .0799 
Selling .0016 

Grey, or mill cost { .0815 

Bleaching and finishing .0125 

Fini.shed cost $.0940 

Yards per pound, 5.71 

Mill selling price, 12 %c., reduced later to 10%c. per yard. 

♦-•-♦ 

QTT IT MTYTTIDl? Tl?Wfl dition, as it will be found that when 

ulLjl JlllAlUlUJ LjjnU conditions are created whereby 
QPAPUTWr NOVELTY COTTON 

uUnllririu manufacturers can make certain kinds 

of fabrics at a profit, many newer 

Fabrics of various constructions and combinations and effects will be pro 

materials have been used in the past duced than have ever before been 

in quite large quantities for scarfings seen. More ingenuity is possibly re- 

and similar purposes. Many of them quired in cotton novelty making than 

have been made of silk and net, and is necessary in any other line of en- 

as a general thing, they are light in deavor, for not only are a large 

weight and rather expensive to the amount of patterns required, but a 

consumer, because of their method of large number of constructions also, 

manufacture. There has been a large More ideas have possibly been produc- 

sale of such fabrics during the past ed in scarfings since articles were 

year, and it is expected that the manufactured of cotton and silk than 

amount of cloth sold will increase in were seen before. Another instance of 

the future. One reason for the in- cotton novelty cloth progress is seen 

crease in sales is the lower price at in the ideas produced in fancy cotton 

which many new lines are being sold. voiles. Voiles were made in worsted, 

The reason for this is the making of and sold before any were hardly at- 

novelties in silk and cotton by many tempted in cotton, but it is safe to 

northern mills. These silk and cotton say that to-day the ideas produced in 

cloths, of which the sample we have cotton are far more novel and beauti- 

analyzed is one, are not such good ful than the majority of worsted lines; 

fabrics as many whole silk articles, that is, as far as cotton looms are 

but they look very well indeed, and, of able to produce and the limit of price 

course, the appearance is what sells will warrant with cotton as a ground 

many fabrics, so it has resulted in work. Many lessons might be learned 

many new lines being produced. One from cotton manufacturers to-day by 

thing which is verj- noticeable is that others, and from appearances it 

the patterns produced are more novel would help in straightening out some 

and better than have ever been pro- of the vexing problems which are 

duced in silk at anywhere near com- present, 
parative prices. This is a general con- One other thing which many people 



1 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tSl 



do not realize Is that to-day there Is 
quite a little competition on the silk 
and cotton, and also on the other 
fancy lines of cloth. Because the retail 
prices are high does not signify that 
the mills have obtained exorbitant 
prices in many cases, for there are 
few lines which to-day are being of- 
fered by mills which have more value, 
everything considered, than many of 
the fancy novelty cloths. The facts 
are that the prices are made closer 
than is believed. This does not mean 
that no profit is mada, or that prices 
do not vary, but it does mean that 

MARGINS ARE CLOSE 

in most cases. When the price of 
silk varies 15 per cent, or more, some- 
times, in a short time, it is necessary 



care in prices, but it Is a fact that, 
taken as a whole, few cotton manu- 
facturers are able to give accurate 
costs on fabrics, except where only a 
few grades of cloth are made, and 
then they cannot give detailed figures. 
In woolen lines, it is true that a very 
large improvement could be made, for 
in many cases, prices are not made 
which compare with the costs of pro- 
duction. 

The cloth we are considering is a 
simple weave. The stripes are plain, 
and on each edge is a leno weave 
which holds each stripe In place, and 
keeps the openwork as clear as pos- 
sible. The leno weave changes every 
second pick, because with a change 
of every pick, the weave would be too 
close, and would cut the light filling. 




Silk Mixture Leno Scarfing. 



to vary prices, but the mills receive 
little benefit unless gambling is re- 
sorted to, and, of course, this Is not 
the way to run a mill, as some have 
found out. It is a fact that many cot- 
ton manufacturers are more accurate 
and systematic in keeping track of 
their costs than in other lines. Pos- 
sibly, this Is beciuse larger plants are 
the rule, in tho North, at least, in cot- 
ton lines, and necessity compels more 



Even with the construction used, the 
fabric slips somewhat, due to the large 
amount of openwork used. The cloth 
has only 140 doups, and it Is probable 
a weaver could run four looms, for 
the cloth Is narrow, and the filling 
runs well. If a weaver could run but 
two looms, the Increase in weaving 
cost would be somewhat over two 
cents, so the saving here represents a 
large amount. Weavers have run four 



238 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



looms successfully on much harder 
cloth to weave than this, so our 

ESTIMATE IS REASONABLE. 

These cloths are practically always 
woven in the grey, and then finished 
and dyed. Fast colors to stand bleach- 
ing are being used to a certain extent 
to produce desired results. Many fab- 
rics in fancy weaves, with the same 
construction as is used in this scarf- 
ing, have been sold at less than 11 1/^ 
cents in the grey state for 27 inches 
wide. These fabrics are retailing for 
25 cents per yard. Considering the 
price at which mills have sold these 
fabrics, it is safe to say that very few 
lines in woolen cloths are produced on 
so narrow a margin of profit. Cotton 
manufacturers have been giving bet- 
ter cloth at closer prices than is gen- 
erally believed, but it is a fact that 
consumers have benefited very little, 
even if makers have reduced prices, 
and are supplying better cloth, too. 
What mills need to-day is a large de- 
mand, so that orders can be procured 
to keep their looms in operation, for, 
with full production, the prices re- 
ceived would, in the majority of cases, 
be satisfactory. High prices to the 
consumer seem to restrict a large sale, 
and manufacturers are suffering in a 
large measure for conditions which 
they have had nothing to do with; in 
fact, the prices quoted by manufactur- 
ers to-day, on fancy and fine goods, 
should mean a large demand, but un- 
fortunately, it has not. 

Fabrics made from silk and cotton 
are handled in increasing quantity by 
regular silk houses which convert 
them and sell to the retailers, and 
which, in many cases, conduct their 
business similar to converting jobbers, 
and, of course, receive converting job- 
bers' profits. This cloth was made 
when silk was cheaper than at pres- 
ent, so the figured cost, which repre- 
sents to-day's basis, may have been 
made lower, because of a lower ma- 
terial charge. The total warp cost is 
only about li^ cents, so it shows how 
accurate figures must be to even be 
fairly reliable. 

Nearly all fabrics which have open- 
work stripes, and in which silk or 
any slippery yarn is used, have leno 



ends woven on the openwork edges, 
to keep the stripes in place, for they 
are likely to slip badly in use. Heavy 
yarn, if used for leno ends, is likely 
to cut the fine silk filling. In many 
of the silk fabrics which are composed 
of part cotton, it is a fact that the 
silk used will vary surprisingly, not 
only in the yards per pound in the 
same lot of silk, but some manufactur- 
ers will make a pattern and use a finer 
silk to produce it so as to compete 
with other more expensive yam. Of 
course, a good manufacturer makes a 
contract and usually states the quality 
of yarn to be used, which 

ELIMINATES ALL TROUBLE 

of such nature, but it cannot elimi- 
nate the variation in size to which the 
yarn is subject. Where the practice is 
used is when buyers have ordered a 
certain pattern with a certain silk, 
and then when the cloth appears to be 
selling well, to place more orders with 
a finer silk, and make no change in 
price, and many buyers think they are 
obtaining the same cloth, which they 
are not. Buyers have insisted that 
they were protecting themselves, lest 
others oiTer cloths of lower count, or 
of finer silk, to sell at a lower price, 
but many times, it was not done for 
this purpose, and we do not believe 
buyers have known the quality re- 
ceived, for it is sometimes hard for an 
expert to tell what size silk has been 
used, especially if the cloth has been 
worked much to spread out the fi- 
bres. The only way to ascertain, In 
such cases, is with a large magnify- 
ing glass, which few have, and be - 
sides cloth is not bought by jobbers 
or retailers in this manner. Mills de- 
liver the quality of cloth called for, 
and the substitution is done after the 
mill has delivered the goods. Buyers 
know quite a little in regard to cloth 
construction in fancy cotton lines, but 
knowledge should not be used in a 
wrong manner. 

It is a good thing to have buyers 
in cotton understand something of 
cloth construction, as it results in bet- 
ter cloth from the mills, and it would 
be a good thing for many woolen buy- 
ers to obtain some knowledge of cloth, 
for they are sadly lacking in this re- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Bpect. Large retailers should also 
check up their deliveries from con- 
verters. The large retailers who aro 
doing converting seem destined to 
solve many of the problems which 
confront buyers and consumers to- 
day. They are at least getting large 
returns from the knowledge of cloth 
which they are applying to their sys- 
tems of distribution, and they usually 
get the quality of cloth they desire, 
and are not likely to change the con- 
struction. The silk yardage we have 
used in figuring our weights is not 
the theoretical yardage for this size 
silk but it is an assumed yardage ar- 
rived at from actual tests, which will 
protect the manufacturer when the 
silk yardage varies, as has been pre- 
viously stated. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR DYEING. 
This sample is dyed a solid color 
on both the cotton and silk. It is of 
a pale blue shade, and can be very 
conveniently obtained, with direct cot- 
ton colors so selected that the dye- 
stuff will work equally well on both 
fibres. The following formula is rec- 
ommended for dyeing this color: 1-10 
per cent diamine blue, R. W. (Cassella 
Color Company.) 



This amount of color is to be taken 
on the weight of material to be dyed 
and added to the dye-bath, which 
should also contain three ounces of 
soap, one ounce of soda and four 
ounces of Glauber's salt to each 10 
gallons of the dye -liquid. 

This material is dyed in the piece, 
and most conveniently in the ordi- 
nary dye- kettle, used for piece-dyeing. 
The water employed for the prepara- 
tion of the dye-bath should be as soft 
as possible, in order to preserve the 
brilliancy of the silk, and to obtain the 
true pure tone of the color. When all 
of the ingredients, together with the 
dyestuff, have been added to the bath, 
the liquor should be brought to the 
temperature of 140 degrees Fahren- 
heit, and the goods run for one hour 
at that temperature. After the dyeing 
has been completed, the goods should 
be rinsed off in soft water, or if this is 
not available, a little soda should be 
added to the water in order to cor- 
rect its hardness. 

In order to increase the brilliancy 
of the silk after dyeing, the goods may 
be run through a diluted bath of 
acetic acid, containing about two 
ounces of acetic acid to 10 gallons of 



PATTERN. 







2 






60/1 


Am. 








cmb. 


wp. 


16 


8 




60/2 


Am. 








cmb. 


wp. 






4 



4X 53X 

14/16 2 thread Canton silk filling; 76 picks. 

46 reed, 25%" width In reed, 24" grey width, 24" finished width; 99 X 
53 X 76 over all count. 

YARNS. 



I 81161=1.000 
4| I 1= 280 



4X Total 1,280 
76 ground count; 



Cotton. 
60/2 Am. comb, warp; 1%" sfa.: 12 hank dou. rov.. 26c. 

60/1 Am. comb, warp; 1%" sta.; 12 hank dou. rov., 26c. 

14/16 2 thread Canton silk; 135.000 yds. per lb.; ready on quills 



Labor, 
waste. 

17c. 

17c. 



Twisting. 
4c. 



$ .47 

.43 

3.55 



COST. 

1,000 ends, 60/1 Am. combed 4- 4% take-up = .0206 @ $ .43 = $ .0089 

280 ends, 60/2 Am. combed + 15% take-up = .0131 @ .47 = .0062 

76 picks. 14/16 2 thread Canton silk = .0145 @ 3.55 = .0515 

Weaving .0215 

Expenses .0187 

$ .1068 

Selling .0021 

Cost grey J .1089 

Finishing, dyeing, etc .0300 

Cost finished » .1889 

Yards per pound, 20.76. 
Retail prlc«, I7c. 



284 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



liquor, and dried witliout rinsing. 
After the brightening has been com- 
pleted, the goods sliould be run over 
a spreader for the purpcse of straight- 
ening out the goods and then dried 
over ordinary drying cans witliout too 
much tension being put on the fabric. 



SILK MIXTURE FAST COLOR 
NOVELTIES 

In our analysis of these fabrics we 
have given the patterns of both cloths, 
but the cost applies only to the blue 
sample. The yarns are identical in the 
samples, but the reed width in the blue 



opportunities in these lines. Many 
m'lls use colors which are called fast, 
and they are to an extent fast, but 
they will not stand a bleaching proc- 
ess, while the colors used in these 
samples are practically as bright as 
before the bleaching process. There 
are samples of cloth made that con- 
tain silk yarn which when bleached 
are still fast and bright, but they have 
not been sold to as large an extent as 
they will be later, when the results 
can be seen. 

What the above facts mean is little 
appreciated by many in the trade, for 
they have not felt the effects as yet, 
but sooner or later it will be hard for 
certain mills to obtain orders. This 
will be brought about by the fact that 
many lines of cloth can be made cheap- 




Heliotrope Shirting. 



striped cloth is 38i/4 inches, while the 
reed width of the heliotrope fabric is 
38 inches. It will be found that the 
cost of producing different patterns 
will vary little, as will be explained 
later. 

These cloths are some of the newest 
ideas in manufacturing, for not only 
are they novelties, inasmuch as they 
contain silk, but they also contain 
yarn which is dyed before weaving 
and which has been bleached when 
woven. It is only within a short time 
that such colors have been used, and 
It is certain that the future holds large 



er and possibly better by this method. 
The past summer has seen the be- 
ginning, in a large way, of certain 
changes which are bound to follow. It 
is a fact that men are not wearing 
shirtings with large amounts of color 
in them as formerly, and it is true 
that fabrics, generally, of this char- 
acter are better looking if quite a lit- 
tle white is used in their make-up. For 
this reason, it can be seen that cloth 
can be produced cheaper by using a 
small number of fast-colored ends and 
bleaching the cloth when woven, for 
it is much easier and cheaper to bleach 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



286 



cloth than It is yarn. Not only is It 
cheaper, but it is also possible to use 
soft twist yarn for filling, and this al- 
lows the cloth to be mercerized in the 
piece, which adds much to the appear- 
ance when sold. Because more twist 
is needed so that yarns can be handled 
satisfactorily when they are used in a 
yarn-dyed fabric, mercerization adds 
but little to the looks of a fabric, so 
this process is seldom used. 

The use of yarn of this character 
places almost any grey cloth mill in a 
position to make many varieties of 
cloths which it otherwise could not 
produce, and makes the amount of 
cloth sold by purely shirting mills 
much smaller. Not only do the above 
facts stand out clearly, but it is also 
true that grey fabric mills are able to 
produce, generally, cloths of large va- 



Take the cloth analyzed and it will 
be seen that the ground warp Is 60-1. 
Few colored shirting mills use yarn 
much finer than 40-1, and most use 
30-1 in their shirtings, while 60-1 is 
only a medium size in a grey mill 
which makes fancy and fine cloths. In 
fabrics, color and cords are used for 
decorative purposes, and it can be 
seen that, although the color is 30-1, 
the cloth effect is given by the 60-1 
used. 

Many fine shirtings will te produced 
soon which cannot be approached by 
a regular shirting mill and which will 
displace more or less fabrics made by 
the older type of mills. Even at pres- 
ent the older mills have had to de- 
velop other lines of colored novelties 
to keep their looms in operation, and 
their sales are continually growing 




Blue Shirting. 



riety in regard to sizes of yam used. 
Shirting mills have only a few qual- 
ities of fabrics, that is, their yarn sizes 
do not vary much, and their patterns 
are produced by different colors and 
cords in various spacings and combi- 
nations, while in a grey mill it is the 
weave and yarn size, together with the 
cloth construction used, which give 
the result. It can thus be seen that 

MUCH FINER CLOTH, 
regarding yarn and count, can be pro- 
duced In a grey yam mill. 



smaller. This fact is seen from the 
statement that the large shirt manu- 
facturers are buying cloth in increas- 
ing amounts from grey mills and then 
having the cloth finished at a regular 
finishing plant, whereas formerly, in 
some cases, they bought a larg3 share 
of the product of shirting mills. 

Many instances of the above are be- 
coming known, and it is certain that 
shirt makers are obtaining their cloth 
cheaper than ever, or if not cheaper, 
then they are receiving better quality 



^6 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



for the same price, when cloth selling 
conditions are considered. 

Some of these older mills are rather 
skeptical regarding the cloth selling 
prices in these lines, and claim 
cloths cannot be made for the prices 
at which they are sold, but the fact 
remains that the cloths are sold, and 
mills making them declare good divi- 
dends. Mills making cloths of this 
nature have no dyehouses and usually 
have the yarn dyed at a dyeing plant. 
Of course, this costs somewhat more 
than if done at one's own plant, but it 
saves the outlay for a dyehouse, and 
as the amounts used are not large, the 
added cost is small, as far as the cost 
of producing goes. 

Regarding the two cloths analyzed, 
it can be stated that they are made for 
various purposes, and are a distinct 
improvement on some of the past fab- 
rics. They will be used to quite an 
extent for shirtings for men. Some 
may say that this will affect the sale 
of regular cloths but little, yet it is 
believed that the wear will be sat- 
isfactory, and it is very likely that 
they will displace some of the all-cot- 
ton fabrics. Cloth will not cost a 
shirt maker over 75 cents per shirt, 
and this should make the retail price 
reasonable to many men. It will be 
seen that the largest item in produc- 
ing is the cost of the silk. This is al- 
most 12 cents per yard or over one- 
hilf the total cost. 

In some fabrics a lighter silk is 
used, which reduces the cost some- 
what, but, naturally, this silk does not 
wear as well. It is to be noted that 
there is quite a large number of picks. 
When fabrics were first made of cot- 
ton and silk, the above count was used 
in the make-up, but the picks were 
gradually reduced to 96. and then low- 
er, so that at present much of the 
plain warp variety is made in a count 
of 96 by 76. When these fabrics were 
first produced, 

THE RETAIL PRICE 

was about 50 cents for a cloth 26 
inches wide. 

The cloths being considered are 36 
inches wide, and not only this, but 
they have color in the warps, and the 
retail price is but 45 cents. This does 
pot mean that the retail price Is what 



it should be, but it shows that there 
is much more value given than pre- 
viously. In finishing, the cloth is 
bleached, and when it is stretched and 
folded, it is ready to ship. Few pat- 
terns are being sold as yet, but many 
are being made, and they will appear 
the coming spring. Not only are there 
stripes like the samples, bat 
similar patterns with dobby figures, 
also checks in various sizes and col- 
ors, with woven figures in both 
dobby and jacquard ideas, and also 
many styles of jacquard designs. 
It is believed many cloths of this na- 
ture will be sold and used. 

It is probably true that many fabrics 
for ladies' wear will not have as large 
a number of picks as the samples con- 
sidered, and the price will be some- 
what less, but it is also true that for 
men's shirtings a firm texture is nec- 
essary, and it is believed that if re- 
sults be satisfactory, the number of 
picks should not be much lower than 
those considered. In weaving, it is 
necessary to keep an even tension on 
the colored yarn beams, for if this is 
not done, the smooth, even effect is 
lost, and the colored yarn will pucker 
up in the cloth, sometimes spoiling the 
result. No change is necessary to 
weave such fabrics on an ordinary 
loom except a shuttle to hold the 
silk quill as received from the throw- 
ster. Percentages of production are 
usually as large or larger than if cot- 
ton filling were employed, and the 
number of looms per weaver is as 
large as on fancy weaves in all-cotton 
cloths. 

There are two sizes of cotton silk 
which are largely used by cotton mills, 
one is the regular 14-16 two-thread 
quality and the other is 22-26 single 
Canton. Both are used for the same 
purposes, and the 22-26 single, which 
is somewhat finer and also cheaper, is 
used to cheapen the designs produced 
in 14-16 two-thread, although the dif- 
ference in costs is not so large as 
might be thought. We have uspd in 
our figures a yardaee of 135 000 for 
14-16 two-thread. This is not the the- 
oretical yardage, but Is a practical fig- 
ure used to protect the manufacturer 
from variation in silk sizes. It is to 
be noted that finished widths in these 
fabrics are about as wide as the grey 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



237 



widths from the looms. The shrinkage 
in weaving will be about two inches in 
ordinary cases, but the number of 



ing operation is rather slow, orders 
must be placed soon or deliveries wil' 
be too late for the coming season. 



PATTEKN BLUE SAMPLE. 



60/1 American combed 

30/1 American combed blue. 
30/3 American carded 



2 




















2 


12 




32 


1 


2 


1 


4 


1 


2 


32 

1 


12 



= 2,564 
= 276 
= 276 



69 X 
14/16 2 end Canton silk; 120 picks. 

PATTERN HELIOTROPE SAMPLE. 



60/1 Am. c'mb|12 



30/1 Am. c'mb 

heliotrope. . 

30/3 Am. c'rd 



|2 




1 1 








































2 


12 i 


141^ ( ^( l'?°l', 


S 




12 








12 




8 




16 


14 




6 




14 




12 






31 3 






























3 




3 












1| 1 
1 




1 




1 




1 


4 


1 




1 




1 






1 




1 









121 = 2,808 



= 380 
= 138 



3 X 



3 X 



3,326 



23 X 
14/16 2 end Canton silk; 120 picks. 

44 reed, 38%" width in reed, 36" grey width, 3%" finished width; S6 X 120 grey count over 
all; 87 X 116 finished count over all; 93 X 120 ground count. 



YARNS. 



60/1 Am. comb., 1%" sta. ; 12 hank dou. rov., 
30/1 Am. comb., 1^4" sta.; 6 hank dou. rov., 
30/3 Am. card., IVw" sta.; 6 hank dou. rov., 



Cotton. 
24c. 
16c. 
14c. 



Labor & 

waste. 

16 Vic 

8c. 

5%c. 



Twist- 
ing. 



Dyeing. 



14/16 2 end Canton silk; 135,000 yds. per lb. On quills; 

COST BLUE SAMPLE. 

2,564 ends, 60/1 Am. combed + 6% take-up = .0540 @ $ .40% 

276 ends, 30/1 Am. combed blue -|- 10% take-up = .0122 @ .40 

276 ends, 30/3 Am. carded 4- 2% take-up = .0336 @ .23% 

120 picks, 14/16 2 end Canton silk = .0340 @ 3.50 

Weaving , 

Expenses 



Selling 



Mill cost 

Bleaching, finishing, etc. 



Finished cost 

Yards per pound = 7.47. 
Retail price, 45c. per yard. 
Mill price, 22 %c. per yard. 

cords in the design is likely to affect 
each result somewhat. 

The heavy cords are reeded one in 
a dent in both fabrics, while the col- 
ored and ground yarns are reeded 
two in a dent. The threads are all 
woven plain in these cloths, but the 
effects produced are distinctly novel. 
Some of the future designs which are 
not on the market as yet show not 
only novel effects produced with col- 
ored yarn and cords, but also many 
ingenious adaptations in the weaves 
used, and there should be a ready sale 
for much of this cloth. As the weav- 



$ .40% 
.40 
.23% 
3.50 



$ .0219 
.0049 
.0079 
.1190 
.0193 
.0251 

$ .1981 
.0040 

% .2021 
.0150 

$ .2171 



Dyeing Particulars. 

There is only one color to be con- 
sidered in this fabric, and that is a 
lavender shade dyed on a cotton stripe 
In the warp. For the dyeing of this 
color it is recommended to use sulphur 
dyestuffs, as these will stand the sub- 
sequent treatm.ent given the fabric for 
the bleaching. The usual run of di- 
rect cotton dyes would not be satis- 
factory, for this fabric after being 
woven is bleached in a solution of hy- 
drogen peroxide for the purpose of 
whitening both the cotton and the silk. 



28S 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



If direct cotton dyes were employed in 
this case the color would bleed to a 
considerable extent onto both the 
white cotton warp and the white silk 
filling. By the use of suitable sulphur 
dyes, however, the color can be ob- 
tained so that it will not bleed when 
bleached in the hydrogen peroxide 
bath. For the production of this lav- 
ender shade the dyeing may be carried 
out as follows: For 100 pounds of yarn 
use a bath containing 1 pound of im- 
medial violet C and one pound of sodi- 
um sulphide crystals. 

Dye for one hour at a temperature 
of 160 to 180 degrees Fahrenheit. 
While with the majority of sulphur 
dyes it is customary to add to the dye- 
bath soda ash and also a considerable 
quantity of either Glauber's salt or 
common salt, these conditions are not 
to be recommended in the case of dye- 
ing with immedial violet C. It will 
also be noted that 

THE TEMPERATURE 
of the dye-bath should not be greater 
than 180 degrees Fahrenheit. This is 
for the purpose of maintaining the full 
brilliancy of the color. After the yarn 
has been dyed it should be well wash- 
ed off in fresh water and then washed 
off in a second bath with a solution 
containing one ounce of soap to 10 gal- 
lons of water. This scouring bath 
should be employed at a temperature 
of 160 degrees Fahrenheit. The yarn 
is then hydro-extracted and dried. 
The fabric after weaving is given a 
slight bleaching with hydrogen perox- 
ide. This is done by immersing the 
cloth in a solution containing 1 gallon 
of hydrogen peroxide (3 per cent) to 
10 gallons of water. Sufficient silicate 
of soda is then added to this solution 
to insure the bath being slightly alka- 
line in reaction. The bleaching bath 
is started at a temperature of 160 de- 
grees Fahrenheit, and the goods are 
left submerged therein for 8 to 10 
hours, or most conveniently over- 
night. Sufficient heat is left on the 
bath during this time to keep it at a 
temperature of about 100 degrees Fah- 
renheit. After bleaching, the goods 
are removed and well washed In soft 
water. 

This sample Is very similar In Its 
general make-up to the preceding 



sample. There is only one color to be 
considered and that is the light blue 
dyed on the stripe in the cotton warp. 
This color should also be dyed with 
the sulphur dyes so that it may stand 
the subsequent bleaching process with 
hydrogen peroxide. In order to pro- 
duce this color the following procedure 
is recommended: For 100 pounds of 
yarn use a bath prepared as follows: 
One pound, 2 ounces, of immedial sky- 
blue powder, 1 pound sodium sulphide 
crystals and 8 ounces of soda ash. 

To the above should also be added 
for each 10 gallons of liquor 1% 
ounces of Turkey red oil and li/^ 
pounds of desiccated Glauber's salt. 
These proportions are to be taken for 
the first or starting bath and if subse- 
quent lots are to be dyed it will only 
require about two-thirds the amount 
of dyestuffs and the corresponding 
quantity of sodium sulph-de, while the 
amount of soda ash can be reduced to 
4 ounces, Turkey red oil to 1 ounce, 
and the Glauber's salt to 8 ounces, the 
amounts of the last two Ingredients 
being based on 10 gallons' volume of 
the dye-bath. The immedial sky-blue 
should be well dissolved by boiling up 
with the sodium sulnhide and soda ash 
previous to the addition of these in- 
gredients to the dve-b'^th. A pro- 
longed boiling of the dyestuff solution, 
however, should be avoided, as it is 
liable to 

CAUSE A DECOMPOSITION 

of the coloring matter. The dyeing 
should be carried out by entering the 
yarn at a temperature of 85 degrees 
Fahrenheit, then gradually raising the 
temperature to about 100 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and continuing the dyeing 
for three-auarters of an hour. The 
yarn should then be taken out of the 
dye-bath, soueezed and hung up in the 
air for about an hour to allow for the 
full development of the color. It 
should then be given an after-treat- 
ment in a fresh bath with 2 per cent 
of potassium bichromate and 3 per 
cent of acetic acid. After this the 
yarn Is once again well rinsed off and 
finally brightened in a soap bath con- 
taining 1 ounce of scan per 10 gallons 
of water at a temperature of 160 de- 
grees Fahrenheit. This fabric has 
also been bleached in the piece with 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



239 



hydrogen peroxide in a manner similar 
to that of the foregoing sample, the 
bleaching being conducted as follows: 
Prepare a bath containing 1 gallon 
of hydiogen peroxide (3 per cent) to 
10 gallons of water and add sufficient 
sodium silicate to make the bath dis- 
tinctly alkaline in reaction. This 
bleaching bath is started at a temper- 
ature of 160 degrees Fahrenheit. The 
goods are entered and submerged be- 
neath the liquor and left for from 8 
to 10 hours or more conveniently over- 
night, sufficient heat being left on the 
bath to maintain its temperature at 
about 100 degrees Fahrenheit. After 
bleaching, the goods are removed from 
the bath and well washed in soft 
water. 



CHECK FLAXON 

The fabrics which are sold under 
this trade name are used largely at 
present. Styles are made in various 
patterns and counts, but, in general, 
they are all rather light cloths, al- 
though some of the fabrics would be 
designated as of medium weight. 
Many uses are found for the various 
lines, such as waists and dresses, and 
they are used for various styles of em- 
broidery by the sellers of such cloths. 

Buyers had an idea at one time that 
the fabrics were partly of linen, and 
that this was the reason for their high 
luster, but this notion Is no longer 
held, for the cloths are of cotton whol- 
ly, and the finish is obtained after the 
cloth is woven. Most of the 
grades retail at twenty-five cents 
per yard. There is ^-.n agree- 
ment between the seller and the job- 
bers that no cloth will be sold to re- 
tailers over the jobbers' heads, so re- 
tailers of necessity must purchase 
from jobbers. There Is also an under- 
standing regardmg prices, and the 
usual allowance is made, in order 
that the jobber can sell to the retailer 
at a price, so the latter will sell to 
the consumer at 25 cents per yard 
the grades which are supposed to be 
sold at this price. Few retailers are 
willing to depart from the prices 
which are named, for it is more than 
likely that no more cloth can be ob- 



tained if this is done. There has been 
and is more or less friction regarding 
prices, but as these cloths are highly 
advertised, and as ihey are good sell- 
ers for this reason, retailers very sel- 
dom break the prices named. 

Possibly, it may not be well known, 
but it is a tact that on light-weight 
fabrics if fine yarns be uaed, any 
woven figure will not show up well 
when the cloth is finished unless a 
different process be employed than on 
ordinary fabrics. This statement also 
holds true on 

STRIPES AND CHECKS 
to an extent, for if any weave is em- 
ployed it is hardly distinguishable 
unless carefully examined. There 
would be no object in using a weave 
under such conditions, so almost all 
fabrics with a fancy weave were form- 
erly of medium or of rather heavy 
weight. This was done so that when 
sold the weave would show. Until 
the method now employed was adopt- 
ed, or at least a similar process, few 
cloths of fine yarn had any weave in 
their construction except plain weave. 
To-day, there are many fabrics being 
sold with fine yarns and woven figures 
on which the pattern can be as dis- 
tinctly seen as on some of the coarser 
cloths. 

This result is, of course, done In the 
process of finishing. The fabric when 
sold has a gloss which brings out the 
woven pattern, and a crisp, harsh feel 
which many heavier cloths do not 
have. The various finishing plants do 
not supply information regarding the 
processes used in finishing, but the 
probabilities are that similar methods 
are employed In all cases. It must 
not be thought that the line of cloths 
referred to is the only one which Is 
to-day given this finish, for it is not 
and many houses sell similar fabrics. 
It can be stated here that the finish 
given is purely a finish, and a large 
part of it will wash out when the 
cloth is laundered. 

The process given consists of first 
bleaching the fabric, and when this Is 
done, together with various prelim- 
inary processes, the fabric Is given a 
mercerizing similar to many of the 
heavier cloths. This gives a small 
gloss to the fine yarn used, but It pr«- 



240 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



pares a foundation for the following 
treatment. This consists i i running 
the cloth through a solution in which 
there is a transparent gum and which 
gives the gloss to the cloth and makes 
the figure stand out on the cloth. The 
gum also gives the crisp feel which 
the cloth has. No heavy calendering is 
used, for this would be likely to spoil 
the effect somewhat. From the above 
it can be seen that the individual 
threads are more or less similar to 
small glass rods when the process is 
completed. 

As is well known, the beauty of any 
fine cloth lies in the 

EVENNESS OF THE YARN 
of which the fabric is woven. This 
is illustrated clearly by the state- 
ment that some makers of fine cloths 



follow. One thing which it is always 
necessary to do in making any kind 
of a fabric is to have the yarn strong 
enough to stand the strain of weaving. 
Some yarns will weave well on plain 
work, but will break when quite a 
number of harnesses are used, and for 
this reason, the percentage of produc- 
tion will be low. If a good production 
be obtained on plain, and a poor pro- 
duction on fancy patterns with the 
same yarn, it should be investigated 
and corrected if possible. Some pat- 
terns will run badly in any case be- 
cause of the weave combinations used 
or the crowding of ends, but the high- 
est production possible should be aim- 
ed for. 

A fact which is not generally 
known is that yarn will run satis- 




Check Flaxon. 



have a hard time in obtaining market 
prices for their fabrics, while others 
can obtain somewhat more than the 
ruling price. The difference in price 
is largely explained by the difference 
in yarn quality. The quality of yarn 
being dependent somewhat on the cot- 
ton used, it will probably be true that 
there is not always the difference in 
profit which is believed when prices 
vary, because in the better cloth it is 
likely that better cotton was used, al- 
though tliis conclusion does not always 



factorily in a jacquard pattern which 
cannot be used on ordinary dobby 
figures. This is caused by the fact 
that the variation in lift from front 
to back harness on the jacquard is 
less than that on the dobby harness, 
and there is little strain on the yarn. 
A better percentage of production will 
be obtained at the same speed on a 
jacquard than on a dobby pattern if 
yarn and other conditions are equal. 
The number of looms to an 
operative would be identical in 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



241 



most cases on jacquard and dobby 
work, if the cloth woven were of sim- 
ilar construction. Much more care 
is necessary in the making of fine 
cloth than in the manufacture of 
coarse fabrics, for many times cloth 
which would pass as a first would be 
called a second in fine woven fabrics. 
As seconds are sold at a reduction of 
5 per cent and only 5 per cent of sec- 
onds are allowed by contract, it fol- 
lows that a mill which makes a larger 
proportion of seconds than this 
amount stands to lose more than their 
profit, because buyers do not want 
them, except at a large sacrifice, and if 
they are sold for a reduction, it will be 
likely to hurt the sale of the original 
seller, for the cloth will be offered 
at a lower price. This makes the 
identical cloth on the market for two 
prices, and it is needless to say that 
some friction is likely to result. 

A great variety of patterns are pro- 
duced in fine fabrics. Because of the 
yarn used many of the most salable 
styles are made by combinations of 
different sizes of yarns in checks and 
stripes. Instead of using two or more 
sizes of yarns it is sometimes possible 
to produce the same effects by crowd- 
ing yarn together. Many cloths are 



made which have heavy v/oven figures, 
which are sheared off, and a fine 
ground. In many instances, the ef- 
fects are produced by contrasts with 
heavy and light places in the woven 
fabric. 

Yarns and cloth are 

LIGHTER WHEN WOVEN 

and finished than would appear if the 
original yarn be considered. The yarn 
loses weight in handling and in weav- 
ing, and the cloth is usually pulled 
some in finishing. Few experiments 
which are accurate have ever been 
made along these lines. Results will 
vary, depending on the conditions ex- 
isting in both weaving and finishing. 
Facts are known more accurately in 
many of the newer fine mills than 
they are in some of the older colored 
mills. Possibly, this situation has de- 
veloped from conditions existing, for 
in colored mills yarns are usually of 
few sizes, and the styling is done by 
color combinations, while in grey cloth 
where woven figures are used, weave 
combinations and the use of various 
sizes of yarns give the results. 

The selling house which produced 
flaxon also produced soiesette. There 
is no doubt that the making of cloths 



PATTERN. 



50/1 American combed 20 

/O/l American combed 



2 






3 2 


3 






2 


20 




11 


1 12 


1 


9 




20 



100/1 American combed filling; 96 picks. 
38 reed; 35" widtli in reed; 33" grey width; 32%' 
over all; 122 X 94 finished count over all. 



= 2,390 
= 1,540 



finished width; 



3,930 total ends. 
119 X 96 grey count 



50/1 Am. combed; 1%' 

70/1 Am. combed; 1%' 

100/1 Am. combed; 1%' 



YARNS. 

sta. ; 10 hanlt double roving, 
sta. ; 14 hanlt double roving, 
.sta. ; 22 hank double roving, 



Cotton. 
21c. 
24c. 
27c. 



Labor & waste. 
14%c. 
20M!C. 
34%c. 



35%c. 
44%c. 
61V4C. 



CO.ST. 

2,390 ends, 50/1 Am. combed + 4% take-up = .0593 ® 35Vic. = $ .0209 

1.540 ends. 70/1 Am. combed + 5% take-up = .0276 & 44>,4c. = .0123 

96 picks. 100/1 Am. combed = .0400 © 61^c. = .0246 

Weaving .0144 

Expenses .0189 

% .0911 

Finishing, etc .0150 



Yards per pound, 7.88. 
Retnllers price. 25c. per yard. 
Jobbers price, 16Vic. per yard. 
Commission price, 14%c. per yard. 
Mill price, about 12c. per yard. 



$ .1061 



242 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



for mercerlzation, of which the above 
was possibly the leader, has added 
a large field to the making of fancy 
cloth. The sale of these constructions, 
with the use of fast colors and in 
various fancy weaves, is increasing 
rapidly, and is displacing many of the 
other lines used for similar purposes. 
The method of manufacture has re- 
sulted in reductions in prices which 
a few years ago would have seemed 
hardly possible. The large increase 
which is noted in the work done by 
purely finishing plants has been made 
possible through these new lines, be- 
cause better work at a cheaper cost 
can be produced. Adaptation of new 
ideas on old cloths is an art in itself, 
and almost every new idea evolves 
others, so that the industry is bound 
together as a whole. The makers who 
first adopt such ideas are likely to 
receive large rewards in the way of 
increased business and profits, and 
not only this, but there is much good 
which always results to the trade in 
general through improved cloths or 
methods of making and finishing. 



SILK MIXTURE CROSS-DYED 
NOVELTY 

The fabric of which we have given 
the analysis is one which many of 
the newer cotton mills are to-day 
making in quite large quantity. These 
fabrics are finished in various ways, 
but the larger portion are dyed solid 
shades. Some lines of these cloths 
are dyed so that one kind of yarn will 
be one color, while the other yarn 
will be a different color. This gives 
what is called a cross-dyed effect, and 
the sample considered is one of these 
results, though in the cloth in ques- 
tion, the warp is dyed black, while 
the filling remains white. It is a fact 
that raw silk will in most cases give 
better results than if spun silk be 
used. The new combinations which are 
being made and the use of fast colors 
to stand bleaching on cotton and silk 
have added much variety to cloth 
production in grey cloth mills, for it 
is now possible to use fast colors on 
yarn In weaving grey cloth, and to 



produce some lines of three-color ef- 
fects. These have not been used 
largely as yet, but the amount pro- 
duced is likely to increase. Until re- 
cently, it was necessary to use dyed 
yarns for various grades of cloth 
which are to-day being made of grey 
yarns and at a reduction in the mill 
cost. 

SIZES OF YARN USED. 

In the making of this fabric, a num- 
ber of sizes of yarns were used for 
the warp. These various yarns are 
run on one beam at the slasher. 
There is no pattern attempted, and 
they are placed in a hit or miss ar- 
rangement. Some have never been 
able to get satisfactory results by 
using various sizes of yarn from the 
same beam, but it is a fact that many 
adopt this method with good results 
and a decided saving in trouble. 
Some mills are in the habit of run- 
ning different sizes of yarn in colors 
on the same beam, but this process 
requires care, especially on some pat- 
terns. The majority of cloths made 
in plain warps have 40-1 yarn, in fa t, 
this cloth is more or less standard, 
but each mill makes a different com- 
bination when a novelty warp is used. 
Some use three sizes of yarn, with 
60-1, 30-1 and 30-2 mixed, while others 
use four grades of yarn in various 
sizes. Most combinations have two- 
ply yarn to an extent, but some like 
sample are made entirely of single 
yarn. This method makes the cost of 
production somewhat less. One thing 
which is noticed is that when novelty 
warps are used, the picks per inch are 
usually less. This is possible, because 
the larger siz^s of yarn used tend to 
make the cloth firmer. Sometimes, 
there is a ground weave used in mak- 
ing up p-atterns for this class of cloths. 
What are called slash-lines are placed 
Indiscriminately over the ground, and 
this process adds to the novelty of 
the cloth produced. To-day, there Is 
an enormous amount of these fabrics 
produced, and few realize the extent 
to which they are used. 

THE RETAIL PRICE 
Is at present less than half what 
it formerly was. It is well to 
make note of the fact that the cost 
price given is based on to-day's basis. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



243 



Not only has the Tussah silk decliaed 
much in price, but cotton is also 
lower, so cloth which sold last year 
for 14 to 141/^ cents per yard is at a 
lower price to-day. Many buyers 
have cloth of this nature on hand, and 
they should dispose of it to retailers 
so that losses will not be sustained, for 
the new product can be sold at a re- 
duction on former prices. It is cer- 
tain that there will be a regular de- 
mand for fabrics of this general na- 
ture. Orders are for quite large 
quantities of cloth in comparison with 
some other fancy lines, but there are 
various patterns applied to the same 



livered by silk throwsters, and at 
other times an ordinary shuttle is 
used, and the filling quilled onto or- 
dinary cize cotton bobbins. In either 
case, the production should be as large 
or larger than for ordinary cotton 
shirtings. 

IN ANALYZING ANY FABRIC 

with various sizes of yarn it is a hard 
operation to obtain the number of ends 
and the sizes of the yarns employed 
in the warps. If yarn is used in 
stripes or in a regular pattern, the 
process is much simplified, but where 
the hit or miss system is used, exact 




Silk Mixture Cross-Dyed Novelty. 



construction. I* is on such a cloth as 
this that buyers are apt to make 
changes in patterns, and cause trouble 
at the mills when cloth is in the 
looms. In nearly all cases, a buyer 
will want sample pieces, and the mak- 
ing of these will eat up sometimes 
much of the apparent profit which a 
mill makes on the sale. Profits form- 
erly were large on these cloths, but 
to-day a mill obtains no larger amount 
than for other regular lines, the mar- 
gin of profit being close and the total 
made varying with the eflRciency of 
operation. No difficulty is experi- 
enced in making cloths of this char- 
acter on ordinary Jacnuard shirting 
looms. Sometimes a shuttle is used 
which will hold small quills as de- 



results cannot be obtained. For this 
reason, manufacturers use their own 
combinations of yarn in duplicating 
other cloths. 

Fabrics are usually made on either 
400 or 600 jacquard looms, on which 
the tie-up is about 100 to 120 per inch. 
The width of pattern and ends per 
inch will vary somewhat, but the 
above will be true in most cases. In 
the cloth analyzed it was probable 
that the pattern was made on a 600- 
machine, which was tied-up 120 per 
inch, giving a pattern width of 5 
Inches. 600 divided by 120 equals 
5 inches. The width of pattern In 
the finished cloth will depend on the 
amount which the cloth shrinks In 
weaving and also In finishing. In 



244 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



many instances, this shrinkage will be 
from 7 to 10 per cent, although various 
fabrics will shrink less, and some 
even more, than the above amounts. It 
is a fact that many designers have 
tried to convince buyers that stripes 
and other variations in patterns could 
not be produced on regular jacquards, 
claiming a special tie-up was neces- 
sary, but it will be found on investi- 
gation that a very large percentage of 
such patterns are produced on reg- 
ular tie-ups. It would give many of 
such men a cold shock if they knew 
that in some mills to-day there 
are many bordered patterns being pro- 
duced on regular machines, and with 
no extra dobby harnesses used either. 
Of course, there is a limit to the pat- 
tern which can be produced, but it is 
done, and to the buyer's satisfaction 
too. It requires a thorough knowledge 
of patterns and methods employed 
to produce them, also a keen insight 
for adapting cloths to conditions ex- 
isting, but fabrics have been and are 
being produced along these lines, and 
they are practical running jobs too. 
This shows how narrow some will be- 
come when their product is confined to 
a few lines of staple cloths. To have 
a knowledge of manufacturing and 
adaptability, it is necessary for a de- 
signer to be acquainted with the de- 
signing and making of many various 
cloth constructions, for it is only by 
this method that a general and accu- 
rate knowledge can be obtained. 
Men become narrow and fall into a 
rut when new and trying problems 
are not continually met and solved. 
The 

WEIGHT OF THE CLOTH 
Is found in the usual manner. If this 
weight be compared with the original 
grey weight, it will be found that the 
cloth is much lighter when finished. 
This ip due to a number of reasons, 
among which are the facts that the 
silk is lighter bf^cause of the 
bleaching and boiling out, the 
cotton is lighter due to handling, 
and there is a certain stretch 
in finishing whifh gives more vfirds 
of cloth than when the cloth is first 
woven. In dyed varn manv mpn have 
been in the habit of assuming that 
the weight added by dyeing just about 



balanced with the weight lost in 
handling; that is, dyed yarn in a fin- 
ished fabric was about the same size 
as it was previous to dyeing, warp- 
ing, spooling, slashing and weaving, 
but this is not true in the majority 
of cases, for the dyed yarn will be 
finer than it was when made. In 
cloth analysis, there have been many 
facts assumed which do not hold true. 
It is only within a short time that 
any accurate tests have been made 
regarding manufactured and finished 
cloth, and few men have ever been 
in positions to make tests on both 
fabrics which would be accurate, be- 
cause it requires a whole series of 
experiments on identical cloths to es- 
tablish facts, and even then, results 
may vary in the different finishing 
plants. To treat all cloths in the 
same class and assume the figures are 
correct as has been done in the past 
is entirely wrong. Not only has the 
above been done, but many have also 
assumed that the weights given in any 
finished cloth should be practically 
identical with the grey or mill 
weights. A few experiments on 
identical cloths would show how falla- 
cious this theory is, especially in the 
fabrics made by the newer mills. To 
get any figures which a^e reliable, 
experiments should be made freely at 
various stages until cloth is finished. 
This is not done to any extent by 
manufacturers, and. of course, buyers 
care but little for such details, 
and it is known that many of the re- 
sults which are assumed are given 
by analysts, who compare similar fab- 
rics, but as sta^^ed above, such re- 
sults are unreliable. To have facts 
correct, a man must know much prac- 
tical manufartiiring detail, and then 
bv rorrect theory establish results 
whifh will prove useful. Accurate 
statements cannot be obtained unless 
theoretical and practical knowledge 
be combined. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR DYEING. 
The onlv color to b^^ considered in 
this samnle is the black dyed on the 
cotton warp. In the nrenaration of 
this fabric it is not dpsired to have 
a vprv full shnde of black, as this 
would take away from the general 
color value of the woven fabric. This 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



245 



warp is dyed In the sizing and the neous solution is obtained. The cot- 
following procedure is recommended: ton warp is dyed in this size by pass- 
Use three pounds of oxy diamine *^f, ^^""T^.^v. ^ -'^^ box and squeeze 
F"" uo vyi. w J. j.pjjg ^^^ ^j^gjj jg carried directly on 

black AW, one-quarter pound diamine to the dryer, which may be either the 

fast yellow A, and 10 gallons of boil- ordinary slasher warp machine or 

ing water. through the more recent form of hot 

When the dyestuffs have been thor- air warp dryer. This method of dye- 

oughly dissolved, cool the solution to ing is very cheap and economical, and 

140 degrees Fahrenheit and then mix though it does not yield very high- 

with 10 gallons of size. This size is class colors with respect to penetra- 

prepared by using 120 gallons of wat- tion, beauty of shade, or fastness to 

er, 80 pounds of starch, 20 pounds of the various agencies, nevertheless, for 

dextrine and 20 pounds of Turkey red the fabric under consideration, this 

oil. These ingredients are boiled up process gives a color amply sufficient 

together until a thoroughly homoge- for its needs. 

PATTERN. 

40/1 American carded 12 2 1'= 1,106 

30/1 American carded > — - — < = 590 

10/1 American carded J 16 1,840 16 [ = 208 

1,904 total ends. 
32/38 2 end tuss.-ih tram filling; 64 picks. 

33 reed. 28%" width in reed, 26" grey width, 26" finished width; 72 X 64 grey count; 
72 X 60 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Cotton. Labor, waste, 

40/1 Am. carded, 1%" staple, 8 hank double roving, 16c. 7%c. = $ .23% 

30/1 Am. carded, IVio" staple. 6 hank double roving, 14c. S^c. = .19Vi 

10/1 Am. carded, 1" staple. 2 hank double roving, lie. 214c. = .13 Vi 

32/38 2 end tussah silk, 55,000 yards per pound. On quills = 1.75 

COST. 

1,106 ends, 40/1 American carded + 6% take-up = .0350 @ % .23% = $ .0083 

590 ends, 30/1 American carded -f 6% take-up = .0249 @ .19% = .0048 

208 ends, 10/1 American carded -|- 6% take-up = .0264 @ .13i^ = .0036 

64 picks, 32/38 2 end tussah silk = .0330 @ 1.75 = .0578 

Weaving .0135 

Expenses .0176 

Jacquard cards .0004 

$ .1060 
Selling .0021 

Mill cost S .1081 

Finishing, dyeing, etc .0250 

Finished cost $ .1331 

Yards per pound. 8.38. 

Retail price, 30c. 

Mill selling price, 14 to 14V2C. when this cloth was bought. 



COTTON SUEDE 

This fabric is the one which is 
creating a large amount of interest 
at present in the market. Many ex- 
pressions have been heard regarding 
the cloth and the finish applied. Most 
of the cloth seen up to the present 
time has been imported, and is sell- 
ing for about $1.50 per yard. There 
are many sellers in the market, who, 
from appearances, seem to try to 
create the Impression that no cloth of 



any value can be made or finished in 
America satisfactorily. If there is 
anything which they can say against 
cloth of domestic production, it is 
stated as strongly as possible. This 
has been done on the cloth in ques- 
tion, and has also been done on the 
new toweling fabrics, when the facts 
are that the fabrics can be made sat- 
isfactorily, and much cheaper here 
than they can be imported. From in- 
stances which come to light some- 
times, it is wondered whether some of 
the domestic product is not used as 



246 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



imported by these same sellers. 

This cloth is a domestic article. It 
is not to be wondered at that few 
mills care to make the cloth, for it is 
exceptional in a number of ways. 
First, the yarns are much finer than 
many mills care to make, as they 
are about 90-2. Second, the count is 
high, both in warp and filling, name- 
ly 132 by 188. Third, the weave is 
one seldom seen on cotton cloth, as 
it is a sort of double cloth, the face 
and back weave being a four- 
harness broken twill. There are no 
extra threads used in making the 
weave, but the effect is similar to a 
double cloth, although it is not one 
strictly speaking. 

The price quoted for this cloth is 
32 cents per yard. Under the circum- 
stances, this price seems to reflect 

VERY POOR MERCHANDISING, 
for a larger amount should be ob- 
tained for a number of reasons. One 
is that this fabric is distinctly a nov- 
elty of the highest order, another is 
that the profit secured is not large, as 
will be explained later, while most im- 
portant is the fact that this cloth will 
probably be sold as imported and is 
now retailing at about $1.50 per yard. 
There will be little competition on 
this fabric as made, and it is thought 
a higher price should be obtained than 
has been asked. Cheap imitations of 
this cloth cannot be produced for the 
fine yarns used, and the high count, 
together with the finish, do net admit 
large possibilities in this direction. 
From our analysis, it will be seen that 
the cost of production is about 28 
cents per yard, while the selling price 
is 32 cents per yard, or a nrofit of 
About four cents per yard. This cloth 
has 188 picks per inch, and the pro- 
duction is very low, and under the 
conditions, the profit would not be 
over $2.50 per loom per week, or a 
profit of about $125 per loom per year. 
This might give a profit of somewhat 
over 10 per cent on capital invested, 

but this is not prmno-h for thP r^^r'1r.- 

ter of fabric. There is more ability 
required to makp this cloth than the 
toweling fabric beii? sold, and It is 
known that cloth of this nature has 
been sold recently at less than 15 
cents per yard, and a profit of over 



$10 per loom per week obtained, or a 
rate of profit of over $500 per loom 
ptr year. 'Ihe prices of the cotton 
suede and toweling cloths are identi- 
cal at retail, and without question, the 
cost of producing the suede is twice 
lli..t 01 the tcwfcllng, sj we are iree 
to admit a mistake was made when 
no more was charged than 32 cents 
for the quality o. su do offered; in 
fact, it is doubted whether the ma- 
jority of fine mills which could make 
this cloth could do it as low as we 
have figured, that is, and produce a 
good result, and a low percentage of 
seconds. 

There is no need of showing a draw- 
ing-in draft, as the warp would prob- 
ably be drawn in straight on eight 
harnesses, although the weave ac- 
tually takes but four. The selvages 
would be made on two extra har- 
nesses. We give the weave so that 

The Weave. 

DDBCDDBn 
DaaBDvBB 

Dnn?. DDDB 
BBOBBBGa 

□■nnnBon 

R->Ba!>sBBn 

BDoaBnnn 

the arrangement can be noted. The 
second, fourth, sixth and eighth picks 
represent the filling which shows on 
the back of the cloth, while the re- 
maining picks show on the face. We 
have no doubt that claims made that 
the unsatisfactory finish produced is 
due to poor manufacture or cloth con- 
struction is true in some instances, for 
the cloth weave and yarns have much 
to do with good finished results. 

Cloths of this character are prac- 
tically always 

WOVEN IN THE GREY 

state and then bleached and dyed, for 
bleached yarns are seldom used, and 
if they are the cost of manufacture is 
too high to be practical. 

As yet, we have seen none of this 
kind of cloth which has been woven 
on a jacouard loom with a fancy pat- 
tern. There is a possibility of this 
development being a good thing, for 
the ground cloth could be made like 
gT-f-TiV. Rv-^ h^cvpe of the lii^-h count 
used, beautiful patterns could be made 
in a subdued effect. This would ap- 
peal to many consumers. Regarding 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



Ut 



the cloth as sold at present, we are 
free to say that it is one of the best 
appearing, and has more quality than 
very many of the various fabrics of- 
fered in recent years. Of course, 
whether a large sale will result or 
not is largely a matter of conjecture, 
but one thing is certain, and this 
Is that the price will never be as 
low as on ordinary lines, and it is 
doubted greatly whether it will sell 
later at less than $1 per yard at re- 
tail, even of domestic make. There 
never will be a large supply, no mat- 
ter how large the demand gets, for to 
have the result satisfactory quality 
must be put into the cloth, and there 
are comparatively few mills which 
can produce this quality. Possibly 
one dozen mills would complete the 
list which could make this cloth in 
quantity to sell at 32 cents per yard 
and realize a profit. Because of slow 
production, the cloth will tie up a 
loom for quite a time. It may be that 
this seller was willing to quote this 
low price because of the lack of or- 
ders for fine cloth, and desired to get 
work to keep looms in operation, 
which this cloth would do to anyone's 
satisfaction, but the fact remains that 
probably a price could have been ob- 
tained which would approach 40 cents 
per yard just as easily as 32 cents 
could. 

Regarding the imported prices and 
those of domestic make it is a known 
fact that en certain fine cloths, quota- 
tions have been asked for on cloth 
made in this country of foreign mills, 
and the prices quoted in many in- 
stances are but from 3 to 10 per cent 
lower than that at which mills have 
sold the cloth here, and carrying 
charges will range about 4 or 5 per 
cent, so it can readily be seen what 
economies the domestic manufac- 
turer adopts. 

From observation, it seems as if 
merchandising was the large item 
which needed to be watched care- 
fully by many mills selling fine and 
fancy cloth. It is known that many 
of the newer fine and fancy mills are 
operated about as closely ai is pos- 



sible, so far as actual manufacturing 
is concerned. The Interchange of 
ideas and prices among the cloth 
brokers and the system of selling In 
many cases operate against the mill 
obtaining the legitimate recompense 
for initiative and ability. Many 
times buyers would have willingly 
paid higher prices excepting for 
the fact that they were posted 
regarding prices by intermediates. 
This only added to the buyer's profits 
what should have gone to the maker, 
for prices to the retailer or jobber 
are never changed by such a lower- 
ing of prices. We have seen In- 
stances where makers have been de- 
prived of a fair profit when there 
should have been a fair profit for all 
concerned. Manufacturing has been 
reduced to a very scientific process, 
and costs of making are known pretty 
accurately, yet while manufacturing 
has been getting on a closer basis, 
merchandising has been getting more 
expensive. A little of the accuracy 
which is employed by mills injected 
into some of the methods of selling 
would work wonders in the trade. 
There is no question but that selling 
has run into a very bad nit, and It 
will require time and almost a revolu- 
tion to put it on a better or different 
basis. We believe the men who have 
shown such ability in the economies 
of manufacture are fully capable of 
showing new ideas in selling, and 
that to obtain a more regular profit 
anr] to be dictated to less by buyers, 
mills must eventually have more pow- 
er than they at present have. Con- 
solidation of interests must be effected 
in some manner to put manufacturing 
on more stable basis. The method 
of obtaining the weights and yards 
per pound is as follows: 

3.060 ends h- (90/2 X 840) = .1048. warp 

veierht without tfike-up In weaving. 
AVo-iving take-up 12%. 
.1048 -h .88 = .1191, total warp weight In 1 

v.T'l of r'oth. 
1S8 picks X 33" loom width X 36" 

=■ 6.204 

36" 

vnrds of filling per yard. 
6.204 -!- (90/2 X 840) = .1641. total filling 

weight In 1 yard of cloth. 
.1191 4- .1641 — .2832. total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -4- .3813 •• 8.63 yards p*r pound. 



A. COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



PATTERN. 
2 2 

90/2 Sea Island 24 3,864 24 = 3,960 total ends. 

90/2 Sea Island filling; 1S8 picks. 

60 reed, 33" width in reed, 31" grey width, 30" finished width; 132 X 188 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Labor, 
Cotton, waste. Twisting. 

90/2 Sea Island; 1%" staple; 18 hank double roving, 28c. 32c. 7c. = 67c. 

90/2 Sea Island filling. Same as warp. = 67c. 

COST. 

3,960 ends, 90/2 Sea Island + 12% take-up = .1191 @ 67c. = $ .0798 

188 picks, 90/2 Sea Island = .1641 @ 67c. = .1104 

Weaving .0452 

Expenses .0394 

$ .2748 
Selling .0055 

Grey cost $ .2803 

Dyeing, finishing, etc .0200 

Finished cost % .3003 

Yards per pound, 3.53. 

Mill price, 32c. per yard. 

Retail price for similar fabrics, $1.50 per yard (Imported). 



RUSSIAN CORD VOILE 

We have in the past analyzed va- 
rious patterns on voile cloths. Inas- 
much as these fabrics will be used 
more largely than any other the com- 
ing summer, it may be well to add 
another novel combination to the 
ones already given. This cloth is 
made with a voile ground which is 
exceptional for the reason that the 
yarns used are of fine character, 
namely, 120s-2, and few mills in 
America could make them in any 
quantity. Cloths of this character are 
used for various purposes, and all 
have a rather low count. The ma- 
jority use yarn up to 60s-2 and a 
count of about 50 square, although 
some mills make finer yarn with a 
somewhat closer count. Many of the 
patterns being offered at present have 
silk for decorative purposes, and this 
gives an added attractiveness for a 
comparatively small added expense. 
In some instances, artificial silk is be- 
ing used for this purpose instead of 
the real article, and results are very 
satisfactory, although for other pur- 
poses it does not have such a large 
success. In 

THE CONSTRUCTION 
of a voile cloth much ability is re- 
quired to get the best appearance. It 
is necessary to have the cloth open 
and still not slip badly. There is one 



thing which helps largely in producing 
a good voile, and this is good yarn. 
If yarn is poor, no weaving or finish- 
ing will give the result wanted. The 
yarn is not ordinary two-ply, but it is 
two-ply with a much harder twist than 
is usually given. This makes a 
smooth, round thread and gives a clear 
looking cloth. Some makers use gass- 
ed yarn, which ensures an added 
smoothness to the result. The yarn 
made determines to an extent the 
count necessary to secure satisfactory 
woven cloth. The standard of twist 
given the two-ply yarn will vary from 
about 6 to 8. In twisting, the hard 
yarn is likely to cut the travelers and 
cause trouble. Some mills have twist- 
ed their ply yarns on regular spinning 
frames and secured better results, for 
the rings are smaller, and not only 
this, but the ply yarn used for filling is 
ready for the loom when twisted, with 
no additional processes, which are nec- 
essary if twisted on a regular twister. 

ENAMELED BOBBINS 
can be used, the yarn being steamed 
and a saving made in time and ex- 
pense. 

These fabrics, contrary to the be- 
lief of many, are not so expensive to 
make as would appear, for the count 
is usually low, the cloth weight light 
and the production comparatively 
large per loom. For this last reason, 
a smaller profit per yard will yield a 
better return than on many other lines 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



249 



of lancy fabrics. Most of the various 
lines of voile cloths are made from 
grey yarns, and the fabrics are finished 
when woven. There are a few voiles 
made of bleached and dyed yarns, but 
they have been constructed this way 
to produce certain results. If two 
fabrics could be made so that the re- 
sults would be the same when finish- 
ed it would be found that the use 
of grey yams would produce the low- 
est cost of manufacturing. There is 
no doubt but that this method of mak- 



have thought there was little compe- 
tition in the making of fancy fabrics, 
but they were never more mistaken, 
for competition is sharper on 
some of these cloths than on some 
of the coarser better-known lines. 

Many of the fabrics being sold have 
silk stripes of varying widths in their 
make-up, and they are woven on jac- 
quard looms. Few of the patterns are 
made on dobby looms, for it requires 
quite a few harnesses to produce any 
satisfactory figure on a closely woven 




Russian Cord Voile. 



Ing cloth Is driving orders from many 
of the older mills. 

The cloths we are considering could 
be made in 

THREE METHODS: 

First, by using bleached and dyed 
yams. Second, by using grey cotton 
yams and fast colored silk to stand 
the bleaching process. Third, by using 
grrey cotton yarns and raw silk and 
then bleaching and cross-dyeing the 
result. Possibly, the last mentioned 
n^ethod is the more common one on 
this identical cloth, and it would prob 
ably give the cheapest cost price. In 
these days of competition, the one 
who produces a certain effect for the 
lowest price gets the business. Many 



silk stripe. This brings us to the item 
of interest in the cloth we are con- 
sidering. This fabric is made on an 
ordinary dobby loom, and requires few 
harnesses to weave. It is 

A COMBINATION 
of the weave which was popular fot 
men's shirtings last season and which 
is being used extensively at present 
with the voile ground. This is what is 
called a Russian cord. It consists of 
a cord of a more or less heavy nature 
and a leno end which crosses back 
and forth every pick, effectually cov- 
ering the cord underneath. Some- 
times this crossing end is of grey 
yarn, while other times it is of silk 
similar to sample, and in still other In- 



260 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSAPl 




▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



251 



stances. It Is of fast color cotton yarn 
to stand bleaching like the large num- 
ber or' men s sairtiiigs produced. 

Some time ago there were certain 
weavers who believed that no leno 
similar to a Russian cord could be 
produced by the use of top doups. 
They thought that before a crossing 
could be satisfactorily made witli a 
top doup one pick would have to in- 
tervene. For this reason, many of 
these fabrics are woven on bottom 
doups. As is well known, top doups 
are more satisfactory if they can be 
run, and it is brought to tlie atten • 
tion of those who still use bottom 
doups that many manufacturers are 
to-day using top doups for cloths of 
this character. We have given 
THE CHAIN AND DRAFT 
for the use of bottom doups, for it is 
prooable that the majority still use 
them, and it makes Ihings somewhat 
clearer by this method. The combina- 
tion as produced is very pleasing, and 
it is such ideas as these which some- 
times bring large profits to the origi 
nators. There are few new ideas in 
ground cloth construction, but there 



are unlimited possibilities In combi- 
nations, for new ideas in designs and 
dyeing and finishing admit of new 
results. This is illustrated clearly by 
the large use made of ideas when 
cloth began to be mercerized in the 
piece, also when yarns began to be 
dyed colors which would stand the 
bleaching process. It is not believed 
that either of these ideas have yet 
been developed as fully as possible. 
The use of fast colors on silk yarn 
has hardly been brought before the 
public, so there may be pos- 
sibilities in this direction. The mak- 
ing of cotton suede opens a field which 
has been tested but little in cloth 
making. Because of the low number 
of picks in a voile cloth, the Russian 
cord effect is not as good as on many 
shirting fabrics which have a higher 
count in the filling, but 

THE RESULT 
is good enough to be noted in this con- 
nection. 

Good yarn for the doups is of hard- 
twist worsted, and it may be well 
to bring out the fact that care in 
weaving such fabrics will save quite a 



PATTERN. 



120/2 Sea Island combed, hard twist. 
60/2 Am. combed 



60/2 Spun silk. 



40 




26 


5 

1 


4 
1 


17 


8 




40 

i 
1 



1,636 ground 
180 cord 

144 leno. 



36 X 



= 1,960 total ends. 



120/2 Sea Island combed, hard twist filling. 58 picks. 
58 reed, 28%" width in reed, 27" grey width, 26%" finished width, 72 X 58 grey count 
over all, 74 X 56 finished count over all, 63 X 56 finished count ground cloth. 

YARNS. 

Cotton. 
120/2 Sea Island hard twist; 1%" sta. ; 24 hank dou. rov., 30c. 

60/2 Am. combed; 1%" sta.; 12 hank dou. rov., 24c. 

60/2 Spun silk; 50.400 yds. per lb. Ready for loom 
120/2 Sea Island hard twist filling. Same as warp 

COST. 

1.636 ends, 120/2 Sea Island hard twist + 8% take-up = .0353 @ $1.06 

180 ends, 60/2 Am. combed + 2% take-up = .0073 @ .44% 

144 ends, 60/2 spun silk + 70% take-up = .0097 @ 3.50 

B8 picks, 120/2 Sea Island hard twist = .0331 © 1.06 

Weaving 

Expenses 



liabor, 

waste, 

etc. 

58c. 
I6MiC. 



Twist- 
ing. 
18c. 
4c. 



$1.06 
.44>^ 
3.50 
1.06 



Selling 



Grey cost 
Finishing, etc. 



$ .0374 
.0033 
.0339 
.0351 
.0109 
.0143 




_ Finished cost 

Yards per lb., 11.71. 

Retail prlcft, 46c. per yard. 



t .1626 



262 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



little in the cost of production. Unless 
there are a large number of leno ends 
a weaver can operate nearly the same 
number of looms as on ordinary work. 
The loom speed will be somewhat 
slower, due to the fact that the doup 
yarn takes some time to straighten 
out. Through wrong designing or 
planning we have seen patterns which 
might have been profit producers be- 
come bad running jobs and continual 
trouble makers. It is necessary to 
bind the leno on the correct picks in 
making fabrics of this nature. We 
have seen cloths woven in large quan- 
tities which when finished showed but 
a straight line and no crossing end. 
It is needless to say that such a weave 
should never be used, as it will re-, 
suit in cancellation of orders and 

LOSS OF PROFITS. 

Some manufacturers make their 
voile yarns to size a specified amount 
while others use certain size single 
yarns, and let the two-ply result be 
what it may. Because of the hard 
twisting used the yarn will in most 
cases be heavier than the sample yarn 
would indicate, that is, 50s-2 will ac- 
tually size about 48s-2. The take up 
on the leno or crossing end is about 
70 per cent on the cloth in question, 
that is, 3 1-3 inches will weave 1 inch 
of cloth. 

The weights and yards per pound 
are obtained as follows: 



1,636 ends h- (120/2 X 840) = .0325, warp 
weight without take-up in weaving. 

.0325 -i- .92 = .0353, warp weight with take- 
up. 

180 ends -f- (60/2 X 840) = .0071. warp 
weight witliout take-up in weaving. 

.0071 -H .98 = .0073, warp weight with 
take-up. 

144 ends -^ (50,400 = 60/2 spun silk) = 
.0029 silk weight without take-up. 

.0029 H- .3 = .0097, total silk weight. 

58 picks X 28%" X 36" 

= 1,667.5 yards of 

36" 
filling per yard of cloth. 

1,667.5 -i- (120/2 X 840) = .0331, weight of 
filling yarn. 

.0353 -I- .0073 -f- .0097 + .0331 = .0854, 
total weight per yard. 

1.0000 -;- .0854 = 11.71 yards per lb. 



SILK MIXTURE EPONGE 

The cloth considered here is inter- 
esting in that it is a development of 
eponge, which many have purchased 



and of which many qualities have 
been produced at as many different 
prices. Possibly, eponge cloth for a 
novelty fabric has allowed of more 
and greater variations than any other 
recently produced. It is made in nov- 
elty yarn warp and filling, in novelty 
warp and plain filling, in plain warp 
and novelty filling, in silk and cotton 
mixtures similar to the sample 
we are now considering, in dyed 
yarn fabrics, mercerized yarn fabrics 
and various combinations of colors in 
various kinds of yarns. Possibly, 
mills have had about all the orders 
they will have for the present on 
these cloths, but retailers are becom- 
ing interested, and a lair distribution 
is likely for such a high-class novelty. 
It is true that of late the interest is 
being largely seen on similar ideas of 
this nature worked up into trim- 
mings and the like, and the demand 
should be extensive in this direction, 
for these effects are more desirable 
for trimmings than they are for whole 
dresses. Many of the cloths are stil) 
imported, although cloths of 

AMERICAN PRODUCT 

have largely replaced them, at least 
in the cheaper grades. 

Misstatements by men supposed to 
be familiar with cloth making have 
been made about these fabrics, possi- 
bly to a larger extent than on many 
novelty cloths. Because they never 
have had any experience in making 
novelty yarns, they consider that they 
are impossible to produce. For this 
reason, it is likely that more people 
have paid high prices for these cloths 
than for the majority of fancy fabrics. 
One thing is very evident, and this is 
that no cloth of a radical nature can 
be sold in comparatively large 
amounts until consumers are interest- 
ed in the idea, or a fashion is worked 
up for the cloth. Contrary to the gen- 
eral opinion, any large sale of a dif- 
ferent cloth is a growth and should 
be treated as such by buyers. 

NOT A NEW IDEA. 

The idea used in these cloths Is not 
new. for it has been used at various 
times, but no demand was created 
and therefore no sale made. We have 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



263 



seen good and practical ideas thrown 
aside by buyers simply because tliey 
did not care to attempt to develop 
their use. The yarns used in these 
cloths are called, in mill language, 
under the general heading of cork- 
screw yarns. To produce the effects, 
two twisting operations are neces- 
sary, one in the opposite direction to 
the other. In the yarn in this cloth, 
instead of all single yarns being used, 
we have two sizes of two-ply. This 
makes a better effect, although it in- 
creases the cost of the yarn some- 
what. If the yarn be made on the 
twister, it is necessary to have two 
sets of rolls, for the yarns are not 
delivered at the same rate of speed, 
as can be seen from the yarn analy- 
sis. If 

NOVELTY TWISTERS 

are not available, it is possible to 
make the sane effects on an ordinary 
spinning frame, using two sets of 
rolls and a wire across the front of 
the frame to hold up tiie ends off 
the other rolls and guide them into 
the pig-tails on the Irame. This 
policy is sometimes advantageous, for 
yarn in the last twisting process can 
be wound directly onto quills, there- 
by saving some operations which are 
necessary when yarn is twisted on a 
regular twister. Yarns of this charac- 
ter usually are coarse in size when 
completed, possibly few being over 
lyz and many less than 5, although at 
various times samples have been seen 
with yarn which sized when finished 
as fine as 20. Because of the coarse 
size of the yarn, the cloth count is 
necessarily low in the direction which 
the novelty yarn was used. 

To find the resulting yarn size when 
completed, it is only necessary to pull 
threads from the cloth and size in 
the ordinary manner, this process 
giving 5.4.5 as the yarn size; but to 
obtain the various yarns which enter 
the construction is another thing. 
The first step is to unravel some of 
the ends composing the novelty, be- 
ing careful to measure their lengths. 
In this manner it will be found that 
the 40s-l yarn takes up 9% per cent, 
while the 30s-2 takes up 30 per cent. 
When the yarns are unraveled, it is 



an easy matter to obtain the various 
sizes. Care should also be observed 
in the amount of twist per inch in 
each operation of twisting, for this 
has much to do with the final effect. 
When the above has been completed, 
the size which the yarn should be is 
obtained. 



60/2 1 end = 
40/1 2 ends = 
30/2 1 end = 
30/1 -=- 30/1 = 
30/1 -4- 18.1/1 = 
30/1 -^ 10.5/1 = 



30/1 = 30/1 

20/1 9^% shrink. = 18.1/1 

15/1 30% shrink. = 10.5/1 

1.00 

1.65 

2.85 



5.50 

30/1 -^ 5.50 = 5.45 figured size. 

PRICES DO NOT CORRESPOND. 

To show that prices on various 
quantities of fabiics do not corre- 
spond when retailed, we can state that 
an all-cotton fabric was being re- 
tailed at a higher price than the silk 
one analyzed in the same store. 
Some may think that the construction 
warranted the difference, but we can 
state that there was practically the 
same number of picks of novelty 
yarn of the same size as filling in 
each cloth, so little difference could 
be found here. The warps bear no 
comparison, for the cotton warp was 
plain yarn of a count of about 29 
threads per inch of 30s-l yarn, while 
the silk warp counts over all nearly 
150 per inch. An absolute difference 
in cost of warp material of over 10 
cents per yard is noted, making the 
cost of the grey cotton cloth less than 
12 cents per yard. Another item ol 
expense which the white cotton cloth 
did not bear was the extra cost of 
dyeing and finishing a novelty silk 
and cotton fabric. Altogether, the net 
cost finished of the silk and cotton 
fabric was nearly, if not quite, twice 
the cost of the all-cotton one, and the 
retail price of the all-cotton fabric 
is higher than the mixture cloth. This 
shows how the retailer, many times, 
purchases fabrics which show no 
relation of manufacturing costs to 
selling prices. 

There is as much demand for one 
of these fabrics as there is for the 
other, and no excuse can be offered 
that one is sold at a lower price be- 
cause of small demand. If the novelty 
mixture sells for 96 cents per yard. 



264 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



the all-cotton fabric should not bring times it would be possible for a 
over 50 cents per yard. These cloths weaver to operate more looms, there- 
were purchased through the same by reducing the producing costs, ex- 
channels, and it is very evident that cepting for the fact that the filling 
some one made runs out very fast. If more than 
EXCESSIVE PROFITS "^^^ loom was operated, it is likely 
^, ,, ^^ , ^1- Tx • i. ^1. ^ that the percentage of production 
on the all cotton cloth. It is true that ^^^j^ ^^ j^^ ^^^ ^^^ ultimate result 
cloths of all cotton and very similar ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ if but one loom per 
to the one referred to, have been sold ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 
for less than 13 cents per yard, and j ^^. ^^^ ^j^j^ -j^ 

Z7e letups 'Sr 'the''mnrm!Sng ^ -^" "--">^ ^''' "«« '^^ ^""^ ^^'^"^ 

\lil Th ™ is due to tSe faS tha't ^'^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ '-'^'^ ^° t^^i'' '^'^' °^ 

a loom will produce a large number METHOD OF WEAVING, 

of yards per day, due to the small Italian silk is probably used in large 

number of picks. Because of the fact quantities, and the sizes are almost al- 

that the filling is so heavy, a weaver ways heavier than 20s-22, so as to ob- 

can operate but one loom in many tain a sufficient amount of strength, 

cases. As a large part of the weaver's We have used 190,000 yards as the 

work is the changing of filling, the size of the yarn, although this is not 

cloth is called a filling job. Many the theoretical yardage. A certain 

PATTERN. 
4 4 

22/24 Italian silk warp — 4,892 — = 5,084 total ends. 

24 24 

6.45 cotton novelty filling, 20 picks. 

65 reed, 38" width in reed, 36" grey width, 35" finished width, 141 X 20 grey count: 
145 X 20 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Labor, Twist- 
■'"Uon. waste, etc. ing. 

40/1 Am. combed, IVs" sta. ; 8 hank dou. rov., 17V4c. 10c. = $ .27% 

30/2 Am. combed, 1%" sta.; 6 hank dou. rov., 17%c. 8%c. 2c. = .28 

60/2 Am. combed, l%"sta.; 12 hank dou. rov., 24c. 16Vic. 4c. = .44% 

22/24 Italian silk, 190,000 yards per lb. On beams, = 4.45 

NOVELTY YARN. 

40/1 2 ends ground 9%% take-up in finished yarn J . ^ t„,i<!tlne rcrulRr 
30/2 1 end 30% take-up in finished yarn 5 ^^' twisting regular. 

v^'^3„^f^^t i„» „,,o^on„„l 2nd twisting reverse. 
Yarn from 1st operation J 

Note. — 60/2 In 2nd operation is the yarn on which all the weaving strain comes. The first 
twisted yarn is really retwisted around the 60/2. 

NOVELTY YARN COST. 

40/1 2 ends @ 27%c. = 8.28c for part to make 1 lb. of novelty. 

30/2 1 end ® 2Sc. = 14.53c for part to make 1 lb. of novelty. 

60/2 1 end @ 44 %c. = 8.52c for part to make 1 lb. of novelty. 

31.33c. yarn cost. 
3.00c. 1st twisting operation. 
2.00c. 2nd twisting operation. 

36.33c. novelty yarn cost at loom. 

CLOTH COST. 

6,084 ends 22/24 Italian silk + 8% take-up = .0291 @ $4.45 = $ .1295 

20 picks 5.45 noveltv cotton = .1660 @ 36.33c. = .0603 

W^eavlng .0242 

Expenses .0053 

) .2193 
Selling .0044 

Grey cost J .2237 

Dyeing, finishing, etc .0300 

Finished cost $ .2537 

Yards per pound, 5.02 (grey). 

Plain weave. 

Retail price, 96c. per yard. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



266 



amount of leeway is usually allowed 
by cotton mills using silk for any 
variation which may be noted in the 
actual size. Naturally the n^aker errs 
on his own side and possibly it should 
be considered j 'stifiable. inas"* nch as 
silk sizes purchased from different 
sellers vary widely. 

Regarding the use of silk in cotton 
mills, it can be said that it has 
largely increased in the past few 
years. Possibly the use may be ap- 
plied to new cloths as they are de- 
manded by fashion, but there is no 
question but that its use has come 
to stay In this direction. A fancy 
goods mill which has not or cannot 
use it Is rather badly handicapped 
in the production of high-class novel- 
ties. It is true that many times the 
addition of a comparatively small 
amount of silk will add very much 
more to the value of the cloth than 
the extra charge w-ould indicate. In 
other cases, a cloth is changed from 
a rather ordinary fabric to a beauti- 
ful production. Numerous examples 
might be cited where the use of silk 
was a distinct advance in the making 
of cloths, and not only this, but many 
times it has added to the profits of 
all concerned in the selling, from the 
manufacturer to the retailer. When 
the actual size of the filling is ob- 
tained, the 

YARDS PER POUND 
are figured as follows. It must not 
be assumed that the weight of the 
cloth is the same when finished as 
when delivered by the mill, for silk 
will lose much weight when bleached 
and boiled out. and cotton is also 
lighter, due to processing. 

5,084 ends silk -+- 190.000 yards = .0267. sUk 

weight per yard without take-up. 
8% take-up In weaving. 

.0267 -+■ .92 «= .0291. silk weight per yard. 
38" width In reed X 20 pks. per In. X 36' 

36" 

760 yards fllUn^ per yard of cloth. 
760 ■+■ (5.45 X 840) = .1660, filling weight 

per yard. 
.0291 4- .1660 = .1951. total weight per yard. 
1.0000 ■*- .1951 = 5.02 yards per pound. 

The finished yards per pound 
would be, probably, about 5.35 to 5.40, 
although this would depend much on 
the amount the cloth was boiled out 
In the finishing process. 



SILK MIXTURE FAST COLOR 
SHIRTING 

The fabric analyzed is one of the 
newer productions in shirting mate- 
rials. As is well known, there is a 
wide distribution for various fabrics 
in these lines, and many and varied 
constructions are made and sold. 
While it has been noted but little, it 
is a fact that the materials used have 
been getting finer and finer, and much 
more silk is being used than ever be- 
fore. Of course, the price of shirts 
has advanced, but this does not of 
necessity mean that the price of ma- 
terial has gone up in proportion. In 
many cases, it is known for a fact that 
cloth in some of the high-priced shirts 
has been bought at a lower price than 
cloth which has been used in some of 
the lower-priced articles. 

This shows that some of the shirt 
makers, because of their progressive- 
ness, have looked after their own con- 
verting on these cloths and have sav- 
ed the large profits which may be 
made in this manner. Few of the old- 
style madras shirts had material 
which cost less than 15 cents per yard 
in their construction, and many had 
material which cost more than the 
above. It is known that much of the 
material which shirt makers have con- 
verted has been bought at 10 cents 
per yard or less. Much of the mate- 
rial which is used in $3.50 to $5 shirts 
costs less than 25 cents per yard. 
This is for 

A NOVELTY CONSTRUCTION 
containing spun silk filling and with 
enough picks per inch to produce a 
firm and satisfactory cloth, with silk 
warp stripes and figured patterns. 
Very few cloths ever used cost a 
maker over 75 cents per shirt, and 
the large majority of fabrics cost less 
than 50 cents per shirt. 

One other advantage which is not- 
ed in many of the newer materials is 
that the cloths are made of all combed 
yarns. This should produce a more 
even and better looking cloth, and it 
usually does. Few of the old-style 
shirtings were or are made of any- 



tee 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



thing but carded yarns. Another thing 
which is noted is that the whites are 
not so clean in the older shirtings. 
This results from the fact that the 
yarns used in their construction are 
handled much after bleaching. Of 
course, the cloth woven is washed be- 
fore shipping out, but this process 
many times cannot eradicate the shade 
obtained when processing. The above 
is shown very clearly by comparing 
the whites in many lines of the best 
ginghams with the whites in some of 
the checked patterns produced with 
yarn to stand bleaching, and which 
are bleached when the doth is woven. 



and combed yarns and also to 
many novelty fabrics composed of 
silk and cotton, both for ladies' and 
men's wear. The sample considered 
is one of these novelty cloths. It has 
40s-l yarn for warp in both the white 
and color. Probably, these were run 
in the weave room on separate beams, 
although they could just as well have 
been placed on a single beam if fa- 
cilities for doing this were obtainable. 
The fulling is of Tussah silk. Tne 
yards per pound are assumed at 55,000, 
yet this is not the theoretical yard- 
age, but is one which protects the 
manufacturer from variations in the 



Silk Mixture Fast Color Shirting. 



Many of the older shirting mills use 
colors which are fast to light and 
washing, although there are still many 
of these fabrics which do not have 
satisfactory colors, but it is manifest 
that a color which has been through a 
bleaching process is better than one 
which can stand only light and wash 
ing. 

Possibly, one of the first and largest 
uses made of these colors has been in 
mills which do not dye their own yarn, 
and which are usually known as grey 
cloth mills. They have been applied 
to shirting fabrics, in both carded 



silk size. The cloth construction is 
not an especially good one, as it counts 
but 74 by 64, and would not make a 
highly serviceable shirting for men. 
What the difference is between the 
cost and retail price is easily seen. 
These cloths sold last year in quite 
large quantities for about 14 cents 
per yard, and it is very evident that 
a large percentage has been taken in 
the distribution. Of course, the price 
of the silk, which constitutes the larg- 
est single item in the cloth cost, is 
now lower than last year, but the 
difference in price accounts for a very 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



117 



small portion of the extra cost. The 
retail price is 48 cents per yard, and 
probably was purchased by the retail- 
er for 321^ cents per yard. The differ- 
ence between 14 cents, the purchase 
price, and 321^ cents, the selling price, 
represents 

THE GROSS PROFIT 
to the converter after the finishing 
charges are deducted, and these 
should not be large, for the cloth has 
only to be bleached and finished. The 
fabric was probably sold by a con- 
verting jobber, for they handle these 
lines in large amounts. 

The figure on the cloth is made ou 
an ordinary dobby loom, and it takes 
15 harnesses to produce it satisfac- 
torily. In our drawing-in draft the 
numbers at the bottom represent the 
number of ends placed in each dent 
of the reed. The numbers in the 
draft represent the harnesses upon 
which draft is drawn, while the num- 
bers to the right are the heddles re- 
quired on each harness. These are 
for the harness builder, so that satis- 
factory harnesses with the correct 
number of heddles are available for 
the drawing-in operation. The head 
chain represents the operation of the 
various harnesses to produce the pat- 



tern. A somewhat more even repeat 
might have been produced if two plain 
picks were inserted in the chain, or 
if two were taken out. This 
would have obviated one defect in the 
pattern. It will be noted that in the 
pattern as woven there is a harness 
skip over the large spot. 

Care should be taken by the loom- 
fixer to see that such occurrences are 
rare, although it is hard to see them 
in grey cloth. This defect can be de- 
tected much easier, however, with 
Tussah, which is yellow, than with 
many other silks, such as 14-16 two- 
thread Canton which is used largely 
in these varieties of fabrics. 

In laying out 

THE PATTERN 
another criticism might be made, and 
that is that the pattern would have 
looked better if it had been balanced. 
It is noted that the cloth has a heavy 
colored stripe on one edge, while the 
light stripe is on the other edge. We 
have laid out the cloth as it is woven, 
although in the large majority of 
cases, it is better to exactly balance 
the repeats next to each selvage. Of 
course, this is sometimes impossible 
when making a number of different 
patterns with the same number of col- 



PATTERN. 



40/1 Am. combed, white.. 
40/1 Am. combed, colored. 



2 
12 




38 


14 


48 


2 


2 


2 


10 34 

1 




2 
12 



4 X 



18 X 
3J/38 2 end tussah filling. 64 picks. 

.■?4 reed. 34%" width in reed, 32" grey width, 32" finished width. 
74 X 63 finished count. 

TARNS. 



1,954 
432 
2.386 total ends. 



74 X 64 grey count. 



Labor & 
waste. Dyeing. 
10c. 
10c. 16c. 



Cotton. 
40/1 Am. combed, grey, 1%" sta.; 8 hank dou. rov.. 17V4c. 
40/1 Am. combed, colored, l^i" sta.; 8 hank dou. rov., 17 %c. 
32/38 2 end tussah tram, 55,000 yds. per lb., on quills. 

COST. 

1.954 ends 40/1 Am. combed, grey -1- 5% take-up — .0612 ® 27V4c. 

432 ends 40/1 Am. combed, colored + 5% take-up = 0136 ® 43%c. 

64 picks 32/38 2 end tussah tram = .0404 @ $1.80 

Weaving 

Expenses 



= 27%c. 
= 43%c. 
= $1.80 



Selling 



Mill cost 
Finishing . . . 



Finished cost 
Yards per pound, 8.68. 
Retail price, 48e. 



= $ .0168 

= .0059 

= .0727 

.0110 

.0142 

$ .1206 
.0024 

$ .1230 
.0150 

$ .1880 



258 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARV 



ored ends, although this situation 
hardly ever comes up. Many mills 
have been afraid of handling silk and 
cotton mixtures, although this condi- 
tion should have been eliminated long 
ago. 

The production is as high, if not 
higher, than with the same class of 
cotton fabric, and when workers be- 
come used to handling the material 
little trouble is experienced. Profits 




xWxIN 



■ ■■■ 

!■!■!■!> 



■ ■■■'■' "fi" 




BBBBSO 



Harness Chain. 

have been large m maKiug mese 
cloths, but competition and the ex- 
cessive prices charged by converting 
jobbers have stifled the demand some- 
what. There is no reason why the 
cloth analyzed should not sell for less 
than 35 cents per yard and still allow 
all sellers a large and satisfactory 
profit. The silk used in these fabrics 






liitt 






-Ht- 



m-i 



itr 



M 



■^ 



¥= 



■^^= 






tu 






''J^ 



^ipitrii- 






tfe 



m 



\nn. 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



269 



is rather uneven in size, but answers 
tlie purpose for wliicli it was used sat 
isfactorily. Large advances tiave been 
made in tlie finishing of these cloths, 
and to-day the finish is admitted to be 
as good if not much better than can 
be obtained from any of the foreign 
plants. In the finishing it is custo- 
mary to bring the cloth out to its 
grey width, as the silk will admit of 
much greater stretching than the cot- 
ton filling. As yet no large number 
of patterns have been produced on 
jacquard looms, but without doubt, a 
large increase in various colors and 
combinations of material will be seen, 
while competition and a larger pro- 
duction will give more re-tsonable 
prices to consumers. To find the 
yards per pound the process is as 
follows: 

1,954 ends -4- (40/1 X S40j = .05S2, weight 

o£ grey yarn without take-up. 
5% take-up on all 40/1. 
.0582 H- .95 = .0612, weight of grey warp 

in 1 yard of cloth. 
432 ends -;- (40/1 X 840) = .0129, weight 

of colored yarn without take-up. 
.0129 -H .95 = .0136, weight of colored yarn 

in 1 yard of cloth. 
64 pks. X 34%" reed width X 36" 

= 2.224 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
2,224 -h (55,000 silk yardage) = .0404. 

weight ot silk per yard of cloth. 
.0612 + .0136 + .0404 = .1152, total weight 

per yard. 
1.0000 -;- .1152 = 8.68 yards per pound. 



^ » » 

MERCERIZED RUSSIAN CORD 
SHIRTING 

At various times we have mentioned 
the fact that the process of merceriza- 
tion and the use of fast colors Lad 
developed many new lines of shirtings 
and similar fabrics which fill a variety 
of uses. Not only have these proc- 
esses made it possible to produce fine 
fabrics of combed yarn and with 
beautiful effects which could not be 
produced at any price until compara- 
tively recently, but it has also made 
it possible to produce such cloths at 
low prices. That this has been of ben- 
efit to consumers thus early is easily 
proven by the cloth now under consid- 
eration. The price at retail is 35 cents 
per yard, and it is not too much to 



state that five years ago such a fabric 
could not have been purchased at any 
price. 

Many of the ordinary madras shirt- 
ings bring 45 cents or more at retail 
to-day, and do not compare with th» 
present cloth in either quality or con- 
struction. The facts are that many 
people purchase this cloth with the 
impression that it has a large amount 
of silk in its construction, and this idea 
is certainly justified by the appearance 
when sold. The gloss will not wash 
out, and the color will remain as 
bright when the cloth is completely 
worn out as it was when sold. Of 
course, there is not the wear to this 
fabric which there is in many madras 
shirtings, but no one should expect 
such a condition, for the cloth is light- 
er per yard and the yarns are much 
finer than most madras shirtings, but 
the fabric is a beautiful and service- 
able one. To show that the cloth is 
comparatively 

REASONABLE IN PRICE 

when so new is shown by the retail 
price of 35 cents per yard, and also 
by the fact that made-up shirts have 
been offered and sold at retail in this 
cloth and pattern at 95 cents each. 
As it takes somewhat over 3 yards 
of cloth to produce a shirt, the dis- 
crepancy between the price of cloth 
and shirts at retail is probably due 
to the fact that the shirt make pur- 
chased the cloth very cheaply and 
from first hands, thereby saving quite 
a little. Never in the sale of such 
articles has the writer seen so much 
value and cheapness, especially in 
the cost of a new idea. 

There are a number of interesting 
features which can be noted in the 
construction of this variety of fabrics. 
It has been found from experience that 
certain constructions are more suit- 
able than others for this style of 
cloth. The warp is usually made of 
finer yam and with a coarser count 
than the filling, and for this reason, 
the latter usually forms a larger part 
of the cloth, and the warp yarn is 
more or less covered up. One con- 
struction largely used for ground 
cloth is 64 by 72. with 50s-l warp and 
30s-l filling; another is 64 to 72 by 
92 to 104, with 70s-l or 80s-l warp 



260 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



and 40S-1 or 45s-l filling. Of course, 
many constructions are used, but 

THE GENERAL IDEA 
given above is nearly always present. 
Many buyers ask for a soiesette con- 
struction, while others ask for a suit- 
able cloth for mercerization, although 
at present the yams and counts are 
well enough known among buyers to 
be usually asked for. Many other 
yarns and counts are used, and cloth 
weights are heavier, in many in- 
stances, than on the cloth considered, 
being many times heavier than ordi- 
nary madras shirtings. Filling yarn 



to the cloth but also ensures a much 
larger production when the yarn is 
being made. In many 

MERCERIZED FABRICS 
various qualities of Egyptian cotton 
are sometimes used, as the results 
when finished are more satisfactory. 
Possibly, more of the cotton imported 
is used in cloths which are mercer- 
ized than for any other one product 
excepting hosiery and underwear. The 
large reason why ordinary madras 
shirtings do not possess the luster and 
appearance which many of these new 
cloths have is because they are not 



I t 

li 

I I 



^jF^r^^^T' 



Mercerized Russian Cord Shirting. 



is almost always made of combed 
material, and because results are bet- 
ter, the yarn usually has a compara- 
tively small amount of twist per inch. 
The standard in many yarns made on 
ring frames possibly would be in the 
vicinity of 3.25, although standards of 
as low as 2.75 have been used on 
frames. Sometimes mule-spun yarn is 
used with less twist than that of 
ring yarn, but too small an amount 
makes a weak cloth. Because of the 
small amount of twist it is necessary, 
in many cases, to use longer staple 
cotton than on ordinary yarn. This 
method not only gives more strength 



mercerized, and they are not process- 
ed in this manner, because the yarn 
used is twisted so hard that no sat- 
isfactory results are obtained. A 
comparatively large amount of twist 
is necvssary in yarns for madras 
shirtings, so that the yarns can be 
handled, bleached and dyed in a sat- 
isfactory and economical manner. 
Many processes are eliminated when 
cloth is woven from grey yarns which 
are necessary and expensive when 
cloth is made from bleached and dyed 
material. The cloth is mercerized in 
the piece, and the filling, which, as 
above noted, is soft twist, takes prac- 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



261 



tlcally all the mercerizatlon noticed. 
This makes it necessary that some 
method be used whereby the cloth is 
held out iu the filling direction when 
the mercerization is taking place, for 
unless this is done, no luster will be 
imparted. This is done in various 
methods which are of little impor- 
tance in the discussion excepting for 
the fact that this result must be pro- 
duced by 

HEAVY TENSION 
on the filling in the cloth. 

For a number of years grey cloth 
was mercerized in the piece, but, natu- 
rally, the resulting fabric did not com- 
pete with cloth in which color was 
used, excepting in an indirect man- 
ner, by eliminating some purchases, 
and rather new uses were found for 
the product. Then when this field 
was fairly well established, a new 
development ensued which as yet is 
only in its infancy. This is the use 
of fast colors which will stand the 
bleaching process. As will be read- 
ily seen, this process places the grey 
cloth mills which had previously pro- 
duced cloths for mercerization in the 
white state into more or less direct 
competition with many of the older 
mills and fabrics, and without doubt, 
has opened new fields which as yet 
have hardly been touched. To show 
what this development has meant it 
can be stated that southern mills are 
to-day making colored lines in which 
the colored yarn is sent North to be 
dyed, and then reshipped to the mill 
to be woven into cloth which is to- 
day being sold at lower prices for the 
same construction than many of the 
older mills can possibly sell at. Few 
of the older mills could produce 

FANCY JACQUARD PATTERNS 
with colors in their construction, but 
now the supply can be made large 
with any demand. Another thing 
which will mean better cloth to the 
consumer is the fact that most of 
these newer fabrics are composed of 
combed yarns, and the finished re- 
sults are much more even than many 
of the older cloths. Not only do the 
yarns make more even cloth but the 
finishing processes used on grey 
cloth eliminate to a large extent, or 
entirely, the reed marks which are 



more or less visible in cloth woven 
from bleached yarns, and which spoil 
somewhat the cloth's appearance. 
While the reduction in the cost of 
making is not so great on some fab- 
rics as it is on others there is no 
doubt but that in a general way rad- 
ical reductions are and can be made. 
Possibly, one of the large results 
aside from the costs is the fact that 
the making of so many new cloths 
with absolutely fast colors will force 
buyers and makers into demanding 
much better colors than many have 
been accustomed to use. This does 
not apply to some of the mills which 
make older lines, for they have been 
quick enough to see the possibilities 
in the use of these colors and what it 
means to their future business, but 
there is very large 

CHANCE FOR IMPROVEMENT 

in the colors which some mills are 
accustomed to produce. 

We have not gone into detail re- 
garding the individual cloth under 
consideration. It is what is known 
as a Russian cord, and this portion 
is composed of the fast-colored yarn. 
Some mills make these results on an 
ordinary dobby loom with leno attach- 
ment find use either top or bottom 
doups, but possibly a large portion is 
made with a reed, which allows the 
ground of the cord to operate practi- 
cally not at all, while it allows the 
crossing end free access to both sides 
of the ground yarn. The main fact 
is that the crossing thread is bound 
into the cloth first on one side of the 
ground yarn and on the next pick on 
the other side. This continual chang- 
ing entirely covers up the ground 
threads, and because of the large 
number of picks makes a very smooth 
round cord which cannot be produced 
in any other way, for it appears when 
woven like a braid sewed onto the 
cloth. Due to 

THE CROSSING PROCESS, 

there is a large take-up on this leno 
or crossing yarn, and so great is this 
take-up that It requires almost six 
inches of yarn to weave one inch of 
cloth. Care must be used when cloth 
Is made of this character, for any va- 
riation in the tension will produce a 



262 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



different effect. This care should also 
be used when plain stripes of color 
are in the pattern, for most always 
the colored yarn is on a separate 
beam, and if the tension is not right 
a poorly-woven result is likely. This 
care is not so necessary when weav- 
ing in mills which use bleached yarn, 
for it is customary to place the dif- 
ferent colors along with the white 
yarn on the same beam, and of ne- 
cessity, the yarn would have the same 
take-up, although care is necessary 
when the colors are placed on the 



when made, and the filling sized about 
45s-l and was probably 40s-l. These 
sizes can only be assumed, for mill 
yarn sizes vary even when care is 
taken, and under the best of operat- 
ing conditions. The reason the per- 
centage of loss was greater on the 
filling may be due to the fact that the 
yarn was soft twist and to the process 
of finishing. No accurate tests have 
been made regarding yarn losses in 
finishing grey cloths, but from 7 to 10 
per cent would be a fair average tak- 
en from a variety of fabrics. The 



70/1 Am. combed 24 68 6 36130 24 = 2,168 

6 G 

30/1 Am. combed, colored — — = 228 

1 1 

60/2 Am. combed, colored 1 | 1 ! = 38 

19~X 2.434 total. 

40/1 Am. combed filling. 100 picks. 
31 reed; 35%" width in reed, 34" grey width, 32" finished width. 

66 X 100 (grey count ground); 76 X 100 (finished count over all). 

YARNS. 

Labor, Twist- Dye- 
Cotton, waste, ing. ing. 
70/1 Am. coiTibed, grey; 1 %" .sta. ; 14 hank dou. rov., 24c. 20%c. = 44V4c. 
30/1 Am. combed, colored; lJ,8"sta.; 6 hank dou. rov., 16c. Sc. 16c. = 40c. 
60/2 Am. combed, colored; 1%" sta. ; 12 hank dou. rov., 24c. 16%c. 4c. 16c. = 60%c. 
40/1 Am. combed, grey; l%"sta.; 9 hank dou. rov.. 21c. lie. = 32c. 

COST. 

2,168 ends 70/1 Am. combed -|- 5^r take-up = .0388 ® 44%c. = $ .0173 

228 ends 30/1 Am. combed -f- 2% take-up = .0092 @ 40c. = .0037 

38 ends 60/2 Am. combed + 83% take-up = .0088 @ CO%c. = .0053 

100 picks 40/1 Am. combed = .1064 & 32c. = .0341 

Weaving .0188 

Expenses .0221 

$ .1013 
Selling .0020 

Cost grey $ .1033 

Bleaching, mercerizing, etc .0175 

Cost finished $ .1208 

Yards per pound, 6.13 grey. 
Retail price, 35c. per yard. 
Retail purchasing price, about 22i,2C. per yard. 



beam in the first place to see that 
none build up more than others. In 
the large majority of instances cloths 
such as the one considered lose in 
weight from 

THE FINISHING PROCESSES. 

Of necessity, the yams are finer 
than in the grey cloth or when spun, 
although this loss may vary to a 
large extent. In the cloth analyzed 
the warp yarn in the ground cloth 
actually sized 74V2, and was probably 
70s-l, or supposed to have been 70s-l 



twist in the yam, the amount of 
stretch given the cloth, the kind and 
quality of cotton used, the process of 
finishing and other factors all affect 
the result somewhat. Possibly, any 
one mill could tell within reasonable 
liTtiits what losses its own cloth would 
have, but they would apply only in a 
general way to cloths which others 
produced and which were completed 
by a different finishing works. Some- 
times cloths which are mercerized lose 
in length and at other times they do 
not. The cloth construction has 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



263 



something to do with the results, hut 
on most of the grey goods which are 
finished but not mercerized, there is 
an appreciable stretch of greater o? 
less degree, depending upon the cloth 
and conditions. 

Inasmuch as some x^m has a large 
take-up in this cloth, it may be well 
to give the method pursued in ob- 
taining the various weights of yarn: 

2,16S ends -r- (70/1 X S40) = .0369, warp 

weight of 70/1 without weaving take-up. 
5% talie-up in weaving on 70/1. 
.0369 -h .95 = .03SS, warp weight of 70/1 

(total). 
rl& ends -f- (30/1 X S40) == .0090, weight 

of 30/1 colored without weaving ♦ake-up. 
2% take-up in weaving 30/1 colored. 
.0090 -H .9S = .0092, warp weight of 30/1 

colored (total). 
3S ends -^ (GO/2 X 840) = .0015, weight of 

60/2 colored without we<aving take-up. 
S3',v) take-up in weaving 60/2 colored. 
.0015 H- .17 = .OOSS, warp weight of 60/2 

colored (total). 
100 picks X 35»4" width in reed X 36" 

= 3,575 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
3,575 -h (40/1 X 840) = .1064, weight of 

liliing (total). 
.03S,S -I- .0092 + .0088 + .1064 = .1632. total 

weight per vard. 
LOOOO -f- .1632 = 6.13 yards per pound 

(grey). 



MERCERIZED SEERSUCKER 
STRIPE 

This cloth represents one of a class 
of fabrics which are having quite a 
sale at present, and one which is like- 
ly to be used extensively another sea- 
son, for converters are getting out va- 
rious styles along these lines. In a 
general way, these seersucker fabrics 
are of two kinds. In the first, the 
crinkle is woven in the cloth by a 
weaving process, while in the second, 
the effect is made by a printing proc- 
ess through the application of the 
principle of mercerization. Some time 
ago we gave the analysis of a woven 
crinkle, and the one now considered 
is of the second or printed variety. Of 
course, there are pressed fabrics 
which bear some resemblance to the 
printed fabric now considered, but 
they are not so satisfactory and are 



much less used, especially for dress 
purposes. 

The patterns used in the past have 
been more or less 

SIMPLE IN CHARACTER, 
because of the method of producing, 
but some deviations from the older ef 
fects are now being seen, and it Is 
very likely that a greater variety will 
be shown, especially in the offerings 
for another season. Most of the pat- 
terns shown are somewhat similar to 
the sample considered, having stripes 
of various widths and spacing, and 
with no delicate effects, which are 
possible through the weaving opera- 
tions on other lines of fancy cloths. 

The fabric considered shows one 
method of finishing, which produces 
a novelty effect from an ordinary 
plain fabric. Unquestionably, the 
large quantity of all kinds of cloth 
which is used is of the plain variety, 
and many times when finished shows 
little resemblance to the original fab- 
ric. Because of the numerous inter- 
lacings in plain weave cloths, there 
is usually much better service noted, 
and because of the simpleness of the 
processes employed in production the 
cost of most plain lines is low, and 
the distribution is larger and stead- 
ier than on other more expensive 
fabrics, which are in good demand 
when stylish, but which can hardly be 
sold when the season for wear is past. 

Wide uses are found for this cloth, 
and from the appearances when fin- 
ished, few people would imagine the 
results to be of 

IDENTICAL CONSTRUCTION 
when woven. To give the names 
which are ap'^Mei to the various 
lines and the uses to which they are 
put would fill a small volume, but 
generally, they find a wide applica- 
tion, largely depending on their serv- 
iceability. It used to be thought by 
many mill men of the older school 
that the looms which could make 
nothing but plain weave were unfit 
to produce any novelties whatever. 
That this is a mistake is clearly prov- 
en bv the results which some mills 
a^-p obtaining, for thev are making 
rather hieh-errade novelties for their 
class of goods, and are using cords in 
various patternc, together with fast 



264 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



colors, producing goods on a print 

cloth basis which yield them a higher 
profit than their ordinary work. 

As yet the manufacturing end of the 
business does not 

SEE THE POSSIBILITIES 
in the making of various tabrics whic i 
the finishing end has realized. It is 
probably true that many more im- 
provements have been made in the fin- 
ishing of cloth in the past ten years 
than there have been in the manufac- 
turing. Due to the finishing processes, 
many fabrics could not be recoguizt^a 
by their maker, and this applies to 
plain and fancy cloths alike. The 
cloth in most cases shows a largely 
different appearance, and, except in 
few instances, the results are an im- 
provement, and are better adapted for 
the uses to which the material is to 
be put. 

The past year manufacturers have 

REALIZED THE POSSIBILITY 
of slight changes more than ever be- 
fore, and it is very likely that one of 
the large advantages from the lack 
of business will be the teaching of 
manufacturers to adapt ideas to the 
weaving possibilities. This does not 
mean that a plain mill need be turned 
into a novelty one, but that througt 
adaptability increased profits can b( 
made with the machinery in use 
This has been one part of the man 
ufacturing trade which has been 
largely overlooked in recent years 
and one which will be given mucL 
more attention in the future. 

As this fabric shows such a widf 
variation from that noticed on the 
same construction finished in other 
ways, it may be well to state some- 
thing regarding the 

PROCESS OF MERCERIZATION, 
for this is the means whereby the re- 
sults are produced. It may not be 
generally known, but the process of 
mercerization does not always pro- 
duce the luster which usually desig- 
nates the process. The change in the 
cotton fibre when mercerized under 
tension is to make it more or less 
like a small glass rod, which reflects 
light to a greater or less degree, de- 
pending on the twist in the yam and 
the method of handling. Cotton fibre 



in the ordinary cloth or in the raw 
state is a rather flat twisted tube, with 
somewhat corrugated edges. 

That there is a widely different re- 
sult in mercerization when yarn or 
cloth is under tension is shown by the 
fact that the process was originally 
used to a great extent for shrinking 
cloth, thereby giving a much closer 
count than when woven, but under 
uiis n e.hod. when allowed to shrink, 
no luster is imparted to the fibre. The 
above is the principle which is em- 
p oyed in the cloth considered, but the 
application is somewhat different than 
when first used. It will be noted that 
the threads in the cloth appear 
straight in some stripes, and have a 
crinkled effect in others. The threads 
in the straight stripes are the ones 
where mercerization has taken place, 
and the cloth has been allowed to 
shrink in these spaces, and this forces 
the rest of the fabric to crinkle, giving 
the effect noted. 

ine 

PROCESS IS ACCOMPLISHED 

through the use of the printing ma- 
chine, but as the pattern is simple, 
no description is required, excepting 
that the change takes place in stripes 
of various widths in the cloth. There 
are other problems which are of 
much interest in the finishing of this 
cloth, and while they are of benefit 
to the finisher, they are of much more 
value to the firm having the goods fin- 
ished. It will be noted that there are 
56 picks per inch in the grey cloth, 
and 66 picks per inch in the finished 
cloth, a net loss in yardage by shrink- 
ing of 18 per cent. This is the loss as 
shown by the picks in the cloth, but 
does not include the losses in finish- 
ing, which naturally take place. As a 
general thing, the finisher charges 
two cents per yard for this class of 
work, with a working loss of 25 per 
cent in the yardage delivered. In ac- 
tual practice, the total loss to some 
converters has been 21 per cent, al- 
though, naturally, the patterns em- 
ployed will vary the loss somewhat, as 
the heavier the mercerization the 
larger the loss in shrinkage. 

It is very evident that a much dif- 
ferent situation exists regarding 
these fabrics than there does on 



I 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



W6 



many other lines, for a converter will 
receive 100 per cent or more than 
this amount of the yardage shipped, 
so on very many cloths there is no 
actual loss in yardage, and there is 
many times a slight gain received, and 
this helps to partially cover the finish- 
ing charges. 
On some fabrics, the 

ACTUAL DELIVERIES 

are from 103 to 105 per cent of the 
yardage delivered to the finisher, 
the amount varying according to the 
cloth construction and other de- 
tails. It will be noted that the in- 



yarn, as can be noted from the cloth 

width in the grey and finished states 
or from the cloth counts. Most of the 
fabrics are sold in the white or 
bleached state, although a certain por- 
tion of the lines are dyed various col- 
ors. The 

FABRIC ANALYZED 

is lighter in weight, and has a some- 
what lower count than many of the 
cloths now being sold. Sometimes a 
retail price of 25 cents per yard is 
charged for the cloth which has only 
a very little different construction 
than that considered, and the jobbing 



PATTERN. 
2 2 

50/1 Am. combed warp — 2,796 — = 2,876 total ends. 

20 20 

60/1 Am. combed filling. 56 picks. 

35 reed, 40%" width in reed. 38" grey width, 30%" finished width. 
74 X 56 grey count; 93 X 66 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Cotton, Labor, waste, etc. 

50/1 Am. combed, 1%" sta. ; 10 hank dou. rov., 24c. 14%c. = 38%c. 

60/1 Am combed, 1%" .sta.; 14 hank dou. ro^'., 24c. 15%c. = 39%c. 

COST. 

2,876 ends 50/1 Am. combed + 5% take-up = .0721 @ 38%c. = $ .0278 

56 picks 60/1 Am. combed = .0450 @ 39?ic. = .0179 

Weaving .0030 

Expenses .0063 

$ .0550 
Selling .0011 

Mill cost $ .0561 

Converters purchasing price (about) $ .0600 

Converters net cost of cloth allowing 21% shrinkage .0759 

Finishing and mercerizing .0200 

Converters cost $ .0959 

Converters selling price (about) $ .1100 

Jobbers selling price (about) .1250 

Retailers selling price .1900 

Yards pet pound, 8.53 grey. 

Plain weave. 



creased cost to the converter, because 
of the method of finishing, is about 
IVz cents per yard. This is in addi- 
tion to the regular finishing charges 
of 2 cents per yard. 

There is one reason why this proc- 
ess is not used to a larger extent, and 
this is because the cloth will stretch 
somewhat, although it does not do this 
enough to render the process of no 
value, but it would be better if this 
stretch could be eliminated, although, 
of course, there is the added objection 
of the higher price because of the loss 
in finishing. The process as employed 
affects the flUInB as well as the warp 



price is then about 16 cents a yard, 
with a converter's price of about 14 
cents. Certain of the warv threads 
are made heavier in siz^ because of 
the process employed, and the threads 
tested in size should be the ones 
which crinkle, rather than the ones 
which lie straight in the cloth. 

That the various methods of mer- 
cerization are largely on the increase 
can be confirmed by almost any fin- 
isher of the better kinds of cloth. Re- 
cently, the use has been increased by 
being applied to voile fabrics, al- 
though this is not generally known 
outside of a comparatively few sell- 



286 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



era. This process applied to voiles 
gives a rounder yarn, and a much 
clearer looking cloth, which is highly 
desirable on these fabrics. Crepes 
are also sometimes treated in this 
manner, and it gives an added appear- 
ance and an 

INCREASED VALUE 

to the materials. It gives a much dif- 
ferent appearance than when a crepe 
is made by hot water shrinking. Even 
fabrics made of ordinary print cloth 
carded yarn are being treated in this 
manner, and the results produced 
many times warrant the extra expen- 
ditures. Only a few years ago it was 
believed that the proc-ess was of little 
value, except on the better yarns and 
on the more expensive cloths, but due 
to large use and reduction in the cost 
of finishing, many of the cheaper fab- 
rics are now being treated in this 
manner, and it ir3 probable that much 
more use will be noted in the future. 

The finished yards per pound are 
likely to be about T>A to 7%. It will 
be noticed that this is heavier than 
the grey yardage. Many fabrics are 
lighter when finished than when wo- 
ven, and sometimes sizing material is 
added to bring the weight to about 
that which the grey cloth had pre- 
viously been. To obtain the weights 
of yarn and the grey yards per pound 
before finishing the process is as fol- 
lows: 

2,876 ends h- (50/1 X 840) = .0685, warp 

weight without take-up. 
5% take-up in weaving-. 
.0685 -¥- .95 = .0721, total warp weight per 

yjirrl of cloth. 
56 picks X 40%" width In reed X 36" 

■ ■ = 2,268 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
2,268 -^ (60/1 X 840) = .0450, total filling 

weight per yard of cloth. 
.0721 -f .0450 = .1171, total weight per 

yard. 
1.0000 -^ .1171 = 8.54 yards per pound 

(grey). 

<» « » 



JACQUARD WAISTING 

The class of fabrics under consider- 
ation has a large sale and are used 
not only for waists, but also for many 
other purposes. The ideas used in 
constructing these lines vary from 



year to year as fashion changes, but 
the yarns used do not differ widely in 
size nor does the cloth weight change 
n uch. Most of the various grades 
weigh between five and six yards per 
pound, but the warp and filling count 
may be widely different. The idea 
used in this cloth is a good one, and 
is adopted at various times for bring- 
ing out effects on other fabrics be- 
side waistings. No large use has been 
n ade of it tor some years, and it is 
very likely to be in demand within a 
comparatively short time. The whole 
ground effect is produced by having 
cne light thread and then one heavy 
thread throughout the warp. While 
this cloth is made with two ends of 
yarn in place of a heavy one, the re- 
sult is the same as if a single heavy 
end were used. 

By this process of drawing-in ends, 
the woven result is given a sort of 
ribbed appearance, this effect being 
made because the heavy ends are all 
raised together, m.aking a high place 
in the cloth, whereas when the light 
ends are raised practically no rib is 
made. 

THE PATTERN 

is produced on a jacquard machine, 
and is made wholly by raising t'le va- 
rious heavy ends where desired. To 
make the cloth as firm as possible, the 
weave of the light ends is changed 
where the pattern is woven to a plain 
weave on the back of the cloth. 
This is purely a practical idett 
applied to a cloth to produce a 
better result. If this was not done, 
the ends where the pattern is woven 
would slip together, leaving a rath- 
er loose place in the fabric and spoil- 
ing the effect. Such practical ap- 
plications show that experience has 
taught the maker of such fabrics some 
lessons which might be well absorbed 
by others, for we have seen similar 
cloths which would allow of much im- 
provem.ent along this line. 

In making patterns for fabrics of 
this char:icter, it is well to bear in 
mind that bad streaks are easily pro- 
duced either in the warp or filling, 
which are likely to spoil the sale. If 
drop wires are used In weaving, any 



1 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



267 



very unequal spacing of figures Is 
liable to make some threads with a 
small take-up, and for this reason, 
create endless trouble, unless the pat- 
tern is changed. 

The yarn which forms the figure is 

MERCERIZED BEFORE WEAVING, 

because tension enough to give satis- 
factory results would break the light- 
er yarn in the warp. The yarns are 
used in the grey state, and the fabric 
is bleached and finished, when woven, 
practically the same as any ordinary 
grey fabric. As a usual thing, this 
class of cloths is not a very good 
weaving proposition, for the warp is 
reeded two heddles or mail-eyes to a 
dent, and this gives three ends per 
dent, one a heavy end and one a coai- 
paratively light end and the heavy end 
will rub the light end, causing 
trouble in some instances. The con- 
struction and yarns used have a 
great deal to do with the 
amount of trouble caused, although 
no unusual weaving condition should 
be noted in the cloth we have 
analyzed, for the count is low and 
the yarns should be able to stand any 
chafing which would occur. It is when 
a two-ply end, which sizes from 10-2 
to 20-2, is woven in the same dent 
with rather fine single yarn and a 
rather fine reed that the n^^rcentage 
of production falls down and deliver- 
ies are not made on time. A large 
amount of seconds are also likely, and 
this eliminates a certain portion of 
the possible profits. This identical 
pattern could be made on various jac- 
quard m.achines, but it is probable 
that it was made on a 6T0-machine, 
which was tied up in the comber 
board five inches wide, giving a possi- 
ble count in the reed of about 120 per 
inch. We have assumed that the mer- 
cerized yarn was drawn in two-ply, 
and this makes a smaller number of 
harnesses used. As there are 28G 
ends used in each repeat, it gives 314 
hooks or harnesses to cast out; 



600 — 286 



314 cast out. 



As a 600-machine is built in rows of 
12, this makes 26 rows, and 2 hooks 
cast out. or about 13 rows in each 



half-machine. A good method to use 
in casting out is as follows: 

CAST OUT ROW^S. 
3, 4, 7, 8. 11, 12, 15, 16, 19. 20. 23, 24. 25. 28, 
29, 32, 33, 36, 37, 40, 41, 44, 45, 48, 49, 50, 
and last two hooks in row 47. 

In this cloth a rather 

UNUSUAL CONDITION 
exists, for there are exactly 6 repeats 
01 the pattern: 

29 reed X 30" reed width = 870 total dents. 
870 — - 12 selvages = !i58 cloth dents. 
858 H- 143 dents in a repeat = 6 repeats. 

Assuming that the loom is tied up for 
a 40 -inch reed space, which many of 
them are, this would give 8 repeats 
in the harness: 

coo H- 120 per Inch = 5" repeat. 
40" -f- 5 = S repeats of tie-up. 

Under the above conditions there 
would be exactly two sections of har- 
nesses with no ends weaving, one sec- 
tion on each side of the loom. The 
warp would then be drawn, starting 
on the first hook in room No. 1 and 
section No. 2, and would finish on 
hook No. 10 in row No. 47 and section 
No. 7. To make the reed width and 
the harness width the same, a dif- 
ferent number of ends should have 
been used: 

29 reed -i- 5" tie-up = 145 dents. 

As 143 dents were used, a stretch of 
two dents in 5 inches, is noted, or 
in the whole cloth width a stretch of 
12 dents, or about 2-5 of an inch. 
This will cause no trouble in this 
cloth, for it is a comparatively small 
amount, and the harness width is 
wider than 

THE REED WIDTH, 
which helps in the matter, but the 
policy is a bad one to adopt unless 
care is used. To obtain the correct 
count in the cloth and use a certain 
ground weave sometim.es makes a 
stretch between harness and reed 
necessary, but the amount should be 
as small as possible, as it causes hard 
wear through rubbing on the edges of 
the cloth, sometimes making a cloth 
a poor running one when it should 
be a good one. As all the heavy 
yarn is raised on one pick and all the 



Mt 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSAET 



light yam on the next, a certain strain 
on the loom results, which should be 
eliminated as much as possible so as 
not to produce streaky cloth. 

Because of the low count, somewhat 
over 30 per inch on the ends which 
produce the figure, the effects ob- 
tained are rather crude in comparison 
with many of the finer woven fabrics. 
A small change where the count is 
low sometimes results in a much bet- 
ter looking pattern. The take-up in 
weaving on the 60-2 is quite large, for 
no high tension is used, so as to 
accentuate the effect desired. In many 
of these kinds of fabrics, Egyptian 



production per loom Is comparatively 
large, due to the small number of 
picks per inch. 

In finishing, the fabric does not 
shrink much in width and 

IS PULLED SLIGHTLY 

in length. The amount of stretch al- 
ways depends on the construction of 
the cloth, and the amount gained 
might be a different one from two 
mills producing the identical clotti 
through operating warps at different 
tensions. The cotton stock soaietiaies 
makes a difference, because if a yarn 
is weak it will not run satisfactorily 



30/1 Am. combed grey. 



80/2 Eg. combed mercerized. 



PATTERN. 








2 








2 


12 




1 


2 
1 




12 



2,622 total ends. 



30/1 Am. combed filling; 60 picks. 
29 reed; 30" width in reed, 28" grey width, 27%" 
94 X 58 finished count. 

YARNS. 



85iiX 



finished width; 93 X 60 grey count; 



30/1 Am. combed, 114" sta.; 6 hank dou. rov., 
60/2 Eg. combed, l%"sta.; 12 hank dou. rov., 
30/1 Am. combed, IH" sta. ; 7 hank dou. rov.. 



Cotton. 

loc. 
26 c. 
ICc. 



Labor, 

waste, 

etc. 

Sc, 

17c. 

814 c. 



Twisting, 
merceriz- 
ing, etc. 



COST. 

906 ends 30/1 Am. combed + 5% take-up = .0379 ® 24c. 

1,716 ends 60/2 Eg. combed -f 17% take-up = .0820 @ 55c. 

60 picks 30/1 Am. combed = .0714 @ 24 %c. 

Weaving 

Expenses 

Selling 



Mill or grey cost. 



Price to converter (about) . 
Finishing, bleaching, etc. . . 
Price to retailer (about)... 

Price to consumer 

Yards per pound, 5.23 (grey). 



24c. 
55c. 
24V4C. 



$ .0091 
.0451 
.0173 
.0127 
.0165 
.0021 

$ .1028 

$ .1200 
.0125 
.1650 
.2500 



cotton is used for the yarn which is 
mercerized, a better gloss being ob- 
tained in this manner. Another thing 
which helps in giving added sheen is to 
make the two-ply yarn of soft twist, 
which is most always done. Because 
yarn is made soft twist, it is almost 
always used in the two-ply form to 
give satisfactory strength to handle 
when mercerized in the yarn state, 
although much soft twist single yarn 
is used when cloth is mercerized in 
the piece. Jacquard looms are not 
operated so fast as dobby looms which 
make the same kind of cloth, but the 



under high tension, and the use of 
drop-wires will also affect the result. 
No large amount of knowledge is 
necessary in making up designs for 
a cloth of this nature. To obtain the 
best effects, a little care is necessary, 
but the amount of sketching and 
painting is small, and little more time 
would be required to lay out this de- 
sign than that on many complicated 
dobby patterns. To get a good cloth 
construction, which can be made and 
sold at a price to return a good profit, 
requires much more ability, and to 
produce and sell a satisfactory cloth 



I 



jl cotton fabrics glossary 



269 



construction, similar to the one an- 
alyzed, largely overshadows the small 
ability required in fitting the design 
to cloth. 

It is becoming a matter of the 
greatest importance to buyers to have 
men who can produce fabrics at a 
price, and a large share of responsi- 
bility has been taken from mills, es- 
pecially those making what might be 
called the newer fabrics. At the mills 
the idea is simply worked out on the 
construction ordered. The cloth con- 
struction and price are of far more 
importance in the sale than the de- 
signs in the majority of instances, al- 
though naturally a satisfactory effect 
helps the sale on any cloth, and a 
poor design will sometimes kill a good 
idea. The aim should always be to 
obtain the best results. The weights 
are obtained as follows: 

906 ends -*- (840 X 30/1) = .0360, weight 

of 30/1 without take-up. 
5% take-up In wenving-. 
.0360 -T- .95 = .0379, weight of 30/1 with 

take-up. 
1.716 ends -4- (840 X 60/2) = .0681, weight 

of 60/2 without take-up. 
17% take-up in weaving. 
.0681 -H .83 = .0820, weight of 60/2 with 

take-up. 
60 picks X 30" reed width X 36" 

= 1,800 yds. 

36" 

of filling per yard of cloth. 

1,800 -i- (840 X 30/1) = .0714, weight of 

filling. 
.0379 -f- .0820 + .0714 = .1913. total weight 

per yard. 
1.0000 ~ .1913 = 5.23 yards per pound. 

(grey). 



■♦ * » 



FANCY ALlrOVER LENO 

In the selling of various fabrics 
there appears, with more or less fre- 
quency, a cloth on which the price is 
excessive. Possibly such occurrences 
are more numerous in the sale of silk 
fabrics than they are with those of 
other materials, but, nevertheless, 
they do occur in all lines. That such 
prices are justified may be the conten- 
tion of many sellers, and their argu- 
ment is well taken, if novelty and 
newness be considered, but consumers 
must expect to obtain but little actual 
relative value when comparison is 
made with other fabrics. Instead of 
paying for value, they pay largely for 



style, and many purchasers are will- 
ing that such should be the case. 

There is one glaring injustice in the 
method as at present in force, and 
this is regarding the prices received 
by the various sellers. It is a fact 
that many mills, and some converters, 
are continually attempting to produce 
something different, either in regard 
to patterns or constructions, and that 
they bring successful results is amply 
proven by an examination of some of 
the lines shown to-day, but inasmuch 
as most mills are not in touch with 
selling to the retailer or consumer 
and have no way in which to gauge 
the possibilities of any cloth, they in- 
variably lose all or a large part of 
the benefits which should come to 
them for their ability in originality. 

On 

THE OTHER EXTREME, 

the retailer stands between consumer 
and seller, and acts as a bear to 
sellers' prices and a bull to the prices 
which the consumer must pay. In 
this manner it is possible for him to 
obtain excessively high prices on a 
fabric which shows novelty and style, 
and on which the other sellers have 
obtained but comparatively small re- 
turns. This exerts a double ef- 
fect, for it causes a small distri- 
bution with a high cost of production 
and effectually blocks the way for 
a mill to obtain the returns which 
should be received from a large sale 
and a lowering of production cost, and 
the other effect is that which con- 
sumers obtain regarding excessive 
mill profits. In other words, it makes 
a fabric which might be a compara- 
tively large seller with generous 
profits to all, a very small seller with 
the retailer obtaining the large 
profits, and profits which are not de- 
served through any excess of ability 
on his part. 

Of course, this statement does not 
mean that the retailer should not ob- 
tain more than his ordinary profit on 
a cloth which shows a novelty char- 
acter, for this is not true, as he is 
taking a larger chance on such ma- 
terials, but it does mean that where 
a few cents added to the maker's 
price will give him highly satisfactory 



270 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



returns, such an addition will make an 
insignificant appearance on the price 
to the consumers. Take the cloth we 
are considering as an illustration 
of this statement. One cent per yard 
to a maker will yield a profit per loom 
per week of about $3, because pro- 
duction is high, due to the small 
number of picks per inch, even with 
a slow loom speed and a low per- 
centage of production. Thus it will 
be seen that the profit per year at 
a net profit of one cent per yard will 
be about $150, and with a total valu- 
ation of $1,000 per loom, which is 



order will sometimes be novelties 
which never should have been includ- 
ed, and which mills should have re 
fused to make. 

"We have seen leno stripes sold in 
the above manner at 514 cents per 
yard which no mill could make for 
less than 9 cents, and which some of 
the successive sellers would place in 
a higher classification, thereby de- 
liberately deceiving the mill regarding 
the retail prices and on which the 
mill should have received a higher 
price. Some sellers think such prac- 
tices are justified and that mills are 




Fancy All-Over Leno. 



high, the net profit would be about 
15 per cent, an entirely 

SATISFACTORY RETURN. 

We ask in all fairness to a mill 
whether or not such a return 
should be realized, especially when 
the price of this cloth at retail is 
$1.25 per j^ard. It can be stated as 
a fact that many times fabrics of high 
novelty character are sold by mills 
at lower comparative prices than 
some of the plainer lines. This may 
seem strange, but it is done through 
the method of selling, for many times 
a blanket order is placed, and in this 



at fault when it is done, but this does 
not appear entirely true, for sellers 
often say the good patterns carry 
along the others, while the facts are 
that higher prices are charged for the 
better ideas. 

The cloth we have analyzed is one 
of such cases. Whether the retailer 
is obtaining an enormous profit or 
whether some previous seller is ob- 
taining large returns is not known, 
but it is practically certain that no 
mill could receive a high enough price 
to justify such a retail price, namely, 
$1.25 a yard. Of course, the material 
is an all-over leno, but there is noth- 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



271 











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272 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



ing about the manufacturing of it 
which any fancy mill with wide 
enough looms could not accomplish. 
If the leno yarn were of fine char- 
acter and liable to cause trouble, it 
would be a different matter, but the 
yarn used is strong and little break- 
age should occur. 

The cloth count is also low and aids 
in the weaving operation, while there 
are few picks per inch, giving a large 
yardage per loom with a correspond- 
ing decrease in production cost. We 
have seen large quantities of all-over 
lenos produced during the past few 
years, and sold at about 17 cents a 
yard, when the actual cost of produc- 
tion was as high or higher than this 
cloth, and the cloth was also a bad 
weaver with a large number of sec- 
onds, and what is more, the mills 
were very glad to obtain the orders, 
even under such conditions, for, as 
previously stated, the large production 
returned satisfactory profits. 

Inasmuch as this fabric is some- 
what different from those usually seen, 
it may be well to give more informa- 
tion regarding the making. To pro- 
duce a leno 

A DIFFERENT HARNESS 
is used. This consists of a standard 
harness with heddles placed on it, 
similar to those ordinarily used, but 
with extra heddle eyes. In addition 
to this harness is another wiaich con- 
tains no heddles, but which has what 
are called doups, or loose yarn, which 
are attached to the base of this extra 
harness and which pass through the 
eyes of the standard harness. This 
arrangement allows free play to the 
doup harness, but another arrange- 
ment is made whereby, when the 
standard harness is raised, the doup 
is also raised. The crossing or doup- 
ing end is not drawn through the 
heddle eye, but through the doup loop. 
An examination of draft and chain 
will show the process and the method 
in which the various harnesses oper- 
ate. Instead of one doup, there 
are two necessary in this cloth to 
produce the pattern, because while 
some threads are changing, others are 
remaining either up or down. It will 
be noted that on the chain -draft we 



have used two harnesses alike. No. 
7 and No. 9. This is more for con- 
venience than for any other reason, 
and it may also help in operation. Be- 
cause of the different weave it is nec- 
essarj' to have two beams for the 
crossing yarns. 

It ^vill be noticed that the crossing 
yarn is raised continually, while the 
ground yarn, which is drawn in two- 
ply, is continually depressed, a con- 
dition which in any other material 
would not produce a fabric at all, but 
which in this and similar lines makes 
a satisfactory cloth. In the weaving 
operation, the crossing ends have a 
much larger take-up than do the 
ground ends. This is shown in the 
analysis, for the crossing threads 
take up 38 per cent, while the ground 
yarn takes up but 11 per cent. In 
making fabrics of this nature it is 
customary to leave empty dents in 
the reed in planning the cloth. This 
gives a chance for the leno to spread 
and gives better results in certain in- 
stances. We have done this in our 
layout and the empty dents are clear- 
ly designated. When a fine count 
ground is used with leno stripes it 
is sometimes necessary to skip not 
one but a number of dents to make 
the right effect, and it is also some- 
times necessary to take out dents in 
the reed to allow room for the vari- 
ous ends to operate, for they 

ARE OFTENTIMES CROWDED, 
and the heavy crossing end, which is 
many times used, will break the fine 
ground threads, causing a large 
amount of trouble. Much care has 
to be exercised in making any kind 
of leno cloth, for the breaking of a 
doup through wear, or the breaking of 
one of the ends in weaving, will pro- 
duce a bad place in the fabric, much 
worse than would occur in the ordi- 
nary cloths. When the crossing ends 
are in a crossed position, or in other 
words, when both doup and standard 
harnesses are raised, it is necessary 
to have an arrangement whereby ex- 
tra crossing yarn is let off. This is 
necessary to ensure satisfactory weav- 
ing conditions, for the crossing end 
passes under the ground threads and 
more yam length is needed if no 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



273 



breakages occur. When the crossing 
end returns, the yarn is pulled back. 
Where the slackener is marked in the 
chain shows the pick when each oper- 
ates. Usually the head is adapted so 
it can operate a whip roll arrange- 
ment to give the extra yarn when the 
threads cross. The jumper lifts the 
harnesses No. 7 and No. 9 half way 
and is of much service in straighten- 
ing out the doups on the ordinary 
double lift dobby loom. The weights 
of the yarns used and the yards per 
pound are obtained as follows: 



1.148 ends -►- (40/3 X 840; — .1025, ground 

warp weight without take-up. 
11% take-up In weaving. 
.1025 -^ .89 = .1152, total ground warp 

weight per yard. 
2.8 ends -i- (40/3 X 840) = .0248, crossing 

warp weight without take-up. 
38% take-up in weaving. 
.0248 -^ .62 = .0400, total crossing warp 

weight both on beam 2 and beam 3. 
47" width in reed X 30 picks per inch X 36" 

36" 

1,110 yards of filling per yard. 
1,410 -H (40/3 X 840) = .1259, total weight 

of filling per yard. 
.1152 -I- .0400 -f .0400 + .1259 = .3211, 

total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -7- .3211 = 3.11 yards per pound. 



PATTERN. 



40/3 Am. combed. 



40/3 Am. combed. 
40/3 Am. combed. 





1 2 




.> 




2 




1 


18 


1 

1 


2 


2 


2 


1 




18 



= 1,148 beam 1. 



= 278 beam 2. 
= 278 beam 3. 



139X 
40/3 Am. combed filling. 30 picks. 

24 reed, 47" width in reed, 42" grey width, 42" finished width. 
40 X 30 allover finlslied count. 

YARN. 



1,704 total ends. 



Cotton. 
20c. 



Labor, 

waste, etc. 

10%c. 



Twisting. 
3c. 



33 1,2 c. 



40/3 Am. combed, 1%" sta. ; 8 hank dou. rov 
Warp and filling of same yarn. 

COST. 

1,148 ends 40/3 Am. combed + 11% take up = .1152 

278 ends 40/3 Am. combed -f- 38% take-up = .0400 @ 33%c. 

278 ends 40/3 Am. combed + 38%, take-up = .0400 @ 33Vi>c. 

30 picks 40/3 Am. combed = .1259 @ 33 Vic. 

Weaving .' 

Expenses 



33 '^c. 



Selling 

Mill cost . 
Finishing, etc. 
Yards per pound. 3.11 grey. 
Retail price, $1.25 per yard. 



= $ .0386 
= .0134 
= .0134 
= .0422 
.0389 
.0088 

$ .1553 
.0031 



$ .1584 



COTTON SURF SERGE 

This fabric is one of a variety 
which we have not considered to any 
great extent previously and inasmuch 
as there are rather interesting fea- 
tures regarding the cloth and its fin- 
ishing, it may be well to give an 
analysis of a typical construction. As 
a general thing, these cloths are used 
for linings and similar uses, although 
they are also used for dresses and 
many other i)urposfs. and the fa'iric 
In question was sold for the making 
of bathing suits, although v/e should 
Imagine the utility would be limited in 
this direction for various reasons. 

While this identical cloth has a 



twill weave, the construction is very 
similar to that of many fine satins, 
that is, the same yarns are used and 
the cloth count is similar, the weaves 
alone making the different appearance 
when woven. Twill and satin weaves 
woven on the same number of har- 
nessts are practically Identic il, be- 
cause a satin weave is nothing more 
or less than a twill weave rearranged. 
The first difference noted between 
such a fabric as the one analyzed and 
most of the ordinary cloths is one of 
construction. In a plain cloth 

IT IS NOT NECESSARY 
to have nearly as high a count as it 
is with a weave such as has been 
used. When a cloth is woven, the 



2U 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



number of threads and picks per inch 
and also the weave, together with the 
yarn size, regulate the cloth firm- 
ness, that is, a plain weave contains 
two warp threads in a repeat, but the 
filling yarn crosses between each 
thread, making it necessary to Iiave a 
certain amount of space between each 
thread to allow for this crossing, while 
in a cloth where the weave does not 
change on every thread, fewer spaces 
for crossings are necessary and, there- 
fore, to make the cloth as firm as with 
plain weave, a larger number of 
threads or picks are necessary, if yarn 
sizes be identical in each fabric. Be- 
cause of the fine yarn sizes and the 
weave used this cloth has a high 
count, namely, 100 x 172 finished. In 
the first place it may be stated that 
a good deal of cloth such as that con- 
sidered is made on cam looms and the 
problem of manufacture is somewhat 
similar to that noted when plain cloths 
are made. 

This material is a quality product, 
for the yarns are well made, the weav- 
ing is even, and the result when fin- 
ished is very satisfactory. The yarn 
sizes are no finer than many of the 
up-to-date mills make continually and 
in large quantities, but sometimes in 
such a cloth as this better cotton 
would be used than if the yarn were 
to be used in so r.e other kind of 
cloth. This is done because there is 
an excessive amount of friction on 
the yarn due to the high number of 
picks per inch and resulting slow 
weaving, and unless good yarn is used 
loom production will be unsatisfac- 
tory. The large amount of filling on 
the surface makes it necessary for 
that yarn to be even, and to obtain a 
soft fabric the twist in the filling is 
likely to be less than if used in other 
cloths. Comparatively few cloths are 
produced with as high a count as this 
fabric. The take-up in weaving 
is very small and in most cases the 
filling yarn shows a greater shrinkage 
than the warp. 

There is one item regarding this 
sort of cloth 

WHICH AFFECTS ITS COST 

greatly, and this is the high number 
of picks per inch. When a mill is 
making voiles, poplins, shirtings, or 



some other classes of goods the large 
production in yards per loom or per 
weaver makes the weaving and ex- 
pense costs comparati. ely low, and 
while vr uch economy is possible, it will 
affect the ultimate cost but little, yet 
on such a fabric as that considered the 
labor cost is high, due to the small 
production, and there is a great chance 
for economy in producing, with a cor- 
responding reduction in cloth cost. 
Another thing which has to be con- 
sidered in this same direction is the 
obtaining of profits. 

With a loom weaving voiles or sim- 
ilar low pick cloth, a profit of one- 
half cent a yard might return satis- 
factory dividends because of large 
loom production, but when the picks 
per inch are as high as in this cloth 
with the resulting small yardage, a 
much greater return a yard is neces- 
sary if the same ultimate profit be 
secured from operation. It is entirely 
possible that a part of the recent par- 
tial operation in fine and fancy mills 
has been due to the kinds of cloth 
made, that is, the cloths sold have 
been largely voiles and poplins, both 
made with a small number of picks 
per inch, and while the yardage pro- 
duced may not be much smaller than 
usual it has been insufficient to give 
mills all they desired in the way of 
orders. A return to fabrics with a 
larger number of picks would, without 
doubt, aid much in making a better 
condition in fine and fancy goods man- 
ufacture. 

What the above 

REFERENCE TO PROFITS MEANS 

will perhaps be clearer by stating that 
a net profit of 2 cents a yard on such 
a fabric as this will only return a prof- 
it of about $1..55 per week, or about 
$80 per year per loom. Assuming that 
a loom valuation, or cost of a mill per 
loom, be about $600, and this is con- 
servative, the profits per year would 
only amount to about 13 per cent, 
surely not an excessive amount in 
comparison to what other sellers of 
cloth many times receive. 

As stated previously, there are in- 
teresting features regarding the finish- 
ing of this cloth. Probably most of 
such material i dyed a black shade, 
though this is not necessary, except- 



I 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



275 



ing when used for certain purposes. 
In many lines a full range of colors is 
sold. 

There is, however, one thing which 
is noted as soon as the cloth is seen, 
and this is the luster, the face of the 
cloth having a sheen which the back 
does not. In finishing such fabrics it 
is customary to singe off all the cotton 
fibres which project and this gives a 
rather smooth surface. Of course siz- 
ing 11 ateriais are used, the Ingredients 
depending on the results desired when 
finished, but in addition a calendering 
process is employed. 

Sometimes a fabric is finished dou- 
ble fold, thus giving the face a gloss 
which the back does not have, and 
sometimes an extra fabric is used as 
a back cloth and the material is run 
full width. In this case the top roll 
does the pressing. There is in this 
fabric a novel feature which is not 
oftentimes used and this can be seen 
by examining carefully with a magni- 
fying glass. On the fabric there ap- 
pears innumerable fine lines which 
run in opposite direction to the twill 
weave of the cloth. This is done by 
having the pressing roll milled in a 
manner to produce the effect. 

Though it may not be generally 
known, 

IT IS A FACT 

that the reflection of light produces 
a gloss and this reflection is made 
possible by pressing lines into the fin- 
ished fabric. Some have been in- 
clined to believe in the past that the 
excessive luster which some cloths 
had was either made through the use 
of n^ohair or th^-ou?]! s^'zin? and 
pressing, but in many instances it is 
the method of pressing rather than 
the pressing alone which has pro- 
dncprt results such as tb'^s'^ Keen on t e 
cloth analyzed. Naturally any press- 
ing or Tnilling on a cotton fabric will 
disappear when the material is 
washed, and will also decline in luster 
through use without washing, so such 
a finish is not permanent, although 
the result noted wh^n s""''! nniroa'^'ipy 
very many all-silk fabrics. One other 
reason which tends to make prices 
closer on various lines of satins Is 
that orders are for quite large 
amounts, possibly not so large as for 



plain constructions, but much larger 
than for fancies. Fewer colors are 
usually required when finished and 
this tends to keep finishing costs 
rather low. 

The cost of production places this 
cloth in a much higher retail price 
than is noted on other cotton fabrics 
which do not have a fancy weave or 
a novelty construction. The material 
used in this fabric costs about 47 per 
cent of the total amount, leaving 53 
per cent for labor and expenses, while 
in very many other fine cloths the 
material constitutes about 60 per cent 
of the cost, with labor forming about 
40 per cent. Some kinds of coarse 
fabrics have labor costs as low as 15 
per cent of the total, and the above 
statement shows how important care- 
fulness in management is in the pro- 
ducing of such cloths. To have the 
pressing or milling give as good re- 
sults r.s pof^sible, the rloth should not 
have a great amount of tension in the 
width when being processed. This 
accounts for the larger amount of 
shrirkaee in cloth width, when com- 
pared with other cloths in finishing. 

Very many fabrics of this nature 
HAVE A WARP COUNT 
of 96, and the number of picks are 
varied according to the yarn sizes 
and the weave used. Sometimes the 
number of picks is regulated to an 
extent by the price, and if a buyer 
needs to get inside of a certain limit, 
the reduction is usually made through 
a lowering of the picks per inch. 
There is a certain amount of stretch 
when the cloth is finished, but it is 
not so large as on some varieties of 
fine plain material. To obtain the 
yavds per pound and the weights of 
the yarns used the process is as fol- 
lows : 

3.640 ends H- (fiO/1 X 840) = .0722, weight 

of v^rp without t^ke-up. 
3% t;ike-un in wpavlnp. 
.0722 -> .97 = ,0744. total weiKht of warp 

nor v.irrl. 
176 picks X 40" width In reed X 36" 

= 7.040 

36" 
vnrds of filling per yard of cloth. 
7.040 -4- <60/l X 840) =» ,1397. weight of 

filling nor yard. 
0744 + ,1397 = .2141, total weight per 

vrrl. 

1.0000 -i- .2141 = 4.67 yards per lb. (grey). 

Some mills would not make two 
sizes of roving If they were produc- 



27« 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



ing 60-1 warp and 60-1 filling, but Ing for filling than for warp, although 
would make both yarns from one size there are cloths where the making of 
of roving. This method makes a the same size yarns would give en- 
shorter draft possible lor th ^ warp, tirely satisfactory results and might 
and increases the cost for warp while aid in reducing the cost beside mak- 
reducing it for filling. If 12 hank be ing a smaller number of roving sizes 
used for both yarns, it is all right for in process. Results desired will gov- 
warp but makes too large a draft for ern the methods employed to a great- 
filling if the best results be desired. er or less extent, and the other cloths 
Where quality filling is necessary being made may also have more or 
it probably is better to use a finer rov- less influence on the policy adopted. 

PATTERN. 
4 4 

60/1 Am. combed warp — 3,560 — = 3,640 ends. 

10 10 

60/1 Am. combed filling. 176 picks. 

45 reed; 4 0" width in reed. 38%" grey width, 36" finished width. 
100 X 172 finished count. 

YARNS. 

Cotton. Labor, waste, etc. 
60/1 Am. combed warp, 1%" sta.; 12 hank dou. rov., 24c. 16%c. = 40M!C. 

60/1 Am. combed filling, 1%" sta.; 14 hank dou. rov.. 24c. 15%c. = 39%c. 

COST. 

3,640 ends 60/1 Am. combed + 3% take-up = .0744 @ 40%c. = $ .0301 

176 picks 60/1 Am. combed = .1397 @ 39?ic. = .0555 

Weaving .0226 

Expenses .0258 

$ .1340 
Selling .0027 

Mill cost $.1367 

Mill selling price (about) $ .1550 

Finishing, dyeing, etc .0150 

Converter's cost $ .1700 

Converter's selling price (about) $ .2000 

Jobber's sel'ing price (about) .2400 

Retail price .3500 

Yards per pound, 4.67 grey. 
1 

Weave twill. 

4 

♦-•-♦ 



SILK MIXTURE WAVE CREPE 

There are a number of interesting 
features in the fabric which is being 
considered. These cloths are used 
for a number of purposes, but the 
largest distribution is made for dress 
materials. Usually such materials 
are produced in cotton mills and are 
sold at comparatively low prices when 
the detail necessary in making is con- 
sidered; also, the fact that the warp 
is made entirely of silk yarn which 
creates more or less trouble until 
operatives become used to handling 
the silk yarn. There is a more or 
less regular demand for fabrics of 
this character, but it will be noted 
that the retailer was disposing of quite 
a stock of goods at 22 cents per yard, 



a price which is unusually low and 
which indicates that some previous 
seller offered the cloth at a decided 
loss. Such material is often sold 
through a jobber, and sometimes 
from the converting jobber direct to 
the retailer, and naturally prices will 
vary somewhat, but this fabric can- 
not be sold at 22 cents per yard and 
offer any chance of profits to the 
various sellers. 

Manufacturers seldom make such 
fabrics unless at 

A GREATER OR LESS PROFIT, 
for the goods are made on contract 
and competition is not very kbcn, so 
it is unlikely that the Tuill selling 
price was much below 15i^ cents, and 
it probably was higher than this. 
Then added to this price is the charge 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



277 



for finishing and the profits which us- 
ually go to the sellers of a high-class 
novelty fabric. Under the circum- 
stances it is evident that some con- 
verter held a surplus stock which was 
disposed of at a sacrifice, making a 
low retail price possible. It is prob- 
ably true that silk and cottons such 
as these have been affected more or 
less by the lack of interest in other 
silk and cotton fabrics which were 
killed by certain converters and con- 
verting jobbers a year ago by cutting 
the cloth construction to a point where 
little actual value remained. 



probably most mills using about 22-24. 
We have used 180,000 yards 

AS THE STANDARD 

in obtaining the weights, but this is 
not the theoretical yardage, and is 
used in this size to allow a certain 
amount of protection to cloth maker 
for variation in silk size. This cloth 
is called a serpentine crepe. Con- 
sumers would hardly recognize the 
similarity to many ordinary crepe de 
chines, but the fact is they are very 
similar, sometimes being made of 
identical yarns and with the same 



Silk Mixture Wave Crepe. 



The sales of such lines at low prices 
Indicate how hard some sellers were 
pinched, for retailers are to-day offer- 
ing certain cloths for 8i^ cents in a 
finished and dyed state which cost 
the mill from 13 to 14 cents to pro- 
duce in the grey state, and very many 
others sold at retail the same cloths 
at 121^ cents per yard. It is believed 
that the development in silk and cot- 
ton has made certain converters much 
more conservative than they have pre- 
viously been. Italian silk is ordinarily 
used In making cloth of this charac- 
ter, and It Is seldom finer than 18-20 
and usually coarser than this number, 



cloth construction. The main differ- 
ence can be stated as being one of 
weaving and twists in the yarn, a ser- 
pentine crepe is made from filling 
yarn of one direction of twist, and 
is woven on a regular loom, while a 
crepe de chine is made with yarn of 
two twists and is woven on a box 
loom. Sometimes two picks of one 
twist are placed in the cloth and then 
two picks of the reverse twist are 
woven, and sometimes other arrange- 
ments are made. 

THE DIFFERENCE 

In the finished cloths is expressed by 



278 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



saying that the crepe de chine has 
a more or less regular crepy look, 
while the serpentine crepe has quite 
a heavy wavy appearance. This crepy 
or wavy appearance is obtained 
through the use of hard twist filling 
in both instances. Sometimes single 
yarns are used and in other cases 
yarn of two-ply character is employed. 

The actual filling count is rather 
low, but is high enough to prevent 
bad slipping. Two methods are em- 
ployed in making hard twist two-ply 
yarn for use in these cloths. In one 
process the twisting is done on a 
spinning frame onto enameled bob- 
bins, and all that is necessary to in- 
sure satisfactory weaving is to steam 
the bobbins. This is naturally the 
cheapest method, but when yarn is 
twisted on a regular twister, the bob- 
bins are not usable in a shuttle, so 
the yarn much be spooled, ball warped, 
sized, and quilled before it can be 
used in weaving. When the yarn is 
sized in the second process, and this 
must be done to stop kinks in the 
yarn, it is not necessary to steam to 
set the twist. 

The single hard twist yarn is, of 
course, handled by the first method. 
The standard of twist used in making 
these yarns will vary greatly, due to 
different conditions of making and 
somewhat to the cotton used. A 
smooth long cotton 

WILL REQUIRE LESS TWIST 

than shorter fibres, and the standard 
will usually vary from 6 to 8, but in- 
stances have been noted where as 
high a standard as 10 was used. 
Most yarns have standards of from 
7 to 714. What this hard twist does 
can be readily noted when the grey 
cloth width and the finished width 
are compared. The original width is 
about 32 inches, while the fabric fin- 
ished is 24 inches. The hard twisted 
yarn v.'ill shrink readily when im- 
mersed in hot water, and this accounts 
for the appearance when sold and in- 
dicates how important the factor of 
yarn twist is in such cloths. 

If a standard f 6 acts satisfactorily, 
it is a deliberate waptp to ns'^ a hip'h- 
er standard, for It increases the cost 
of production quite rapidly, because 
the la'-ppr the amount of twist the 



smaller the production. Ordinarily, 
the labor cost of such yarn is about 
twice as high as it is on regular warp 
yarn. Some mills merely make the 
crepe through hot water or steam, 
but there are certain other finishers 
v>'ho use a mercerizing process to ob- 
tain the same results. There is an 
added attractiveness through mercer- 
izing, but it is sometimes a question 
of getting the cloth as cheaply as 
possible, so this is not done, and It 
has also been true that some finishers 
or converters did not know the proc- 
ess was possible and never asked to 
have it applied. 

Thes fabrics are made with jac- 
quard patterns and also with dobby 
figures, but by far the 

LARGEST PORTION IS MADE 
with plain weaves. Of late, there has 
been a tendency to use heavy silk 
stripes for decorations, but it adds to 
the cost, and for this reason, is objec- 
tionable. Similar lines of fabrics have 
been sold for scarfings and have had 
a satisfactory distribution. There Is 
one thing which has been true until 
recently regarding the making and 
selling of novelty silk and cotton fab- 
rics, and this is that profits have in- 
variably been large. 

Up to a few yea'-s ago there were 
onlv a few mills which cared to use 
such material, net alone because they 
thouE'ht its use would create more or 
less trouble, but f>lso because the mak- 
ing of such cloths upsets the mill 
organizaMon. For a fancy mill to 
weave such fabrics It is necessary to 
keen sninnirg frames idle which have 
prPviou<5lv made wa^n yarn, and if 
s'lk filMne be used, filllner frames are 
idle. NatuT-aHv, the carrving charges 
are as la''ee as If they were In oner- 
atlon. and this mak^s a high profit 
Impera.tive. if the making be success- 
ful fIori-'Pt,i'^"'^R o mill c'^n nno»-qtP Us 

excess of sn Inning on yarn for sale 
purnoses. hut inasmuch as no reerular 
cu«;tom is h^ld. prices for yarn under 
such conrlitions are not so high as 
th<=v mi°'ht he. 

Cor^^ain instances a^p known where 
a min sold va^n at a hierh price for a 
year nr niorp, and to keen 

THE WEAVING IN OPERATION, 
accepted orders for silk novelties ftt 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



279 



a price slightly above cost. Without Naturally, when orders are not in 

doubt, the accepting of orders which large volume, a seller must needs ac- 

continualiy keeps a novelty mill in c-pt the ones which are offered, but 

balance is one of the most important, much might be done 

!L°ls"iresr''T.ie\°S TZefs TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION 

which upsets the organization is one when selling conditions are normal, 
of the fruitful sources of lack of It will be noted that this fabric is 
profits and more money can be lost rather light in weight, as most of 
in this manner than can be made up such lines are, and also that the cot- 
L-.rough economical operation. The ton forms over 75 per cent of the total 
art of selling cloth has been responsi- cloth weight. The silk is woven in the 
ble for some of the large successes in gum and very little luster is seen on 
fancy cloth making, and the lack of it the cloth until it is finished. In finish- 
for some of the failures. It is be- ing, some of the silk gum is removed, 
lieved that the importance of this the amount depending on various con- 
ability is being forgotten by certain ditions. To obtain the weights of the 
mills who are not considering the silk and cotton composing the cloth 
long future. and the yards per pound, the process 

The sentiment has been expressed is as follows: 
many times of late that anyone can 

dispose of cloth if the quality is right, 3.156 ends -h ISO.OOO yard.s = .0175. warp 

and while this may appear true to an ..J^^^/j^Vup ^m' ^^^^ operation. 

extent, it is also a fact that some .0175 -h .93 = .OISS, warp weight per yard 

sellers know nothing regarding manu- ..°^. J^°Y?"oow°'^.^*v, . ^ v^ ,<, 

, . . ., J J. -1 i-u £ J 50 piclis X 3314" width in reed X 36 

facturing or the details thereof, and . — 2 . . = 1.662.5 

through this reason sell fabrics which , , ^,,, 36" , ^ , . 

,«;„r,t !,„, T ^„ !,„+<.„- ,,„„-^u „„ «„_ yards of filling per yard of cloth. 

might have been better unsold, as far 1,662.5 -^ 23,000 yards = .0723, fining 

as the mill was concerned. A seller weight per yard of woven cloth. 

should know what is best for his or- "4^,^."^ '"^^^ ^ ■°"^' ^°^^^ "^^'^^^ ''^'" 

ganization to make and strive to hold 1.0000 -h .0911 = 10. 98 yards per pound, 
to such fabrics. If selling conditions 

make it imperative to sell other Note that the yards per pound of the 
cloths, or if fashion takes a different 60-2 hard twist is not 25,200, the yard- 
trend, other orders should be taken age ordinarily seen, but 23,000 yards 
to continue a proper balance in manu- per pound, due to the contraction in 
facturing. hard-twisting. 

PATTERN. 
4 4 

23/25 Italian silk — 3.02S — = 3.156 total ends. 

16 16 

60/2 Am. combed hard twist, 50 picks. 

46 reed; 3314" width in reed, 32" grev width. 24" finished width. 
98 X 50 grey count, 131 X 49 finished count. 

YARN.S. 

Ijabor, Twist- 
Cotton, waste, etc. ing. 
60/2 Am. combed H. T.. 1%" sta. ; 12 hank dou. rov., 24c. 16 Vic. 8c. = $ .48% 

23/25 Italian silk, 180,000 yards per lb. Ready on beams, r= 4.35 

COST. 

3.156 ends 23/25 Italian silk + 7% take-up = .0188 ® $4.35 = $ .0818 

50 nicks 60/2 Am. combed hard twist = .0723 © .48 'A = .0351 

Weaving .0142 

Expenses .0124 

$ .1435 
Selling .0029 

Mill cost (about) $ .1464 

Price to converter (about) $ .1550 

Finishing, dyeing, etc .0250 

Converter's selling price .2000 

Jobber's selling price .2500 

Retail selling price (usual) .SBOO 

Retail sale price (actual) .MOO 



A COTTON FABRICS QL088AHT 



ARTIFICIAL SILK STRIPE 
OVERDRESS 

This fabric is one which illustrates 
a number of ideas which are of inter- 
est to-day, not only in regard to the 
cloth construction used, but also in 
connection with its being an imported 
material. In the first place, it can 
be said that there should be more of 
the smaller mills producing fabrics of 



There Is a great opportunity for 
small, well-fitted mills to produce just 
such cloths as we are considering, a 
field where competition is not so keen 
and where profits are comparatively 
large. A large mill cannot produce 
such fabrics in small enough quan- 
tity and if they could, the detail of 
so many orders would probably tie up 
a mill. A man of ability in a small 
plant can develop more or less origi- 
nality in cloths, building up a trade 
which want quality fabrics, and are 
willing to pay for them. There is a 
legitimate place in manufacturing for 




Artificial Silk Stripe Overdress. 



this character, or similar ones which 
are in style, and which show a good 
profit, although the orders are small. 
A good many mills, probably most of 
the small domestic ones, trail the 
large operatives, making similar pat- 
terns and competing, or attempting to, 
on prices. Of course, many times small 
mills sell their product in different 
channels and in smaller amounts, 
thereby receiving a 

SOMEWHAT HIGHER PRICE, 

and this is the only reason that they 
can continue in operation and make 
any money. 



a small mill, but it is not in attempt- 
ing to produce styles which large 
plants are running, but rather in the 
making of exclusive fabrics and for 
an exclusive trade. 

Comparatively few of such fabrics 
are produced in domestic mills, but if 
the right methods were pursued, it is 
very likely that the 3 per cent of 
fabrics which are imported of the 
total domestic consumption would 
then be produced in domestic plants 
A large proportion of the cloth which 
is imported is not cloth which enters 
actively into domestic competition; 
that Is, It fills a need which mills 



▲ COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



281 



here either can*ot or do not supply. 
If mills were inclined to develop this 
trade, there would be practically none 
imported, for duties are so greatly in 
excess of necessity that foreign fab- 
rics absolutely could not be sold iu 
competition. 

Probably the duty assessed on this 
cloth is as great or greater than the 
entire labor cost of producing, at 
least, in any sized quantities in do- 
mestic mills, and because of the yarns 
used and cloth construction, labo)- 
cnarges form a large portion of 

THE TOTAL COST 
of production. Naturally, a man oper- 
ating a small mill and making ex- 
clusive fabrics needs to be familiar 
with the various mill processes and 
know how to obtain results in the 
best and most economical manner, 
and not only this, but he must be 
familiar with the selling end of the 
business and the styles which are 
likely to be used by an exclusive 
trade. It is admitted that men who 
could operate such a business are 
rather scarce, and the ones who are 
able are about all employed in larger 
business. In other words, there are not 
enough capable men for the good of 
the textile trade to-day, but the num- 
bers of trained men are increasing, 
and sooner or later, more of the cloths 
which are now imported will be pro- 
duced. The need for trained oper- 
atives is great, but the need for cap- 
able, trained and original managers 
is greater, and until experience and 
training produce a supply of such 
men, foreign cloths will continue to 
be imported, even with a duty twice 
as high as it is at present. 

Take the cloth we are considering 
and note the ideas used. It has, in 
the first place, the general appearance 
of voile cloths, which are compara- 
tively good sellers to-day, thereby 
bringing the highest rate of profit. It 
is made in such a manner that very 
little of the high-priced material 
which it contains is needed in pro- 
ducing, and it comprises a small 
amount of artificial silk, which gives 
It an exclusive appearance. 

Many similar fabrics, with the ex- 
ception of the Bilk stripes, are made 



in domestic mills, but It is doubted 
whether they return the profits which 
this cloth would. Possibly, 

DOMESTIC FABRICS 

are not made of quite so fine yarn, 
but for consumers little difference 
could be noted. It is the right intro- 
duction of silk, the right spacing of 
stripes, the difference from other fab 
rics which makes ai e.xclusive ma- 
terial or style, and contrary to the 
idea of most people, both buyers and 
sellers, such difference consists more 
of small details than it does of any 
great radical difference. We have 
seen designs produced for a certain 
construction which were absolutely 
worthless, and we have seen the same 
designs produced on the same cloth 
construction which compelled admira- 
tion and produced sales. 

Another illustration of the same re- 
sults follows: On a certain shirting 
fabric much trouble resulted because 
of cloth quality and strength. Instead 
of using better and longer cotton, cir- 
cumstances compelled the attempt to 

USE SHORTER STOCK, 

but along with this shorter stock was 
the use of a better arrangement of 
stripes in the pattern. Entirely dif- 
ferent results were produced, and the 
improvement in cloth appearance was 
noticeable, the buyers being much 
pleased, although they did not know 
that the cloth was actually costing 
one-fourth of a cent less per yard to 
make and would not break so high as 
before. Probably the poor original ap- 
pearance made buyers critical of all 
the items of interest in the cloth, 
while the better arrangement over- 
balanced any minor defects. 

In a cloth such as the one consid- 
ered it is necessary to have 

A LENO EDGE 

along each stripe, so as to keep the 
stripes in their correct positions, and 
to give a clear open space between. 
Because of the crossing which takes 
place on every pick, it is impossible to 
introduce but a comparatively few 
picks into the cloth. Just the right 
number of picks to use for such a fab- 



282 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



ric as this can only be determined by 
experimentation. Too many picks 
will cause trouble in weaving, and the 
use of too few will allow much slip- 
ping, spoiling the general effect. 
When more picks are desired, it is 
necessary to have the leno ends work 
so that two picks are in a shed to- 
gether, but this makes an uneven 
cloth, and while this method can be 
used on some fabrics, it would not be 
satisfactory on a cloth similar to sam- 



ordinary dobby pattern were being 
made, and usually a weaver will oper 
ate only one loom. 

This naturally makes the 

• COST OF WEAVING 

excessive, nearly one-third of the cost 
of production, and any economies 
which can be made so that a larger 
percentage of production is obtained 
are well worth while. When a net 
profit of one cent per yard on a fab- 



PATTERN. 



70/2 Sea Island combed mercerized.., 
120/2 Sea Island combed mercerized.., 
100 denier artificial silk 



2 2 

— 4 4 4 4 — 

1 li 

1 4 114 1 

2 

2 



16X 
100/2 Sea Island combed mercerized. 44 picks. 
50 reed; 42" width in reed, 39 M:" finished width. 
49 X 44 over all finished count. 



102X 



16X 



896 
636 
40S 



1,940 



70/2 Sea Island combed, 1%" sta. ; 14 hank dou. rov., 
100/2 Sea Island combed, 1%" sta. ; 20 hank dou. rov., 
120/2 Sea Island combed, 1%" sta. ; 24 hank dou. rov., 
100 denier artificial silk, 40,000 yards per lb., 



Cotton. 
2Sc. 
30c. 
32c. 



Labor, waste, 

twisting, 

mercerizing, etc. 

44 Vic 

65c. 

80c. 



$ .72% 

.95 

1.12 

2.75 



COST. 

824 ends 70/2 combed + 15% take-up = .0329 @ ? .72% = $ .0239 

72 ends 70/2 combed + 4% take-up = .0026 iv .72% = .0019 

636 ends 120/2 combed + i% take-up = .0131 @ 1.12 = .0147 

408 ends 100 denier artificial silk -f- 2% take-up = .0104 @ 2.75 = .0286 

44 picks 100/2 combed == .0440 @ .95 = .0418 

W^eaving .0BZ5 

Expenses .0156 

$ .1890 

Finishing, etc .0200 

$ .2090 

Selling .0075 



Retail price, 79c. per yard. 

Retail purchasing price about 50c. per yard. 

English mill price probably less than 30c. per yard. 

Import duty about 13c. 

Yards per pound, 9.71. 



$ .2165 



pie. In making a fabric such as this 
one, it is likely that a 50-reed was 
used, with four ends for each stripe 
and six dents for each open space. 
If a 50-reed was too fine to allow 
satisfactory weaving, a 25-reed could 
be used with two dents for each stripo 
and three dents for each open space, 
but probably this is not necessary. 
Because of the nature of the cloth, the 
loom speed is not so high as if an 



ric of this nature will return a net 
profit of about $100 per loom per year 
with a comparatively low weaving 
production, it can be seen that care 
should result in a good profit, espe- 
cially when such large opportunities 
are offered. It is a very good plan 
when such fabrics as thesa are being 
made to take the very best and most 
reliable weavers obtainable and put 
on looms producing this cloth, paying 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



SM 



them a good salary rather than a 
price per piece. 

SMALL NUMBER OF SECONDS. 

Under such an arrangement the best 
quality of cloth will be made, and 
production will be at the highest 
point, a small loss through seconds 
being noted. The leno weave used is 
the ordinary gauge one, with the 
crossing thread changing every pick, 
and as this has been taken up in de- 
tail at other times no lurther ex- 
planation is needed. One other fea- 
ture of this cloth is the size and kind 
of yarn used. Few mills in the do- 
mestic market would make thre' 
kinds of two-ply yarn when making 
such a fabric. In the cotton staple 
used for the various sizes we have 
used a staple longer than the yarn 
sizes require, unless they are to be 
mercerized; that is, 70-1 or 70-2 ordi- 
narily would be made of li-inch cot- 
ton, or even less. Only for special 
purposes would cotton longer than 
this be used for the above yarn size. 
Good yarn is very essential for the 
making of a fabric in which the yarn 
shows so clearly, and yarns of this 
character are usually gassed. This 
singes off the f.bres which protrude 
giving a round, rod-like appearance. 

Through the use of 

LONGER STAPLE COTTON 

the twist per inch can be reduced 
somewhat over the ordinary amount, 
thus giving better results when the 
yarn is mercerized. Yarn improve 
ment has been steady for the past 
five years in domestic mills, this be- 
ing brought about through necessity 
We have seen single-yarn fabricr 
made in doxestic mills somewhat 
similar to sam.ple, and which com- 
pared very favorably indeed wher 
price was considered. Then this cloth 
has used artificial silk for the stripes, 
which largely give it its char- 
acter. No objection of any magnitude 
can be offered when this material ir 
used in such a manner. The cotton 
yarn gives all the strength necessary 
and will hold the artificial silk even 
when soaked continually in water 



The luster is one of the large reasona 
why the cloth is attractive. 

WEAVING MORE DIFFICULT. 

Possibly one reason why mills here 
have not used it is because of its rub- 
bing and breaking in weaving. Of 
course, it is more satisfactory when 
used in coarse count cloth, but futur' 
use will surely be large. Anything 
which causes a lot of trouble or which 
makes loom production small is avoid- 
ed by domestic mills. The large uso 
which is taking place in foreign mills 
is clearly illustrated in the importa- 
tion of voile cloths. 

S24 ends -^ (70/2 X 840) = .0280, weight 

of 70/2 leno yarn without take-up. 
15% take-up in weaving. 
.0280 -f- .85 = .032a, total weight of 70/2 

leno yarn. 
72 ends -- (70/2 X 840) = .0024, weight of 

70/2 selvage yarn without take-up. 
4 7o take-up in weaving. 
.0024 -=- .96 = .0026, weight of 70/2 selvage 

yarn. 
636 ends -f- (120/2 X 840) = .0126, weight 

of 120/2 yarn without take-up. 
4% take-up in weaving. 
.0126 -r- .96 = .0131, total weight of 120/2 

yarn. 
40S ends ^ 40,000 yards silk = .0102, weight 

of artificial silk without take-up. 
2% take-up in weaving. 

.0102 H- .98 = .0104, total weight of arti- 
ficial silk. 
44 picks X 42" reed width X 36" 

— = 1.848 

36" 

yards of filling yarn per yard of cloth. 
1,848 H- (100/2 X 840) = .0440, weight of 

100/2 filling. 
.0329 4- .0026 -f- .0131 -f .0140 + .0440 = 

.1030, total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -i- .1030 = 9.71 yards per pound. 



♦ » » 



FAST COLOR, MERCERIZED 
JACQUARD SHIRTING 

During the past few years there has 
appeared on the market various new 
fabrics which have been made pos- 
sible through some improvement of 
manufacturing or finishing. This cloth 
is one of an imported line, and the 
reason we have presented it is as much 
because of the price as because of its 
novel features. It would seem as if 
there was a large enough demand for 
exclusive styles to make it possible 
for dom.estic mills to produce and sell 
them and still have no friction be- 



281 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



tween the various buyers through hav- 
ing the same styles. 

It is possible to purchase as small 
an amount 

AS 250 PIECES 
of such a style as the one considered 
and if a trip through some of the ex- 
clusive stores shows anything it is 
that many lines might be purchased 
with less chance of overlapping on 
styles than is now noted from domes- 
tic mills. In our cost we have given 
high ranges of profit, and it is very 



the slack times which are customary 
every few years? The old idea which 
was held in past years that domestic 
cloth was 

NOT SO GOOD AS IMPORTED 
material has been proven time and 
again to be false when the actual facts 
have been obtained, and in this indi- 
vidual instance it can be said that 
any one of a dozen mills in the do 
mestic market could and would pro- 
duce a cloth as good as that analyzed, 
and various finishing plants are em- 




Fast Color, Mercerized Jacquara Shirting. 



likely that this cloth could be made 
in the exact construction so as to be 
sold at retail for 35 or 39 cents in- 
stead of the 45 cents which we havf 
given. The retail price actually is 55 
cents, and shows how much the con- 
sumer pays extra just because the 
pattern is exclusive. Leaving out the 
question of price to consumer entire- 
ly, is it not worth while to make it 
possible for domestic mills to producr 
the material which is purchased 
abroad? 

If a large portion of the cloth now 
purchased of foreign countries was 
made in domestic mills, would not the 
added orders make a better balance in 
th« operation and eliminate some of 



inently able to finish such materials 
of domestic manufacture. 

The facts are that there are many 
retail buyers who go abroad and pur- 
chase cloth which could be obtained 
in the domestic market, let alone men- 
tioning the savings which might be 
effected in price. Of course, there are 
some buyers who are capable men and 
understand cloth and something re- 
garding its manufacture and construc- 
tion, but many of them invariably get 
stuck and the only thing which saves 
the situation is the fact that excessive 
profits are possible. Probably the one 
large reason why some of the big re- 
tailers, who do converting for them- 
selves, started into the business was 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



28B 



because they could produce styles 
whicli equalled or surpassed many im- 
ported lines and at a large saving in 
price. Many of such styles were sold 
as imported lines, but nevertheless 
they helped domestic mills, for it 
acted as an incentive toward the mak- 
ing of newer and better cloths. 
Without any question probably 75 per 
cent of the fancy cotton cloth now 
imported could be made so as to be 
sold at a lower price to consumers in 
the domestic mills. 

MORE CO-OPERATION. 

A little more co-operation between 
buyers and sellers in the domestic 
market and more confidence in do- 
mestic styles would work wonders in 
this direction. Altogether too much 
dependence has been placed on foreign 
styling, as contrasted with that in do- 
mestic mills, and while each country 
has much to learn from the otiiers, 
conditions are developing which make 
it rather impracticable to follow styles 
too closely. Large buyers are hurting 
manuiacturers when they purchase 
fabrics which could have been made 
in domestic mills. If there were but 
lew instances where cloth purchased 
in foreign markets could be made in 
domestic mills, little attention would 
be necessary, but this is not true, and 
much of the cloth purchased does not 
need to be. There is, of course, a 
certain amount of blame to be at- 
tached to domestic mills or converters 
for not going more strongly after this 
exclusive trade, but in grey goods 
mills, in which the sample and sim- 
ilar cloths are produced, the patterns 
and constructions are developed by 
buyers, and mills merely produce what 
buyers ask for. The same amount 
of zeal used among domestic sellers, 
which some buyers are accustomed 
to use in foreign markets, would iiake 
much more possible in the making of 
novelty fabrics. 

Various interesting details are nec- 
essary in the production of a labric of 
this character. In the first place, 
three beams are necessary to produce 
the cloth satisfactorily. One of these 
beams contains the ground yarn, a 
second the colored yarn, which takes 



up less in weaving, while the third 
carries the yarn which composes the 
cords. The fabric is woven in the grey 
state excepting the yam which com- 
poses the colored stripes, which are 
of color fast to the bleaching process. 
In the analysis, we noted the fact that 
the cloth was woven on a 600-jac- 
quard loom, and with three repeats 
of the pattern to every repeat of the 
machine tie-up. Usually, in making up 
patterns of this character, the mill 

HAS TO VARY THE DESIGN 

to suit the tie-up of its looms; that 
is, if a pattern was drawn by a buy- 
er to be, say, 2 1-3 inches wide, and 
a mill contained looms with a 5-inch 
tie-up, it would be necessary to use 
two repeats in the machine, giving a 
width in the reed of about 2i/^ inches, 
or if the pattern was drawn l^/^ Inches 
wide, it would be necessary to use 
three repeats, giving a reed width of 
1 2-3 inches, instead of l^/^ inches; 
also, if a pattern was drawn 4 inches 
wide it would be necessary to readjust 
it, making 5 inches the reed width. 
Many 600-jacquard looms are tied up 
120 hooks per inch, giving a reed 
width of 5 inches, and unquestionably 
this pattern is made on such a ma- 
chine. 

600 machine -f- 120 hooks or threads per 
inch = 5 reed width. 

There are exactly 600 threads used 
in the machine or total pattern repeat 
and, therefore, no hooks are cast out. 
A fault which is present in the pattern 
as woven, although one which few 
consun:ers would detect, is the fact 
that there are silk threads of ground 
yarn 

BETWEEN COLOR AND CORD 

on one side of the stripe, while there 
are 8 ground threads on the opposite 
side of the stripe. This gives a slight- 
ly unbalanced pattern, but it was evi- 
dently a mistake of the designer rath- 
er than the weaver, for it appears reg- 
ularly throughout the cloth width. 
This fabric is a much higher count 
cloth than is ordinarily seen in shirt- 
ing lines, and the yarns are finer than 
many use, but similar fabrics with 



28« 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



even finer yarns are made in quanti- 
ties in domestic mills. 

One feature of the cloth is that it 
has filling of soft twist yarn, so as to 
give a better result when finished. The 
use of soft twist yarn aids, because 
the cotton fibres lie more nearly par- 
allel, and when the fabric is mercer- 
ized, these fibres reflect the light bet- 
ter, giving a higher luster. In making 
soft twist filling it is customary to use 
a longer staple than if ordinary yarn 



is usually about 3 for ring frames, 
but cases have been known where the 
standard was as low as 214 on rather 
coarse yarn and with especially long 
cotton, although this is seldom seen 
The standards for mule twist ar< 
somewhat less than for ring frames, 
but probably 2% to 3 represents the 
majority. The amount of twist will 
depend a whole lot on the cotton be- 
ing used and the kind of cloth being 
made. 



60/1 Am. combed grey J48| 

60/1 Am. combed colored 

40/2 Am. combed grey 1 | 



60/1 Am. combed filUng, soft twist, 116 picks. 

60 reed, 351/3" width in reed, 32%" grey width, 32" fmi.shed width. 
128 X 116 grey count, 134 X 113 finished count. 




I I = 



3,742 
336 
210 



KO/1 Am. comb, warp, 1%" sta. ; 12 hank dou. rov., 

60/1 Am. comb, col., 1%" sta. ; 12 hank dou. rov., 

40/2 Am. comb, warp, l%"sta. ; 8 hank dou. rov., 

60/1 Am. comb, filling, l%"sta.; 14 hank dou. rov.. 



Cot- Labor, Twist- 
ton, waste, etc. ing. Dyeing. 
24c. leVzC = 40%c. 
24c. 16y2C. 16c. = 56%c. 
20c. 10%c. 2c. = 32%c. 
24c. 15%c. = 39%c. 



COST. 

3.742 ends 60/1 Am. combed -|- 107o take-up = .0824 @ 40%c. = $ .0334 

336 ends 60/1 Am. combed + 8% take-up = .0073 @ 56i/4c. = .0041 

210 ends 40/2 Am. combed -f 2% take-up = .0128 @ 32%c. = .0041 

116 picks 60/1 Am. combed = .0813 @ 39%c. = .0323 

Weaving .0392 

]i;xpenses .0376 

$ .1507 
Selling .0030 

Mill cost $.1537 

Mill selling price (abouti $ .1750 

Finishing, mercerizing, etc .0150 

$ .1900 

Converter's selling price $ .2500 

Jobber's selling price .3000 

Retailer's selling price .4500 

Yards per pound, 5.44 grey. 

Made on a 600-jacquard loom, 3 repeats per section. 



were being made, for inasmuch as 
there is a smaller amount of twist a 
longer length of fibre is necessary to 
give sufficient strength to weave or 
to mercerize. Take the cloth we ar' 
considering and 

IT WILL BE NOTED 

that li-inch staple was used for warp 
and filling. If this filling were no-f 
made soft twist it is very likely that 
cotton not over IV^ inches would havr 
been used. The standard of twist used 



Very often designs are planned so 
that the cloth must be made to one 
side of the jacquard tie-up, or, in other 
words, 

THERE IS A WIDER SPACE 

between the shuttle box and cloth on 
one side than there is on the other. 
Where there are a number of pattern 
repeats in each 600 hooks little trouble 
will result, because a wide variation 
cannot occur, but with only one stripe 
to a pattern, or rather to the 600 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



287 



hooks, sometimes bad weaving will 
result and olten the design has to bs 
repainted To give the best place in 
the tie-up to weave this fabric the 
problem would be as follows: There 
are 4,192 ends in the warp, exclud- 
ing the selvages, which are worked 
separately, and as most jacquards of 
this kind are tied up 40 inches wide, 
we will assume that such was the 
case with this cloth. 

120 ends per inch X 40" = 4,800, total har- 
ness in tie-up. 
4,800 — 4,192 = 60S, total harness not used. 
608 -^ 2 = 304, each side not used. 

As 600 machines have 12 hooks in a 
row, we have 

304 -T- 12 = 25 rows + 4 hooks. 

In other words, to make the cloth 
in the center of the tie-up we would 
not start to draw in warp yarn until 
the 5th hook on row 26 in the ma- 
chine in section No. 1 of the jacquard 
tie-up, and when we had drawn in all 
the ends we would find that the last 
thread would be drawn on the 8th 
hook in row 25 in section No. 8. As 
one section takes 5 inches, the total 
width, or 40 inches, would give 8 sec- 
tions. 

Of course, this layout is rather sim- 
ple, but when patterns are 

MORE COMPLICATED 

and there is a large and varying cast 
out the problem is not so easy, but if 
made out correctly at first no subse- 
quent changes, are necessary. It 
should be as common a practice to 
balance jacquard patterns as it is 
dobbies, but, unfortunately, it is not, 
and much improvement might be 
made even in many of the dobby pat- 
terns which are sold. 

Mills making fabrics of this char- 
acter seldom dye their yarn, for one 
reason that they could not do it as 
successfully as those now doing it, for 
another reason each contains rather 
small quantities, making a small 
amount necessary, and as the mills 
n.ake a large proportion of grey cloth, 
the expense would be high, probably 
higher than the present cost, and with 
no outlay for a dyehouse to increase 
the capita] necessary. There is no 



question, however, but that many new 
lines will be produced. 
One year ago was 

PROBABLY THE EARLIEST 

any of these lines were sold by re- 
tailers in quantities, and most of the 
fabrics offered were lots left from va- 
rious shirt makers, and patterns were 
not entirely suitable, but there is a 
future in this direction. The weights 
of the yarns and cloth are obtained 
as follows: 

3,742 ends -i- (60/1 X 840) = .0742, weight 

of 60/1 grey without take-up. 
10% take-up in weaving. 
.0742 ^ 9 = .0824, total weight per yard 

of 60/1 grey warp. 
336 ends -h (60/1 X 840) = .0067. weight 

of 60/1 colored without take-up. 
8% take-up in weaving. 
.0067 -^ .92 = .0073, total weight per yard 

of 6 0/1 colored warp. 
210 ends -^ (40/2 X 840) = .0125, weight of 

40/2 grey without take-up. 
2% take-up in weaving. 
.0125 -^ .92 = .0128, total weight per yard 

of 40/2 grey warp. 
116 picks X 35 Vs" reed width X 36" 

- — ■ — — = 4,099 

36" 

yards of filling per yard of cloth. 
4,099 H- (60/1 X 840) = .0813, total weight 

per yard of 60/1 filling. 
.0824 -I- .0073 -1- .0128 + .0813 = .1838. 

total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -H .1838 = 5.44 yards per lb. grey. 



FLANNELETTE NOVELTY 

One of the most interesting and 
also one of the largest used fabrics 
is that class ordinarily known as 
flannelette. In general this class 
could be said to contain any kind of 
cloth made of cotton which is napped 
on both sides, and used for ordinary 
purposes, such as kimonos, night- 
gowns, coverings, and very many oth- 
er purposes. The present season has 
seen a large demand for all kinds 
of cloth of this character, and prices 
might be called high, and profits 
should be exceedingly satisfactory to 
mills producing them. Cloth of this 
character is made in white and 
solid colors, in woven stripes, in 
checks and in a great variety of 
printed patterns. Usually such fab- 
rics would be considered rather heavy 
in weight, for the yarns used are sel- 
dom finer than 30s in the warp and 
16s in the filling. The reason the fill- 



288 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



ing is heavier than the warp is be- 
cause of the napping operation. 

In napping such fabrics as the ones 
considered, the machinery which ac- 
complishes tlie purpose does it as the 
cloth is moving quite rapidly through 
tJie machine, and naturally it would 
Hffect the filling yarn. To give suf- 
ficient strength to make the cloth a 
satisfactory article it is, therefore, 
necessary to make the filling heavy 
■enough to stand the napping operation 
and give satisfactory service after- 
ward. One reason, in addition, why 
this is necessary is that warp yarn 
has to have a larger amount of twist 



fabrics in recent years. They used 
to be made of yarn dyed after it was 
spun, and this process is employed 
to-day to an extent, but many mills 
now make their fabrics of yarn made 
from dyed cotton. This has been done 
without question in the fabric being 
considered. The white cotton in such 
fabrics is bleached before being spun, 
and while this is objectionable, inas- 
much as the whites are not so clear 
as if the cloth was bleached after be- 
ing woven, the results are satisfactory 
in practically all instances 

In the cloth being considered there 
are a number of features not com- 




Flannelette Novelty. 



in proportion than does filling yarn, 
because it has to stand the strain of 
weaving, and filling can be soft twist- 
ed with n^uch less difficulty in 
weaving. It is also customary in mak- 
ing this kind of cloth to use plain 
weave. This is done for these two 
reasons: The first because the nap- 
ping operations largely cover up any 
weave in the cloth, ana secona, be- 
cause plain weave binds in the tnreads 
better and makes stronger cloth. 

YARNS USED. 
'-■■'- There has been quite a good deal 
of improvement in the making of such 



mon In cloth of this character. In the 
first place it is woven on a box loom, 
and while quite a few patterns are 
made in this manner, the large ma- 
jority of them are not made on this 
kind of a loom. In the second place 
the fabric contains novelty yarn, m 
addition to being woven on the box 
loom, and because this yarn is sel- 
dom seen in cloth of this character 
it may be well to explain the method 
of making. 

NOVELTY YARN. 
To produce such a yarn compara- 
tively few changes are necessary In 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



289 



ordinary machines, although there are 
special machines sold tor accom- 
plishing such results. The yarn is 
compobed oi two cnas of 2us yarn for 
ground, and so far as this part of the 
result is concerned, it is no different 
than the making of ordinary 20-2 ply, 
but in addition there is introduced 
into the yarn, about every four and 
one-half inches, a bunch of another 
color of cotton, lo produce this, 
there must be an extra set of rolls, 
either on the twister, if it be made 
on a novelty twister, or on the frame 
which produces the yarn. This extra 
set of rolls has an intermittent mo- 
tion forwarding the amount of dyed 
roving necessary and spacing it at 
the desired lengths. This roving is 
introduced between the two ends of 
20-1 yarn, when the twisting operation 
is taking place, and 20-1 yarn twists 
around the roving, making the bunch 
firm and capable of being woven. 
Such yarn does not always weave 
well, and in this identical cloth the 
yarn in the warp is drawn in a single 
end in a dent, instead of two ends, 
as is the case in the rest of the cloth. 
This process allows a larger amount 
of space, and is not liable to create 
a great amount of rubbing to spoil the 
nub. 

AUTOMATIC LOOMS. 

A few years ago practically all of 
such fabrics were woven on ordinary 
plain looms, with no stop motions at- 
tached and nonauton^atic in any way. 
To-day, many of such fabrics are 
made on automatic looms, that is, 
the ones which are made of solid col- 
or and with striped patterns, al- 
though only few checked paterns are 
made In this manner. A good many 
looms, if they do not have the auto- 
matic changing arrangement, have 
some kind of a stop motion for the 
warp yarn which makes it possible 
for a weaver to produce more first 
quality material. Practically all of 
such cloths are made in the older 
style of mills, and are finished when 
they are delivered by the mill. The 
cloth constructions all vary, and 
probably no two mills produce iden- 
tical fabrics, although cloth weights 
mav be somewhat similar. 

The yarns used and the cloth con- 



struction are ones which each mill 
has developed, and which is probably 
more economical for them than any 
other. The large amount ot orders 
allows mills to make these construc- 
tions continuously, with very few 
changes taking place, the yarns being 
the same size from year to year, and 
the cloth remaining practically the 
same. It is also even true that cloth 
prices vary ia comparatively small 
amounts. This is done so that the 
various sellers may retail the cloth 
at a certain price. This method 
makes it necessary to have a com- 
paratively high price some years, in 
comparison to the cost of producing, 
while at other times the selling price 
shows a rather small profit. 

PROFITS AND COSTS. 

In most instances tne cost of pro- 
ducing a fabric of this character 
would be somewhere about 25 to 26 
cents a pound. If a plain cloth be 
considered the cost would be less, 
while if a novelty cloth be wanted it 
would be more. The cloth considered 
has a higher price than most of such 
materials, because it has such a nov- 
elty construction. One fact in this 
connection is that all styles are sold 
at practically the same price, and while 
the average sale may show a good 
profit, there will be certain cloths in 
the lot which are sold that will show 
a very high profit, while others will 
show a smaller one, the amount de- 
pending on the cloth construction. A 
comparatively easy method of obtain- 
ing the cost per yard is to find the 
weight of the fabrics as woven, and 
dividing by the amount previously 
stated as the cost per pound. This is 
not only approximate, but is some- 
times of value. 

Another thing which few buyers 
consider regarding various cloths Is 
the fair mill profits. Such a cloth as 
we are considering has a rather small 
number of picks per inch. If another 
cloth be considered with twice the 
number of picks per inch, the profit 
per yard should be twice as high as 
for the cloth considered, or approxi- 
mately so, and a cent a yard profit on 
the cloth being considered would mean 
a profit each week per loom of from 
$2.25 to $2.50, or a profit per year of 



290 



A COTTON FABKICS GLOSSARY 



about $125 a loom. This is evidently 
a very good return on the capital nec- 
essary in building a mill to produce 
cloth of this character. 

CLOTH WEIGHT. 

One other feature in these cloths is 
the different appearance of the fabric 
when woven and when sold, which is 
due to the napping operation. It is, 
however, true that the fuzz, which 
appears on the face of the cloth, 
wears off rather easily, and in this 
way, the material does not give the 
best of satisfaction, although it an- 
swers the purpose fairly well. It will 
be evident from an examination of 
the cloth that there must be a loss in 
weight when the cloth is napped. The 
amount lost will depend a good deal 
on the fabric ami on the a r.ov.nt of 
the napping operation, but it is likely 
that in a cloth of this character the 
filling yarn will lose as much as 15 
per cent, or even more, in weight. By 
pulling out a few threads it will be 
seen that the warp has been affected 
very little, the yarn appearing prac- 
tically the same as it would have if 
no napping had been employed. Or- 
dinarily, fabrics of this nature are 
heavier than five yards per pound, 
and on the finer weights the napping 
operation might make the cloth from 
one-half to three-quarters of a yard 
lighter than it was when woven. 

PRINTED FABRICS. 

In general it can be said that pat- 
terns made by printing are not nearly 
as satisfactory as if they were woven, 
for the colors do not penetrate 
through the cloth, and when the nap 
wears off, which it partially does, at 
least, its color appears lighter than 
it otherwise would. The patterns are 
engraved upon copper printing rolls 
the same as they are for the patterns 
used on dimities, lawns and other 
printed cloths, but it is customary, 
after the fabric has been printed, to 
give it a very light run on the napping 
machine to raise the fibre, which has 
been laid down in the printing oper- 
ation, and to give the cloth a smooth- 
er appearance. Of course, when fab- 
rics are made in printed patterns it 



is seldom that anything but white 
flannelette is used, although the 
ground of the cloth may be given a 
solid color by the printing operation, 

COTTON USED. 

In making cloth of this character, it 
is customary to use cotton of rather 
short staple, in most cases being 
one inch or about that amount in 
length. This is done because coarse 
yarns are used, and the napping oper- 
ation breaks the fibres a good deal, 
and it would be an uneconomical 
method to use high-priced cotton for 
such a purpose. It is also possible 
to use waste of various kinds in mak- 
ing yarn of this character, and it is 
usually done. One great necessity in 
making even yarn for the production 
of such cloths is to have the cotton 
mixed as well as possible before using 
in the pickers. This is usually done 
by running quite a large amount of 
cotton through the bale breaker and 
allowing it to stand, and when placed 
in the picker, instead of taking the 
cotton from the top of the pile and 
working down, it is taken from the 
edge and in this manner a more aver- 
age quality is obtained, which neces- 
sarily results in more even yarn. 

Southern mills have not gone into 
making fabrics of this nature as 
largely as they have into ginghams, 
possibly because the market is more 
concentrated on such fabrics, and 
because Northern mills have special- 
ized in this direction and have kept 
fairly well up-to-date. It is also true 
that the large number of printed 
cloths used has kept Northern mills 
working on these fabrics because 
there are no plants in the South which 
make printed patterns of any kind, 
and the base of supply is so far from 
the finishing plant that the cost of 
shipping introduces an obstacle to 
their expense of making, althougn 
there are a good many woven fabrics 
of this nature now being produced in 
that locality. Most of the cloth sold 
is of rather narrow width, in few 
cases being more than 30 Inches, and 
in the large majority of Instances it 
is about 27 inches wide finished. Be- 
cause of the napping operation the 
shrinkage of the cloth width is more 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



291 



than It would be on similar cloths, but 
not napped. 

YARN AND CLOTH WEIGHTS. 

In analyzing a fabric of this char- 
acter, 1 o general rules can be given. 
It is likely that in the majority of 
cases the warp yarn would be about 
10 per cent finer than when spun 
either from the stretching, washing 
or the other operations employed, 
that is, if a yarn was spun 20s it 
might be about 22s in the clo;h when 
sold. For the filling the amount of 
loss will vary, but in this individual 
case the loss was about 20 per cent. 
Naturally the cloth weight when sold 
would he lighter than when woven, 
but inasmuch as mills have to use the 
material to produce the cloth, and be- 
cause little return is obtained for the 
loss made in napping, it can be said 
that the best method to consider such 
cloth is as it comes from the loom. 

To illustrate the cloth in question 
we present the weights of the various 
yarns and the method of obtaining 
them. In very many instances the 



yarns are not separated as we have 
done, and they are all used together 
at an average price; 

1,34C ends -r- (20/1 X S40) = .0801, weight 

of white yarn without take-up. 
.0801 -^ .96 = .0852, total weight of white 

warp. 
114 ends h- (20/1 X 840) = .0067, weight 

of pinli yarn without take-up. 
.0067 -V- .96 = .0072, total weight of pink 

warp. 
34 ends -h (6 novelty X 840) = .0067, weight 

of novelty yarn without take-up. 
.0067 -=- .96 = .0072, total weight of novelty 

warp. 
41. S picks X 30%" reed width X 36" 

— = 1,264.45 

36" 

yards of white filling per yard. 
3.9 picks X 30%" reed width X 36" 



yards of pink filling per yard. 
.3 picks X 30%" reed width X 36" 

36" 



= 69.57 



20/1 Am. carded white. 



20/1 Am. carded colored. 
6 novelty twist 



yards of novelty filling per yard. 
1.264.45 -^ (9%/l X 840) = .1585. total 

weight white filling per yard. 
117.95 -^ (91^/1 X 840) = .0148. total 

weight pink filling per yard. 
G9.57 H- (6 novelty X 840) = .0138, total 

weight novelty filling per yard. 
.0852 + .0072 4- .0072 + .1585 4- .0148 -|- 

.0138 = .2867, total weight per yard. 
1.0000 -f- .2867 = 3.49 yards per pound, as 

woven. 



281 — = 1,346 





WARP PATTERN. 






2 

— 30 

S 


12 
2 


1 
12 

1 


2 


1 
44 

1 


1 
61 14 

1 


1 1 

30 il2 121 

1 1 

1 21 12 

1 


9 ' ^' 
1 81 



= 114 
= 34 



IIX 
FILLING PATTERN. 

9»4 Am. carded white I 42 I I 12 I I 12 

9^4 Am. carded colored 2 

6 novelty twist I | | I 2 | 



= 108 

= 10 

2 1= 6 



25 reed; 30%" width In reed, 26^4' 
56 X 46 finished count. 



finished width. 
YARNS. 



20/1 Am. carded white, 
20/1 Am. carded colored, 
9%/l Am. carded white. 



Cotton. 
12i>4c. 
12%c. 
12%c. 
12V6C. 
121/4C. 



1" sta. ; 4 hank dou. rov., 
1" sta.; 4 hank dou. rov., 
1" sta.; 2% hank dou. rov., 
9V4/1 Am. carded colored, 1" sta. ; 2^4 hank dou. rov., 
6 novelty twist, made of 20/1 and dyed roving, 

COST. 

1,346 ends 20/1 Am. carded + 6% take-up 

114 ends 20/1 Am. carded 4- 6% take-up 

34 ends novelty twist -|- 6% take-up 

41.8 picks 9V4/1 Am. carded 

3.9 picks 9 >^ /I Am. carded 

2.3 picks novelty twist 

Weaving 

Expenses 



Labor, waste, etc. 
7%c. = 

8%c. = 

6c. = 

7%c. = 

llMiC. = 



.0852 
.0072 
.0072 
.1585 
.0148 
.0138 



19%c. 

21c. 

24c. 

18%c. 

19%c. 

24c. 



Napping, finishing, etc. 
Selling 



Loom yards per pound. 3.49. Cost per pound, 27.29c. 
Finished yards about 4.25 per pound. 
Retail price 16c. per yard. 



19%c. 

21c. 

18%c. 

19%c. 

24c. 

$ .0168 
.0015 
.0017 
.0293 
.0029 
.0033 
.0065 
.0087 

$ .0707 
.0040 

$ .0747 
.0035 

t .0781 



292 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



PLAIN WARP COTTON EPONGE 

During the past year or so, there 
has been quite a number of new fab- 
rics produced for sale. Of these mate- 
rials, ratine has probably been the 
one which has created the largest 
amount of interest. One year ago 
many styles were produced, and there 
was a moderate amount of buying, but 
then there appeared to be a partial 
slump in the demand, with sellers ex- 



in quantities until consumers have 
been educated up to the cloth, and 
this is a rather slow process. The 
making of styles in various materials 
also helps a great deal, and it is very 
likely that the sale in cotton would 
have continued smaller except for the 
increased interest in wool and silk. 
The idea expressed in the cloth con- 
struction is not new, for styles have 
been produced at various times in re- 
cent years which are practically 
identical with the styles now offer- 




Plain Warp Cotton Eponge. 



pecting that no large future opera- 
tions would take place. During this 
same time, however, fabrics of this 
nature have been produced in quite 
large quantities in wool and combi- 
nations of wool and cotton, and also 
in silk, and it is freely admitted that 
the sale now is larger than it ever 
has been in the past. There Is this 
to be said of any cloth which has as 
great a novelty character as ratine 
regarding the sale. Interest in such 
fabrics does not develop all at once, 
but it is the continual presentation 
of styles and interest among the trade 
which makes a large sale possible. 
Buyers will not purchase such cloths 



ed, but at that time there was no 
demand for such cloth, and the sales 
were of comparatively small propor- 
tions. 

FACTS REGARDING CLOTH. 

In the past we have analyzed a 
number of the more expensive cotton 
fabrics of ratine construction, but in 
the fabric now presented we give an 
analysis of one of the cheaper grades 
which is a development from such 
cloths. This cloth is without doubt 
the largest selling cotton rating in 
the cotton goods market, and in con- 
nection with this fact, there are a 
number of Interesting Items which 



A COTTON FABRICS GLOSSARY 



391 



we will take up in the analysis of 
it. It is produced by the Manville 
Company and is sold by George B. 
Duren & Sons, New York City. The 
cost at retail is 25 cents a yard 
and it is sold by jobbers at a price 
to allow the regular retail profits and 
at a price to the jobbers to allow them 
their profits also. The profits of the 
makers of this cloth will be taken up 
in detail later. Fabrics of this char- 
acter are used for very many purposes, 
such as dresses, waists, trimmings, 
hats, coverings, men's vests, and very 
many other purposes, which do not 
have such great importance. 

YARNS. 

Quite a good deal of ingenuity has 
been used in the making of this fab- 
ric, the ratine effect not being produc- 
ed by both warp and filling, as in 
many of the previous samples sold, 
but by the filling alone. Tne warp is 
made of plain dyed yarn, no different 
in character from that used for many 
of the ordinary dyed fabrics which 
have a wide sale. In this individual 
fabric the effect produced is made by 
the difference in color between warp 
and filling and by the novelty charac- 
ter of the filling yarn. This novelty fill- 
ing is not made like many of the 
yarns composing ratine cloth, but it is 
what might be called a nub yarn. 
Many of the earlier fabrics of ratine 
constructions were made of loop 
yarns. The cloth count is very low, 
although, because of the heavy char- 
acter of the filling and because of the 
\arn roughness, the cloth has a com- 
paratively firm texture. The count 
is 66 in the warp and 24 in the fill- 
ing in the finished cloth. In regard 
to the novelty yarn, it can be said 
that two twisting operations are nec- 
essary, the second one being for the 
purpose of binding the previously 
produced yarn so that it can be wo- 
ven. Fabrics of this character have 
been made in quite large quantities in 
the past, but the larger share of them 
have been composed wholly of grey 
yarn, and naturally, they do not show 
the novelty character which this 
cloth does. The warp take-up is 
somewhat greater than would be not- 



ed In an ordinary fabric, this being 
brought about throigh the heavy 
size of the filling, which lies practi- 
cally straight in the cloth. Thils heavy 
filling also makes it unnecessary 
when weaving to have the cloth so 
wide in the reed as if a gingham 
were being made. 

METHOD OF FINDING YARN SIZES. 

Of course, the problem of finding 
the warp size is a rather simple one, 
because the yarn is only ordinary 
yarn, and if a few ends be taken from 
the cloth and sized in the ordinary 
manner, the yarn size anl weights 
can be obtained. This process can 
also be adopted regarding the filling 
yarn, and it will give the ultimate 
size when the yarn is made up. It 
does not, however, give the sizes of 
tlie yarns which compose the thread 
when woven. There are a number of 
methods by which such yarn size can 
be figured, so as to check up the 
yarns used, and the ultimate size. 
Possibly, the clearest method is to 
find the take-ups on the three yarns 
which compose